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I    ' 


:         . 











E.    L.    CHARLWOOD 




At  the  Sign  of  the  Phxnix,  Long  Acre 

Printed  by  BALLANTYNE,  HANSON  &  Co. 
At  the  Ballantyne  Press,  Edinburgh 


IN  the  following  pages  M.  Arnaud  has  given  an 
animated  and  picturesque  survey  of  the  chequered 
career  of  a  woman  who  played  a  decisive  part  at  a 
critical  turning-point  of  French  history,  and  who 
for  many  years  exercised  a  marked  influence  over  the 
course  of  European  politics.  Princess  Adelaide  was 
the  trusted  and  beloved  sister  of  Louis-Philippe ; 
she  shared  his  hopes  and  fears  during  the  weary 
years  of  exile  and  during  the  still  more  irksome 
period  of  the  Restoration ;  she  was  his  confidant 
and  counsellor  throughout  the  long  waiting  game  in 
which  he  had  to  combat  the  distrust  of  Legitimacy 
and  allay  the  impatience  of  Liberalism  ;  and  when, 
for  the  second  time,  France  threw  off  the  Ancien 

:vic,  it  was  largely  thanks  to  her  adroit  and 
energetic  action  that  Louis-Philippe  secured  the 
prize  for  which  he  had  schemed  so  long  and 

Written  with  the  ease  and  lightness  of  a  feuille- 
ton,  M.  Arnaud's  work  is  based  upon  minute  and 
searching  study  of  every  source  of  information  that 




can  illustrate  the  life  and  times  and  character  of 
Adelaide  of  Orleans.  He  has  laid  under  contribution 
the  countless  memoirs  of  the  period,  beginning  with 
those  of  Madame  de  Genlis,  to  whom  the  children 
of  Philippe- Egalite  owed  their  education,  as  well  as 
the  voluminous  correspondence,  printed  and  manu- 
script, of  the  chief  personages  of  his  story ;  he  has 
worked  through  the  vast  mass  of  pamphleteering 
and  periodical  literature  of  which  the  Restoration 
and  Monarachy  of  July  were  so  prolific ;  he  has  t 
ransacked  the  National  and  Municipal  archives 
of  France  and  the  private  archives  of  the  Royal 
Family.  Every  statement  of  the  author's  is  based 
upon  and  buttressed  by  reference  to  contemporary 
authorities.  It  has  been  thought  unnecessary  to 
reproduce  for  the  English  reader  the  elaborate 
apparatus  of  citations  to  be  found  in  the  original. 

One  word  of  caution  may  be  deemed  not  out  of 
place  in  the  English  edition.  The  Monarchy  of 
July,  with  its  system  of  somewhat  terre-a-terre  com- 
promise, never  really  appealed  to  the  logical  and 
idealist  temperament  of  France;  its  prosaic . virtues 
were  appreciated  as  little  by  the  partisan  of  the 
Rights  of  Man  as  by  the  devotee  of  Divine  Right ; 
its  leading  personages  failed  to  touch  the  imagina- 
tion or  heart  of  a  people  which  condones  everything 
save  tepidity,  and  can  forgive  any  crime  save  that 


of  boring  it.  Thus  it  comes  that  the  services 
rendered  to  France  at  a  critical  moment  by  the 
Orleans  family  and  the  sterling  if  unattractive 
qualities  displayed  by  Louis-Philippe  and  his  sister 
have  received  less  than  their  due  of  recognition. 
In  particular,  the  elder  branch  of  the  Royal  Family 
and  its  adherents  have  never  forgiven  the  younger 
branch  for  what  they  deemed  its  ambiguous  and 
unscrupulous  attitude.  The  ignoble  calumnies  with 
which  the  adherents  of  "throne  and  altar"  essayed 
to  avenge  the  Revolution  of  July  find  at  times  a  too 
complaisant  echo  in  the  pages  of  M.  Arnaud. 



PART    I 



in  Paris  in  1777— In  the  streets— A  stance  at  the  French 
Academy— At  the  Picture  Galleries— In  the  caffs— The  Palais 
Royal— Birth  of  the  two  Princesses  of  Orleans  .  3 


Mme.  de  Genlis  governess  to  the  Princesses  of  Orleans— Reception 
at  the  Palais  Royal— The  Due  de  Chartres,  the  Duchesse  de 
Chartres,  and  their  friends— Mme.  de  Genlis — Bellechasse— 
Death  of  the  elder  of  the  Princesses  of  Orleans— Mme.  de 
Genlis  "  governor "  of  the  Princes  —  Pamela's  arrival  at 
Bellechasse  ....  .17 


Mile.  d'Orleans  and  her  fellow-pupils— Mme.  de  Genlis'  system  of 
education— The  habitues  of  Bellechasse— Children's  ball  at  the 
Duchesse  de  Bourbon's— Sojourn  at  Saint-Leu—Spa—Baptism 
and  First  Communion  of  Mile.  d'Orle*ans— Projected  marriage  30 


The  Duchesse  d'Orleans  —  Her  difficulties  with  the  governess 
—  Political  men  assiduous  at  Bellechasse  —  Mademoiselle 
d'Orleans  at  the  National  Assembly  —  Resignation  of  Mme. 
de  Genlis — Illness  of  the  Princesse  Adelaide — Mme.  de  Genlis 
obtains  permission  to  remain  with  her  pupils — Mademoiselle 
and  her  brothers  dance  to  the  tune  of  "£a  ira" — Mme.  de 
Genlis  leaves  Bellechasse— Return  of  Mme.  de  Genlis— The 
Duchesse  d'Orldans  separates  from  her  husband  .  .  45 




Arrest  of  Mile.  d'Orleans  and  Mme.  de  Genlis  at  Colombes — The 
two  Orleanist  parties — Departure  of  Mademoiselle  for  England, 
Bath,  Bury,  Isleworth — Return  of  Mademoiselle  to  Paris — She 
leaves  France  60 




Arrival  of  Mile.  d'Orleans  at  Tournay — The  Republican  armies — 
Defection  of  Dumouriez  —  The  camp  at  Saint-Amand  —  The 
Due  de  Chartres  obliges  Mme.  de  Genlis  to  take  charge  of  his 
sister — From  Saint-Amand  to  Mons — Mademoiselle  ill  at 
Mons — Departure  for  Switzerland — Schafifhausen — Zurich — 
Zug — Attempt  upon  Mademoiselle's  life 73 


Mademoiselle's  arrival  at  Bremgarten — The  convent  of  Sainte- 
Claire — The  Princess's  occupations — Letters  to  the  Duke  of 
Modena  and  the  Princesse  de  Conti — Mademoiselle  leaves 
Bremgarten  and  separates  from  Mme.  de  Genlis — She  retires 
to  Fribourg  near  to  the  Princesse  de  Conti,  who  tells  her  of  the 
execution  of  Philippe-Egalite 84 


The  Princesse  de  Conti's  life  at  Fribourg— Mademoiselle  is  shut 
up  in  a  convent — She  has  difficulty  in  getting  used  to  her 
aunt's  ways — Rupture  of  the  relations  between  Mile.  d'Orleans 
and  Mme.  de  Genlis — The  Duchesse  d'Orleans  sends  her 
daughter  presents — The  French  armies  invade  Switzerland 
— Mademoiselle  and  her  aunt  take  refuge  at  Landshut,  near 
Presbourg 99 




The  Due  d'Orle'ans  at  Brcmgarten— His  journey  to  Germany  and 
the  North  of  Europe— Doings  of  the  Orleanist  faction— Inter- 
view between  the  Due  d'Orleans  and  Baron  de  Roll— Negotia- 
tions between  the  Duchesse  d'Orleans  and  the  Directoire 
Government — The  Orleans  Princes  in  America — Their  arrival 
in  London— They  are  reconciled  to  the  elder  branch  .  .  109 


The  Duchesse  d'Orleans  exiled  in  Spain— Sana— Figuieres— Mile. 
d'Orle'ans  joins  her  mother— The  Duchesse  d'Orleans'  "Chan- 
cellor''—The  Abbe*  de  Saint  Farre— Princess  Adelaide  leaves 
the  Duchesse  d'Orleans.  Why?  .  .  118 


Death  of  the  Due  de  Montpensier  and  the  Comte  de  Beaujolais — 
The  Due  d'Orleans  at  Palermo — His  official  betrothal  to 
Marie  Amelie — Princess  Adelaide  meets  her  brother  again — 
Her  affection  for  him — Their  intrigues — They  go  to  Mahon 
for  their  mother — The  Due  d'Orle'ans'  marriage — The  King 
and  Queen  of  Naples — The  members  of  the  Orleans  family 
pester  the  English  Government  with  demands  for  money — 
The  Due  d'Orle'ans  is  driven  from  Spain— The  Due,  the 
Duchesse,  and  Mademoiselle  d'Orteans  conspire  against 
Ferdinand  IV.  and  Marie  Caroline — Exile  of  the  Queen  of 
Naples 127 




Fall  of  Napoleon— The  Due  d'Orle'ans  starts  for  France— He  is 
received  by  Louis  XVIII.— He  goes  to  Palermo  for  his  wife- 
Arrival  of  Mademoiselle  d'Orle'ans  in  Paris— Paris  in  1814— 
Visit  to  the  Tuileries—  Louis  XVIII 145 




Princess    Adelaide    in     1814  —  Mademoiselle's    mother  —  The 
Duchesse  de  Bourbon — The  Due  de  Bourbon — The  Prince 
de  Conde — Receptions    at   the    chateau — Receptions  at  the 
'     Palais  Royal — Mademoiselle  d'Orldans  a  "business  man"       .     153 


Faults  of  the  Restoration — Liberals  and  Bonapartists  at  the  Palais 
Royal — Landing  of  Napoleon — The  Due  d'Orleans  sends  his 
wife  and  children  to  England — He  is  sent  to  Lyons,  then  to 
Lille — Mademoiselle  d'Orleans  remains  alone  in  Paris — Her 
departure  for  Lille,  then  for  London — Waterloo — Manoeuvres 
of  the  Orleans  family  —  Their  exile  in  England  —  Orleans 
House — Return  to  Paris 162 


Restoration  of  the  Palais  Royal— The  habituts  of  the  Palais  Royal 
— Influence  of  Mademoiselle  d'Orleans  over  her  brother — His 
political  influence — Humiliations  inflicted  upon  Mademoiselle 
d'Orleans  and  her  brother  — The  Due  de  Chartres  at  the 
Henry  IV.  College — Assassination  of  the  Due  de  Berry — 
Birth  of  the  Due  de  Bordeaux — Vexation  of  the  Due  and 
Mademoiselle  d'Orleans — Death  of  their  mother  .  .  .172 


The  Chateau  d'Eu— Last  moments  of  Louis  XVIII.— His  death— 
The  Due  d'Orleans  and  Mile.  Adelaide  "Royal  Highnesses" 
— Coronation  of  Charles  X. — Increase  of  the  Orleans  fortune 
—The  Chateau  de  Neuilly— Randan 186 


Entertainments  at  the  Tuileries  and  Palais  Royal  —  The  Due 
d'Orleans  and  the  members  of  the  elder  branch — Attitude 
of  Princess  Adelaide — Charles  X. — Intrigues  of  the  Due  and 
Mademoiselle  d'Orldans — Polignac  Ministry — Dissolution  of 
the  Chambre  des  Deputes — The  King  and  Queen  of  Naples 
in  Paris— Charles  X.  at  the  Palais  Royal 199 

CONTENT^  xiii 

PART     IV 




:utc  of  the  ordinances  —  Indignation  of  Mademoiselle 
d'Orleans  —  Visit  of  the  Comtesse  de  Boigne  to  Princess 
Adelaide — The  evening  of  July  27  at  the  Chdteau  de  Neuilly — 
The  anxieties  of  its  denizens  on  the  day  of  the  28th — Victory 
of  the  insurgents  — The  Due  d'Orl&ins  at  Raincy  — Made- 
moiselle's tricoloured  cockades  —  Affluence  of  visitors  at 
Neuilly  —  Dupin,  Thiers,  Casimir  Delavigne  —  Decided 
attitude  of  Princess  Adelaide  —  Marie  Amdlie's  sadness— 
The  Comtesse  de  Boigne's  negotiations — Departure  of  the 
Orleans  family  for  Paris  on  the  evening  of  July  i  .  .  -215 


Mademoiselle  d'Orleans  on  the  morning  of  August  i,  1830  — 
Appearance  and  sentiments  of  the  crowd  —  Princess 
Adelaide  at  the  Comtesse  de  Boigne's  —  Interview  with 
Pozzo  di  Borga  and  Pasquier— Popular  enthusiasm  around 
the  Palais  Royal— Mademoiselle  visits  the  hospitals— She 
induces  her  brother  to  take  the  title  of  King  of  the  French — 
-Enthronement  of  Louis- Philippe  I. —  His  portrait  —  Open 
house  at  the  Palais  Royal  —  Charles  X.  starts  for  exile — 
Death  of  the  Due  de  Bourbon — The  July  Revolution  merely 
ended  in  a  change  in  the  person  of  the  chief  of  the  State  .  .  228 


Popularity  of  Mademoiselle  d'Orleans— Her  enemies  attack  her 
violently  --  The  Princess's  toilettes— Her  tastes  —  Mme. 
Messalina — Athalie  de  Bourbon — Presumed  liaison  between 
Mme.  Adelaide  and  General  Atthalin  -  The  children  she 
might  have  had  by  him — Madame's  parsimony — Her  house- 
hold— Her  charities — The  Hospice  d'Enghicn — The  Princess's 
attachment  to  her  friends— She  hates  etiquette  — "  Bourgeoise  " 
life  at  the  Tuileries  —  Louis- Philippe's  children  —  Mme. 
Adelaide  reproaches  the  Due  d'Orleans  for  his  opposition  to 
the  King's  Government 244 




The  Pavilion  de  Flore— Princess  Adelaide's  friends— Madame's 
influence  over  the  King  and  the  Ministers — Attempts  on  the 
King's  life — Adelaide  and  Marie  Amelie — Political  role  of  the 
Princess :  the  Quadruple  Alliance,  the  affairs  of  Spain  — 
Arrest  of  the  Duchesse  de  Berry  —  Odious  attitude  of 
Mme.  Adelaide  —  Ministerial  crises  —  Marriages  of  the  Due 
d'Orleans  and  the  Due  de  Nemours  —  Royal  rejoicings — 
Death  of  the  Due  d'Orleans 262 


Grief  of  the  Queen  and  the  Duchesse  d'Orleans — Princess  Adelaide 
and  the  Duchesse  d'Orleans — The  Duchesse  de  Nemours — 
The  Princesse  de  Joinville  — The  Duchesse  d'Aumale  — The 
Due  and  Duchesse  de  Montpensier  —  Influence  of  Marie 
Amelie  on  the  members  of  her  family  —  Illness  of  Mile. 
d'Orleans — Her  last  journey  to  Arc,  Randan,  Chantilly — Her 
political  occupations — Death  of  Mme.  Adelaide — Her  will — 
Her  funeral — Conclusion  .  281 


PRINCESS  ADKLAII^  .       Frontispiece 

From  the  picture  by  MAKIK-AMEMK   COICMKT   (Muste 
ConeU.  Ckantilly). 

THK  Two  PRINCESSES  OF  ORLEANS     ....  To  face  p.    27 

From  a  contemporary  print  (BiM.  A'a/.  Dept.  of  Prints. 


By  L.  CHAUSS£E.      Inedited  miniature  (Muste   Cond/. 


Inedited  miniature  (Musfe  Conde,  Ckantilly). 


OF  ORLEANS,  HIS  WIFE,  SISTER,  AND  CHILDREN)        „         146 

MuseeCond*.  Ckantillv.     (Reproduction forbidden.) 

PRINCESS  ADELAIDE „         216 

from   a   miniature  by  MEURET  after   WlNTERHALTER 
(Musee  CondV.  Ckantilly). 

PRINCESS  ADELAIDE       .  „         228 

From  a  contemporary  German  print  (BiU.  Nat.  Dept.  of 
Prints.  Paris). 

PRINCESS  ADELAIDE ,,         278 

Inedited  miniature  f>y  \V.M.  Ross  (Musle  Conde,  Ckantilly). 

PART    I 




•c  dav  in  Paris  in  1 777 — In  the  sinrts — A  stance  at  the 
French  Academy — At  the  Picture  Galleries — In  the  cafes 
— The  Palais  Royal — Birth  of  the  two  Princesses  of 

PARIS  was  awakened  very  early  on  Saint  Louis'  Day, 
August  25,  1777,  by  the  ringing  of  bells  "summoning 
the  faithful  to  the  churches,  there  to  hear  the  pane- 
gyric of  the  canonised  king." 

They  chimed  in  unison — those  bells,  their  reso- 
nance intermingling,  replying  to  each  other  from  one 
quarter  of  the  town  to  another,  pausing,  then  recom- 
mencing their  joyful  paean  louder  than  before. 

Sunshine  flooded  with  cheerful  radiance  the  tor- 
tuous streets,  soon  to  be  enlivened  by  a  crowd  in 
Sunday  attire,  forgetful  of  yesterday's2  pleasures, 
ready  to  be  amused  anew  and  to  enjoy  the  oppor- 
tunity of  gratuitous  merry-making. 

A  fete  at  Trianon  had  been  announced  for  that 
day.  At  the  last  moment  this  had  been  counter- 
manded ;  the  King  having  refused  to  take  part  in  it 
as  he  considered  the  expenditure  of  180,000  francs 

Mdrcier,  Tublfau  de  Paris. 
August  25,  1777,  was  a  Monday. 


4 A;    1> ADELAIDE    OF   ORLEANS 

excessive  when,  from  motives  of  economy,  he  was 
denying  himself  the  trip  to  Fontainebleau.  And 
Parisians,  who  had  planned  to  contemplate  from  afar 
the  magnificent  preparations  for  the  ceremony,  would 
have  been  disappointed  indeed  had  they  not  rejoiced 
at  the  lesson  which  the  King  was  thus  giving  to  the 

Marie  Antoinette  was  not  popular.  Alike  the 
prudes  and  Mme.  de  Marsan,  the  demireps  of  the 
old  court,  and  such  powerful  families  as  the  Noailles, 
the  Montmorency,  and  the  Civracs  whom  she  alien- 
ated daily  by  favours  too  liberally  distributed  amongst 
a  small  number  of  friends,  had  begun  to  <c  work  up 
the  town."  It  was  known  that  Louis  XVI.  had  just 
paid  the  Queen's  debts,  already  amounting  to  487,000 
francs,  out  of  his  privy  purse.  Paris  could  not  forgive 
the  daughter  of  Marie  Therese  for  her  prodigality,  her 
frivolous  character,  her  indifference,  and,  above  all,  for 
that  entire  neglect  of  etiquette  which  had  scandalised 

Thus,  on  his  way  to  the  Tuileries,  the  Temple,  and 
the  gingerbread  fair,  the  Parisian  was  already  hum- 
ming the  following  ditty  : — 

"  Petite  reine  de  vingt  ans. 
Vous  repasserez  la  bar r tire" 

As  there  was  no  fete  at  Trianon,  Versailles  came 
to  Paris  for  the  stance  at  the  Academy  and  the  opening 
of  the  Salon.  And  though  some  Parisians  had  started 
in  the  morning  for  Saint-Mand6,  Bicetre,  Vincennes, 
and  to  Mondhare's,  and  others  "  had  taken  the  boat 

A    1  I    1  i:    DAY    IN    PARIS  5 

IM  Sevres,  proceeding  on  foot  from  thence  i<>  Ver- 
sailles when-  the  castle  was  thrown  open  to  them," 
tlie  greater  number  remained  in  Paris,  whose  streets 
wen  iT.iuded  with  pedestrians  in  gala  attire.  Milli- 
ner's work^irl  strutted  about  in  their  short  panier- 
gowns ;  shop-boys,  dressed — in  spite  of  the  heat — in 
heavy  "  frock-coats  of  ratteen  and  breeches  of  drugget, 
well  powdered,  clean  shaven,  frizzed,  and  bravely 
tricked  out,  clanked  their  steel-handled  swords  like 
real  gentlemen,"  to  quote  Restifde  la  Bretonne's  vivid 

The  wine-shops  are  full  of  thirsty  souls.  They 
flock  to  Nouvetle  France,  and  especially  to  Rampon- 
ncaus  (on  the  site  of  the  present  Eglise  de  la 
Trinitf),  where  a  fresh  light  wine  was  to  be  had  at 
three  half  pence  the  half  pint.  Mercier  in  his  Tableau 
dc  Paris  speaks  of  the  singing,  and  of  the  furious  go 
with  which  the  guests  were  accustomed  to  dance  a 
kind  of  follow-my-leadery^mzwdfo/fc. 

At  the   Place   Dauphine  you  may  see  the  crowd 

uing  to  the  patter  of  quacks,  applauding  musicians 

and  strolling  singers  ;  while  at  the  gingerbread  fair, 

Place  Louis  XV.,  people  are  jostling  one  another  in 

order  to  get  nearer  to  the  mountebank  shows. 

The  Tuileries  Gardens,  thrown  open  to  the  "  lower 
classes "  for  the  whole  day,  are  overrun  with  people. 
The  "hoarse,  shrill,  dreary"  cries  of  itinerant  vendors 
are  heard  above  the  din  of  the  crowd  which  is  amusing 
itself  by  making  havoc  of  lawns  and  flower-beds.  A 
dirty  little  man,  enveloped  in  an  ample  cape,  his  legs 
encased  in  linen  gaiters,  is  selling  windmills.  Here 
scissors  and  combs,  there  laces  or  lanterns  are  being 


hawked  about.  The  heat  is  overwhelming,  the  sun 
pitiless,  the  seller  of  cooling  drinks  is  doing  a  brisk 
trade.  On  his  back  is  a  barrel  swathed  in  a  cloth 
and  surmounted  by  a  tuft  of  feathers  ;  within  reach 
of  his  hand  a  tap  fashioned  like  a  swan's  neck  ;  on 
his  breast,  suspended  by  two  little  steel  chains,  hang 
four  or  five  glasses  filled  with  tepid  liquorice  water  ; 
his  cry  is  incessant  :  "  Who  wants  a  fresh  drink  ?  Two 
goes  for  a  farthing."  Carnations  are  at  the  disposal 
of  the  ladies,  and  every  organ-grinder  from  Barbary 
— or  rather  Germany — is  the  centre  of  a  throng. 

Along  the  quays  by  the  Louvre  the  people,  "  curious 
to  excess,"  are  watching  the  fashionable  folks  on  their 
way  to  the  Academy  or  the  Salon  of  paintings.  The 
black-coated  magistrate  drives  by  in  his  old-fashioned 
berline ;  the  prelate  sinks  back  amid  his  cushions  ; 
the  dancing-master  smirks  in  his  cabriolet  ;  the  prince 
in  his  English  carriage,  preceded  by  mastiffs  and 
dwarfs  adorned  alike  with  flowers  and  silver  bells, 
"  races  along  with  four  horses  as  if  he  were  in  the 
open  country,"  says  Madame  de  Genlis.  Dog-carts 
a  la  Polignac,  berlines  with  cork-screw  springs, 
sociables,  cabriolets,  French  coupes,  English  coaches 
jostle  and  collide  in  their  haste  to  be  first. 

The  humble  Sedan-chair  slips  in  between  the 
coaches  ;  the  foot-passenger  has  to  scurry  out  of  the 
way  to  avoid  being  run  over.  In  her  fine  carriage 
with  its  seven  windows  the  lady  of  quality,  shining 
with  rouge,  displays  her  diamonds.  The  dandy, 
whose  "  drag  "  has  been  caught  in  a  block  of  vehicles, 
loses  his  temper.  "You  confounded  rascal,  when  is 
this  going  to  end  ?  "  But  he  only  gets  laughed  at  for 

A    1  I.TK    DAY    IN    PARIS  7 

hi>  pains,  .uul  a  woman  selling  cold   cakes   chalK  him 
with  her  cry,  'l  Hot,  all  h<>t!" 

On  the  Esplanade  du  Louvre,  which  has  been 
mightily  improved  this  year  by  the  planting  of  grass, 
the  following  epigram  is  circulating  : 

"  Des  favoris  de  la  Muse  f  ran  false  ^ 
ZfAngevi/ler  rend  le  sort  assure*  ; 
Devant  leur  porte  ilafait  mettre  un  prey 
Oft  desormais  Us  pourront  paltre  a  raise"  1 

The  Louvre  itself  wears  a  sorry  look  ;  wretched 
plaster  sheds  disfigure  the  majestic  entrance  court; 
the  noble  building,  the  repairs  on  which  are  being 
proceeded  with  in  the  most  leisurely  fashion,  is  crum- 
bling away  and  looks  sadly  neglected. 

The  annual  prize  for  Oratory  is  being  discerned 
by  the  French  Academy  ;  "  and  many  persons  of 
quality  went  without  their  dinner  "  in  order  to  be 
present  at  the  stance,  if  we  may  believe  Grimm. 
Inside  "the  cramped  building"  a  small  man  with  "a 
delighted  expression  of  countenance  is  running  to 
and  fro  opening  the  tribunes  and  ordering  the  Swiss 
about."  This  was  D'Alembert.  The  audience  listens 
in  silence  and  without  displaying  too  many  signs  of 
boredom  to  the  elogium  of  the  Chancellor  (de  1*  Hos- 
pital), by  the  Abb£  Re'my  the  prize  laureate,  and  to 
D'Alembert,  whose  diffuse  and  ultra-academical  style 
afford  an  amusing  contrast  with  his  shrill  and  slightly 

1  The  favourites  of  the  French  Muse—  have  their  future  well  cared  for 
by  D'Angeviller—  at  their  very  door  he  lays  down  a  meadow—  where 
henceforth  they  can  browse  at  ease. 

1  )  Angeviller  was  director-general  of  his  Majesty's  buildings,  or 
lust  cummisbiuncr  of  works  in  modern  parlance. 


ridiculous   tones   as  he   declaims :    "  Withdraw   from 
hence,  importunate  and  mighty  Eloquence  !  " 

At  the  Salon  of  paintings,  the  Royal  Academy 
as  we  should  say,  a  scented  and  essenced  throng 
presses  round  the  pictures.  There  are  fewer  por- 
traits than  last  year,  but  great  subject  pictures,  sub- 
sidised by  Government,  are  more  numerous,  and 
have  obtained  the  privilege  of  "the  line." 

Roman  and  Greek  history  is  a  great  source  of 
inspiration — alike  to  old  professors  like  Halle  in  his 
"  Cymon  the  Athenian  inviting  the  people  to  enter 
his  garden,"  and  young  academicians  like  Menageot, 
who  on  a  canvas  fifteen  feet  wide,  rather  loose  as 
to  composition  but  interesting  in  detail  and  of 
picturesque  effect,  depicts  Fabricius  refusing  the 
presents  of  Pyrrhus. 

Mythology  is  largely  represented  ;  the  Triomphe 
cC  Amphitrite  by  Taraval  being  much  praised  and 
generally  preferred  to  Vanloo's  Aurore  et  Cdphale. 

French  history  has  its  exponents  in  Brenet's 
"  Honours  rendered  to  Duguesclin,"  and  Bar- 
thelemy's  "  Siege  of  Calais." 

The  taste  of  the  days  run  to  moral  sentimentality, 
and  Du  Rameau  is  in  the  fashion  when  he  depicts 
Bayard  dowering  a  young  girl  who  had  fallen  to 
his  lot  as  a  prize  of  war.  As  every  one  knows,  the 
picture  is  a  commission  from  the  King. 

Among  other  pictures  that  arrest  our  attention 
is  a  view  of  the  "  Gardens  of  Versailles,"  by  Robert ; 
there  are  no  signs  here  of  the  stern  and  impressive 
painter  of  the  Terror  he  was  to  become  later  on. 

Hardly    a   sacred    picture    to    be    found   amongst 

A    F£TE    DAY    IN    PARIS  9 

all  those  historical  scenes.  We  may  note  one  by 
Doyen,  which  is  thus  described  in  the  official  cata- 
"  A  private  person  traversing  tlie  In  rests  of 
is  «  .  .  tails  from  his  horse,  his  leg  being 
caught  in  the  stirrup.  Like  to  perish  in  such  a 
position,  he  appeals  to  the  Virgin,  St.  Genevieve, 
ami  St.  Denis,  and  is  delivered.  But  pride  not 
being  the  motive  which  prompts  publicity,  this 
private  person  has  found  it  good  that  the  artist 
should  sacrifice  the  prottgt  to  his  deliverers."  The 
artist,  a  man  of  bold  and  lofty  talent,  is  popular  ;  and 
everybody  is  whispering  how  Catherine  II.,  the  great 
Catherine,  had  summoned  him  to  Russia,  and  all 
•It  proud  of  the  homage  thus  rendered  to  French 

In  the  sculpture  rooms  the  somewhat  cold  statue 
of  Descartes,  by  Pajou,  finds  no  admirers.  The 
chief  attraction  is  the  Morpheus  (now  in  the  Louvre), 
which  opened  the  Academy  doors  to  Houdon. 

Chardin's  three  studies  of  heads  in  pastel — delight- 
ful, but  old-fashioned — are  passed  by  with  indifference. 
The  old  painter,  ill  and  neglected,  has  to  look  on 
whilst  people  crowd  round  the  insipid  imitators  ol 

There  are  crowds  about  the  King's  full-length 
portrait  by  Duplessis,  and  the  current  joke  is  heard 
on  all  sides  :  How  like,  except  for  the  head.  Pajou's 
bust  of  Louis  XVI.  looks  silly,  is  the  general  verdict, 
while  that  of  Boizot  gives  the  King  an  expression 
of//A'o\NV  which  is  not  a  distinctive  attribute  of  his 
Majesty's  physiognomy. 

But  it  has  already  grown  late.     Outside,  on  the 


Esplanade  du  Louvre,  an  immense  crowd  has 
gathered,  eager  to  admire  toilettes  and  equipages, 
and  gape  at  the  luxury  of  others. 

Women  of  the  lower  classes,  wearing  pretty 
marmotte  or  la  Finette  caps,  stare  admiringly  at 
the  great  lady's  wide  charlotte  bonnet  and  her  short 
dress,  displaying  buckled  shoes  made  of  different- 
coloured  leathers,  and  ornamented  behind  by  a 
"trifle"  in  emeralds. 

Little  girls,  dainty  in  their  white  fichus  and  simple 
open  frocks,  gaze  enviously  at  the  toilette  of  a 
"  young  lady  dressed  in  a  caraco  of  Indian  taffeta 
and  wearing  a  round  doubled-rowed  cap  ; "  *  and  can't 
take  their  eyes  from  the  young  lord  who,  hat  in 
hand,  struts  by  "in  his  summer  frock-coat  of  ver- 
micelli linen,  trimmed  with  little  bands  of  painted 
linen,"  without  paying  any  heed  to  the  admiration 
he  has  excited,  and  flirting  with  a  coquette  "  whose 
hair  is  piled  up  so  that  it  looks  like  a  toque,  sur- 
mounted by  a  puff  garnished  with  feathers  and  a 
great  bouquet  of  flowers  in  the  middle." 

But  the  crowd  has  spread  itself  all  over  the  town, 
and  everywhere — on  the  kerb-stones,  in  the  open 
street — the  game  of  biribi  is  being  played,  only 
interrupted  by  the  arrival  of  the  sergeant  of  the 
watch,  or  the  passing  of  the  viaticum,  at  whose 
monotonous  tinkling  the  keenest  player  bends  his 
knee,  and  even  "philosophers"  bow  their  head,  or 

1  All  these  details  are  taken  from  Moreau's  admirable  series  of 
designs  "illustrating  the  history  of  French  manners  and  costumes,"  to 
which  Restif  de  la  Bretonne  wrote  the  explanatory  text.  Nowhere  else 
are  the  extremes  of  society  life  under  the  Ancien  Regime  so  faithfully 
and  vividly  represented. 

A    I  III-     DAY    IN    PARIS  .. 

.should  do  so,  if  they  follow  the  prescriptions  of 
Madame  de  Genlis  in  her  "  1  )ii  tinnary  of  Etiquette. 

Paris  is  one  big,  dense,  noisy  crowd.  On  the 
Punt  Neuf,  between  the  Samaritaine  and  the  Bron/e 
II"i-se.  the  street-singer  drones  out  his  chant  in 
a  feeble,  broken  voice,  painting  with  his  stick  pictures 

;hly  depicting  episodes  in  the  life  of  Desrues, 
the  fashionable  criminal  of  the  day — his  unhappy 
youth,  his  robberies,  his  crimes,  then  his  torture 
"at  the  stake,  when  his  body  was  reduced  to  ashes." 
And  the  crowd  which,  some  weeks  before  had  wanted 
to  prevent  the  execution,  grows  sentimental  over  the 
pitiful  tale. 

11  Au  sermon  du  chanteur,  quoiqtion  ait  fame  ctnuc, 
Le  soldat  y  fait  sa  recruc 
Et  Ufilou  son  coup  de  main"  l 

The  staid  citizen  passes  by,  preferring  to  go 
and  see  the  new  buildings  of  the  Comedie  Franchise 
and  the  Palais  Bourbon,  which  are  not  making  much 

;ress,  or  to  admire  the  houses  in  the  newly 
pierced  streets — Chauchat,  Provence,  and  Chabanais. 
His  wife  drags  him  to  the  Faubourg  Saint  Honore", 
where  she  stops  to  look  enviously  into  the  goldsmiths' 
and  jewellers'  windows,  or  to  be  enraptured  at  Mile. 
Benin's  and  Mme.  Pagelle's  shops,  by  "the  costly 
lay  figures  decked  out  in  the  newest  modes" 

On  the  Boulevard  du  Temple,  the  shopkeeper 
has  settled  down  at  the  Cafc(  d' Apollon  to  read  the 

1  Though  the  street-singer's  song  may  harrow  one's  soul, 
Sergeant  Kite  picks  up  his  recruit, 
And  the  pickpocket  does  his  job. 


newspapers,    whilst   workmen   throng  the  pavements, 
listening  to  the  concert  at  the  Cafe  Alexandre. 

The  animation  is  especially  great  at  the  Palais 
Royal.  There  is  the  resort  of  women  in  smart  clothes  ; 
"  people  look  at  each  other  boldly,  talk  loudly,  laugh 
almost  in  each  other's  faces,  and  the  street-walker 
would  not  make  way  for  an  archbishop." 

The  cafes  are  full.  In  the  cellar  "small  haber- 
dashers and  tobacconists,"  seated  with  their  wives, 
children,  and  little  maid-servants,  drink  small-beer 
and  eat  saveloys. 

The  girls  of  the  town — "  lamps  "  is  the  slang  term  of 
the  day — seem  to  be  mistresses  of  the  place.  On  good 
behaviour  at  the  artistic  Cafe  des  Arts>  they  flaunt 
impudently  at  the  Cafe  de  la  Rotonde  (quite  new, 
brilliantly  lighted,  and  magnificently  decorated  with 
landscapes  by  H.  Robert),  and  carry  on  their  trade 
shamelessly  to  the  great  scandal  of  the  citizen,  who 
may  be  seen  there  taking  ices  in  company  with  his 
wife  "after  the  promenade."  Indeed  the  shameless- 
ness  of  these  women  has  made  the  Cafe  des  Aveugles 
the  "scum  of  the  cafes  of  Paris,"  and  turned  the 
wooden  booths  into  "a  Tartar  camp,  the  meeting 
ground  of  all  the  scamps,  rascals,  cheats,  pickpockets, 
and  bad  subjects  of  which  the  capital  is  full." 

The  vogue  of  the  Cafe  Procope  has  long  since 
passed.  Men  of  letters  now  meet  at  the  Rdgence,  in 
a  room  sparkling  with  lustres,  and  with  numberless 
large  looking-glasses  reflecting  the  gardens.  To-night 
chess  is  out  of  the  question ;  there  is  too  much  noise 
outside.  Public  affairs  and  the  news  of  the  day  form 
the  subject  of  discussion.  The  great  piece  of  news  is 

A    FftTE    DAY    IN    PARIS  13  thr  Trian<»n  f,'tf  had  been  countermanded  The 
Kind's  rclusal  to  attend  it  is  commented  upon,  hard 
words  are  said  about  th<  Oueen,  tongues  wag  wickedly 
and  venomously.  One  group  criticises  the  stance  at 
the  Academy  and  D'Alembert's  discourse,  for  which 
another  expresses  unbounded  praise.  The  suicide  of 
the  Captain  of  the  Town  Guard — a  married  man, 
the  father  of  a  family,  who  had  left  120,000  francs 
of  gambling  debts — is  spoken  of.  Everybody  draws 
the  moral,  and  inwardly  resolves  to  play  no  more,  and 
yet  at  the  very  moment  in  over  four  thousand  houses, 
in  the  very  Palace  itself,  an  infinity  of  gamblers  are 
losing  their  heads  over  creps  and  passe- dix,  over  trente- 
et-itn  and  biribi. 

The  death  of  the  Captain  of  the  Guard  had  taken 
place  two  days  previously,  on  Saturday,  August  23, 
to  the  consternation  of  Paris,  which  learned  at  the 
same  time,  with  joy,  of  the  birth  of  the  two  princesses 
of  Orleans. 

This  happy  event  was  the  subject  of  all  conversa- 
tions in  the  garden  of  the  Palais  Royal.  The  friends 
of  the  Due  de  Chartres  were  surrounded.  Every  one 
wanted  to  know  details.  No  one  had  expected  the 
happy  event ;  the  Duke  himself  had  but  just  returned 
from  his  journey  to  Holland.  Well-informed  persons 
were  able  to  state  precisely  that  the  twins  were  born 
at  seven  and  a  half  months,  a  short  time  after  each 
other,  so  at  least  says  Madame  de  Genlis  in  her 
.17  moires,  and  that  they  were  well.  Every  one  re- 
joiced at  the  Duchess's  happiness.  She  was  good, 
charitable,  pious,  known  to  the  poor,  and  the  remem- 
brance of  her  father — the  old  Due  de  Penthtevre,  the 


hero  of  Dettingen  and  Fontenoy,  who  had  now  retired 
from  the  world,  but  was  always  charitable — had  not 
passed  away. 

Moreover  the  princes  of  Orleans  were  popular 
from  their  cradles.  They  considered  themselves,  and 
were  looked  upon  as  "the  liberal  reserve  of  France." 
All,  even  the  monk  of  St.  Genevieve,  had  opposed 
Versailles ;  and  the  irreverent,  stone-throwing,  re- 
bellious Parisian  reserved  his  favours  for  those  who 
fought  against  the  Government,  whose  yoke  he  bore 
with  difficulty. 

The  virtues  of  the  Duchess  made  her  worthy  the 
affection  shown  her.  She  profited,  moreover,  by  the 
animosity  of  Paris  against  the  Queen.  She  gained 
in  popularity  what  Marie  Antoinette  lost  each  day 
by  her  haughtiness.  She  was  very  particular  about 
etiquette,  led  a  dignified  life,  and  was  charmingly 
amiable.  The  Queen,  on  the  contrary,  detested  the 
pomps  of  monarchy,  wished  to  live  far  away  from 
Paris  and  Versailles,  and  her  indifferent  and  frivolous 
though  "  white  soul "  laid  itself  open  to  odious 

Moreover  the  Duke,  by  his  very  vices,  contrived 
to  make  himself  beloved  by  the  people,  who  forgave 
him  Duthe",  his  first  mistress,  and  the  opera-dancers 
who  went  into  mourning  on  the  day  of  his  marriage. 
They  were  pleased  because  he  spent  money  freely. 
His  petty  parsimonies  went  unnoticed,  whilst  his  open- 
handed  profusion  was  applauded  by  all.  The  Due  de 
Chartres  was  frivolous  but  charming,  a  gambler  and 
drinker  on  a  magnificent  scale,  eager  for  pleasure  as 
the  people  who  recognised  themselves  in  him.  They 

A    II    1  E    DAY    IN    PARIS  15 

attributed  to  him  "the  soul  of  Louis  XII.,  the  wit  of 
Philippe,  the  heart  .  >l  his  father,"  to  quote  the  inscrip- 
tion on  a  print  of  the  period. 

Thus,  a  little  while  after  the  birth  of  the  twin- 
rs,  these  verses  appeared  in  the  Mercurc  //<• 

>tce,  over  the  signature  of  M.  Ponsinet  de 
Sivry  : — 

"  Restez  aux  Cieux,  brillants  Gtmeaux, 
Rtstez  au  sSjour  du  tonnerre. 
C'edez  id  la  place  a  deux  ,'-tres  noiweaux 
Nes  pour  le  bonheur  de  la  terre. 
Les  crimes  vont  cfsser,  tous  les  maitx  vont  finir ; 
Les  virtus  peupleront  le  monde. 
Astree  est  doublement  flconde 
Et  tage  (for  va  revenir/" l 

Shortly  afterwards  an  allegorical  engraving  was 
published  by  the  Freemasons.  The  Duke  was 
Grand  Master  of  the  society,  and  his  sister,  the 
Duchesse  de  Bourbon,  Grand  Mistress.  This  engrav- 
ing represented  "  Hymen  holding  two  crowns — symbol 
of  the  birth  of  princes — and  placing  upon  the  escut- 
cheon of  H.R.H.  two  other  crowns  of  roses,  repre- 
senting the  newly  born  twins." 

It  was,  therefore,  amidst  popular  enthusiasm  of 
good  augury  that  the  coming  into  the  world  of  the 
princesses  was  welcomed. 

And  the  crowd,  watching  the  lighted  windows  of 
the  Palais  Royal,  contrasted  the  fecund  maternity 

1  Stay  in  the  Heavens,  brilliant  Twins — Remain   in  the  abode  of 

thunder  -Yield  your  place  hrre  to  two  new  beings — Bom  for  the  happi- 

<>f  the  earth — Crime  and  every  evil  will  cease — The  virtues  will 

people  the  world— Astraea's  fecundity  is  doubled— And  the  golden  age 

returns  once  more. 


of  the  Duchess  with  the  shameful  sterility  of  the 

But  daylight  had  faded  ;  from  the  cloudless  sky  a 
gentle  peace  descended  upon  the  shouting,  sweating, 
gesticulating  people,  busying  itself  about,  and  filling 
with  their  overflowing  joy  every  street  which  led  to 
the  Tuileries  Gardens,  where  already  "  the  grand 
charivari ',  called  a  concert,  had  begun."  Time- 
honoured  music  was  played,  "two  or  three  hundred 
thousand  souls  thronged  together.  .  .  .  The  scene  is 
lighted  only  by  the  moon.  Ladies  monopolised  the 
chairs,  their  lovers  sat  at  their  feet,"  to  quote  Mercier, 
the  faithful  portrayer  of  the  modes  and  fashions  of 
the  day. 

The  evening  was  prolonged,  and  not  until  mid- 
night did  the  fagged-out  Parisian  regain  his  lodging, 
through  the  dim  streets  feebly  lighted  by  the  flicker- 
ing flame  of  the  sorry  lantern  he  had  just  bought. 


Mine,  de  Gen/is  governess  to  the  Princesses  of  Orleans — Re- 
C'-ption  at  the  Palais  Royal — The  Due  de  Chartrest  the 
Dnchesse  de  Chartres,  and  their  friends — Mme.  de  Genlis 
— Hclltrhasse — Death  of  the  elder  of  the  Princesses  of 
Orleans — Mme.  de  Gen /is  "  governor  "  of  the  Princes — 
Pamela's  arrival  at  Bellechassc. 

THE  two  princesses  had  come  into  the  world  "with 
their  feet  blackened,  as  though  bruised,  and  very 
delicate,"  says  Madame  de  Genlis.  Old  Doctor  Tron- 
chin  was  in  attendance,  and,  some  days  after  their 
birth,  their  health  appeared  so  good  that  he  "  in- 
noculated  them."  Then,  contrary  to  custom,  a  gover- 
ness— Mme.  de  Genlis — was  chosen  for  them.  This 
hasty  appointment  resulted  from  a  promise  which 
Mme.  de  Genlis  had  obtained  during  a  journey  in 
Italy  the  preceding  year,  when  she  had  accompanied 
the  Duchesse  de  Chartres.  In  order  to  devote  her- 
self exclusively  to  the  bringing  up  of  her  pupils,  the 
governess  even  decided  to  go  into  the  convent  with 
them.  This  plan  was  approved  of  by  the  Duchess, 
who  decided  to  spend  part  of  each  day  with  her 
daughters,  and  by  the  Duke,  who  had  a  pretty  pavilion 
built  in  the  garden  of  the  convent  of  Bellechasse  for 
th<-  accommodation  of  twins  and  governess.  While 
this  was  being  done,  the  princesses  were  confided  to 

17  B 


Mme.  de  Rochambeau ;  but  Mme.  de  Genlis  went  to 
see  them  in  their  room  for  an  hour  every  day. 

The  religious  canonesses  of  Saint  Se'pulcre, 
vulgarly  called  nuns  of  Bellechasse,  had  been  in 
Paris  since  1632.  They  had  been  brought  from 
Charleville  by  the  Baronne  de  Planci.  After  many 
misfortunes  they  obtained  permission  to  establish 
themselves  at  the  end  of  the  Clos  de  Bellechasse, 
which  belonged  to  Saint-Germain-des-Pres. 

In  July  1635  tneY  bought  a  house,  and,  thanks 
especially  to  the  liberality  of  the  Duchesse  de  Croix, 
built  a  nunnery.  In  May  1637  they  obtained  from 
Louis  XIII.  letters-patent  confirming  their  establish- 
ment under  the  name  of  regular  "  Canonesses  of  the 
order  of  Saint  Sepulcre  of  Jerusalem  under  the  rule 
of  Saint  Augustine."  From  the  plans  of  Gomboust 
and  Ballet  one  sees  that  they  were  designated  in  the 
beginning  under  the  name  of  Lorraine  nuns.  They 
subsequently  enlarged  their  gardens  and  built  a  chapel 
which  was  consecrated  in  1673. 

At  the  end  of  the  eighteenth  century  the  convent 
comprised  twenty-four  nuns  and  six  novices,  and  had 
at  the  time  of  the  Revolution  a  revenue  of  over  30,000 
francs.  The  convent  church  and  adjoining  gardens 
then  became  national  property.  The  buildings  facing 
the  Rue  Saint  Dominique  were  pulled  down  when 
the  Rue  de  Bellechasse  was  continued  in  1829.  A 
new  quarter  has  sprung  up  where  the  gardens  used 
to  be,  and  in  the  heart  of  this  the  church  of  Sainte 
Clotilde  was  erected  between  1848  and  1850. 

Some  time  before  her  establishment  at  Belle- 
chasse, the  new  governess  was  present  at  a  dinner 


iMvrn  in  her  honour  at  the  Palais  Royal  by  the 
Ihichesse  de  Clurtn-s.  It  was  not  an  "opera  day," 
but  the  Duchess  "  whose  fondness  for  Mme.  de 
Genlis  made  one  believe  in  witchcraft,"  according  to 
the  Duchesse  d'Abrantes,  had  decided  to  make  an 
important  function  of  this  dinner  party. 

Thirty  guests  were  seated  in  the  great  oval  dining- 
room.  The  fashion  for  epergnes,  and  the  more  recent 
one  of  sticking  flowers  in  potter's  clay  on  the  table- 
cloth had  passed.  The  taste  of  the  day  was  more 
refined  although  bizarre  and  costly :  the  "  Sand- 
man"  had  traced  on  the  table,  with  varicoloured 
marble  powder,  ground  glass,  and  bread  crumbs,  a 
most  complicated  and  ingenious  design.  The  dishes 
were  small,  and  were  scarcely  touched.  People  were 
in  a  hurry  to  leave  the  table,  and  it  was  good  manners 
not  to  be  hungry. 

In  the  great  white  and  gold  drawing-room,  where 
the  guests,  preceded  by  the  Duke,  withdrew  after 
dinner,  it  was  considered  unseemly  to  sit  on  the  large 
sofas  sumptuously  displayed  in  their  niches  or  in  the 
heavy  armchairs  of  gilded  wood  ;  the  guests  sat  on 
"a  quantity  of  small,  very  convenient,  upholstered 
chairs."  Such  was  the  usage  of  the  Palais  Royal  as 
noted  by  Madame  de  Genlis  in  her  "Dictionary  of 

The  women,  powdered  and  farded,  bent  beneath 
the  weight  of  their  enormous  head-dresses,  their  gowns 
much  be-trimmed  with  bouquets,  flounces,  fruits,  and 
bands  sewn  downwards,  round  and  across  in  gar- 
lands, with  kiltings,  pearls,  and  precious  stones. 
Seated  round  a  large  table,  covered  with  a  green 


cloth,  they  unravelled  stuffs,  or  did  fancy-work.  The 
men  stood  behind,  attired  in  sombre  frock  -  coats, 
a  £ Anglaise^  and  wearing  two  watches  and  several 
rings.  Conversation  was  gay  and  witty ;  society 
at  the  Palais  Royal  combined  the  tone  of  the  old 
court  with  the  new  ways  of  the  Due  de  Chartres' 
boon  companions.  They  chatted,  laughed,  bantered 
each  other,  and  exchanged  ten  thousand  agreeable 

The  Duchess,  whose  beauty  had  now  reached 
perfection,  talked  but  little.  Her  slightly  languid 
and  nonchalant  grace  was  very  pleasing,  and  although 
Madame  Junot  found  her  "  conversation  rather  null," 
she  attracted  every  one  by  an  infinite  kindness  of  heart 
which  her  soft  and  beautiful  eyes  in  no  wise  belied. 
Near  to  her,  and  unravelling  stuff  like  herself,  were 
the  Marquise  de  Fleury — sure  to  be  talking  nonsense 
— and  the  beloved  companion  of  her  girlhood,  the 
Baronne  de  Talleyrand  (Mile,  de  Montigny),  looking 
charming  in  an  old  rose  taffeta  gown  which  suited  her 
old-fashioned  prettiness.  T\\e  petite  baronne  was  doing 
her  best  to  brighten  up  the  cold  and  frowning  Due  de 
Chartres,  who,  as  usual,  walked  up  and  down  without 
saying  a  word.  Tall  of  stature,  with  the  suppleness 
of  carriage  which  the  daily  habit  of  physical  exercise 
gives,  the  Due  de  Chartres  had  a  very  grand  air,  but 
vice  had  already  coarsened  and  degraded  him  ;  he  was 
bald,  his  features  drawn,  and  his  face  bloated,  brick- 
coloured,  and  spotty.  Tormented  by  Mme.  de  Talley- 
rand's dainty  mischievousness,  he  paused,  and  leaning 
his  elbow  on  the  great  marble  mantelpiece,  added  his 
cold  and  mocking  quota  to  the  conversation. 


Gathered  round  the  table  were  the  Comtesse  de 
Pardaillan,  Mines,  de  Beauveau  and  de  Boufllers,  the 
Marquise  de  Laage — as  ugly  as  she  was  spirituclle — 
and  the  Comte  d'Ecquevilly. 

The  young  Comtesse  de  Clermont-Gallerande  went 
to  and  fro,  chattering  and  making  everybody  unbend — 
even  her  husband,  whose  laugh  was  a  grimace.  In 
front  of  the  pier-glasses,  which  reflected  the  garden, 
stood  the  Comte  d'Osmond,  "  wide-eyed  and  open- 
mouthed,"  in  absent-minded  pursuit  of  some  whimsical 
fancy  ;  and  near  to  the  count,  who  did  not  see  him, 
the  droll  little  negro  Scipio  crept  along  on  his  hands 
and  knees,  jumping  up  every  now  and  then  and 
putting  out  his  tongue.  Not  far  from  the  Duchesse 
de  Chartres  sat  Mme.  de  Rochambeau,  gracefully 
telling  an  anecdote  of  the  last  reign,  and  the  handsome 
Marquis  de  Barbentane,  so  different  from  his  wife,  who 
was  common,  had  a  great  red  nose,  and  might  be  a 
mere  middle-class  person,  was  rallying  with  haughty 
politeness  the  Comtesse  de  Montauban,  who  confessed 
gaily  that  she  regretted  the  dinners  of  former  days, 
when  the  table  was  loaded  "with  a  monstrous  display 
of  meats  "  that  were  intended  to  be  eaten. 

In  a  whispering  group,  the  good  and  virtuous 
Mme.  de  Blot — who,  unlike  her  obese  husband,  aimed 
at  being  an  "ethereal  essence" — was  languidly  defend- 
ing the  Comtesse  de  Genlis  from  the  rather  heavy 
attacks  of  the  Chevalier  de  Bonnard  and  the  lively 
and  amusingly  pointed  remarks  of  M.  de  Thiars, 
whose  ugliness  was  so  remarkable  that  it  had  inspired 
notorious  passions. 

At  one  of  the  Comte  de  Thiars'  sallies,  a  burst  of 


hobbledehoyish  laughter  broke  from  the  Chevalier  de 
Boufflers,  who  had  remained  as  awkward  as  in  his 

The  emphatic  and  gallant  Chevalier  de  Durfort 
would  be  trying  to  turn  a  madrigal  to  the  Comtesse 
de  Reuilly,  who  had  risen  to  sing,  but  was  prevented 
from  doing  so  by  the  ceaseless  chatter  of  M.  de  Saint- 
Blancart.  The  Comte  de  Reuilly's  widow  took  no 
notice,  indeed,  of  the  chevalier ;  but  what  seductive 
arts  does  she  not  employ  towards  the  Due  de  Piennes, 
faithless  to  his  sweet  young  wife,  whose  sad  and 
beautiful  eyes  recalled  other  beings  neglected  in  life 
and  too  soon  swept  away  by  death ! l 

But  now  Mme.  de  Genlis,  at  the  Duchess's  request, 
was  tuning  her  harp.  Her  skilful  fingers  modulated 
a  piece  by  Piccini.  Congratulated  upon  her  playing, 
when  the  praises  had  ceased,  she  sketched  in  bold 
outlines,  with  the  authority  which  her  new  functions 
gave  her,  what  she  considered  her  role  of  educator  to 
be.  And  beneath  the  resigned  smile  of  the  listening 
Duchess,  one  might  discern  a  regret  and  a  presenti- 
ment that  this  intriguing  woman,  who  had  stolen 
her  husband's  affection,  would  try  to  take  that  of  her 
children  also. 

The  young  Comtesse  de  Genlis  was  in  truth  pretty 
and  captivating;  her  figure  might  lack  nobility  and 
her  attitude  ease,  but  she  was  sprightly  and  coaxing, 
and  her  unrouged  countenance  of  pure  oval  form 
glowed  wiihjfinesse  and  intelligence.  True,  her  mask 

1  Every  detail  of  this  description  of  a  dinner  party  at  the  Palais  can 
be  vouched  for  from  the  correspondence  of  Madame  du  Deffand,  Bachau- 
mont,  Grimm,  &c.,  or  from  the  newspapers  of  the  time. 

MADAM  1      DK    GENLIS  23 

..I  austerity  1ml  a  greedy  soul,  but  who  could  help 
being  takc'ii  in  by  her  prudent  reserve,  her  well- 

;ied  modesty? 

Introduced  at  the  Palais  Royal  some  years  pre- 
viously by  her  aunt,  Mme.  de  Montesson,  the  Comtesse 
de  Genlis  quickly  managed  to  take  up  a  position 
there  quite  disproportionate  to  her  birth.  For  she 
had  been  born  poor,  in  1746,  not  far  from  Autun, 
on  the  poverty-stricken  estate  of  Champceri,  where 
her  people — noble,  but  up  to  their  ears  in  debt — 
only  differed  from  the  peasants  in  that  they  carried 
swords  and  called  themselves  gentlemen.  Her  father, 
Ducrest,  Marquis  de  Saint-Aubin — who  had  married 
Mile.  Beraud  de  la  Haie  de  Riou,  Mme.  de  Mont- 
esson's  sister — was  incarcerated  for  debt  at  Fort- 
1'fiveque  where  he  died.  She  had  spent  her  youth 
"in  rusticity,"  badly  clothed,  ill-cared  for,  but  none 
the  less  a  noble  canoness  of  the  chapter  of  Alix  at 
the  age  of  six.  At  that  age  she  was  already  an 
actress  and  a  pedagogue,  and  it  was  disguised  as  a 
cherub,  or  a  comic  opera  peasant,  that  she  taught  the 
children  in  her  village  what  she  had  learned  with 
prodigious  facility  the  day  before. 

In  spite  of  an  education  very  superior  to  what 
young  girls  of  her  epoch  received,  and  a  precocious 
intelligence  coupled  with  a  remarkable  capacity  for 
intrigue,  Mile.  Ducrest  would  doubtless  have  re- 
mained miserable  and  ignored  at  Champceri  with  her 
mother,  if  a  rich  farmer-general,  La  Popeliniere — 
Pollion,  as  he  liked  to  be  called — in  love  perhaps  with 
Mme.  Ducrest,  had  not  brought  the  two  women  to 
Paris.  They  lived  there  in  great  difficulties;  the 


penniless  young  girl  being  received  "  less  as  a  young 
lady  of  rank  than  as  an  artist,"  sought  after  on  account 
of  her  fine  talent  for  playing  the  harp,  which  provided 
meagrely  for  their  domestic  expenses.  She  was  paid 
twenty  francs  when  she  did  not  stay  after  midnight. 

At  fifteen,  when  "  venturing  morning  calls  at  men's 
houses,"  she  met  a  young  and  brilliant  naval  officer, 
Bruslart,  Comte  de  Genlis,  who  fell  in  love  with  her 
and  married  her;  "for  better,  for  worse"  is  Talley- 
rand's malicious  comment.1 

"Caressing,  attentive,  bright,  and  not  in  the  least 
awkward,'*  as  Talleyrand  describes  her,  Mme.  de 
Genlis  pleased  everybody,  even  her  husband's  family, 
and  some  years  later,  thanks  to  Mme.  de  Montesson,2 
entered  the  Palais  Royal.  With  flattery  and  protesta- 
tions of  devotion,  she  duped  the  honest  Duchesse  de 
Chartres — na'fve,  confiding,  and  newly  married,  whose 
letters  she  corrected — and  cajoled  the  duke,  whose 
adored  mistress  she  became,  and  over  whom,  long 
after  their  liaison,  she  retained  a  quasi  -  maternal 
influence.3  She  manoeuvred  so  well  that  the  Due 

1  Having  entered  the  navy  very  young,  he  was  made  captain  of  a 
vessel  in  India.     Taken  prisoner  by  the  English  and  speedily  released, 
he  obtained,  thanks  to  his  uncle,  M.  de  Puyseulx,  the  honorary  title  of 
Colonel  of  the  French  Grenadiers.     Married  in  1762  to  Mile.  Ducrest  de 
Saint-Aubin,  he  became  captain  of  the  Due  de  Chartres'  Guards,  and 
shared  his  life  of  debauch.     A  member  of  the  Jacobin  Club,  and  one  of 
the  most  active  agents  of  the  Orleanist  cabal,  he  was  arrested  after  the 
defection  of  Dumouriez  and  executed  October  31,  1793.     He  manifested 
great  courage  on  the  scaffold. 

2  Charlotte- Jeanne  Bdraud  de  la  Haie  de  Riou,  born  and  died  in  Paris 
(1737-1806).     Married  first  the  old  Marquis  de  Montesson,  lieutenant- 
general.     Widowed  in  1769,  she  succeeded  in  getting  the  Due  d'Orle'ans 
(whose  mistress  she  had  long  been)  to  marry  her  morganatically. — J. 
Turquan,  Mme.  de  Montesson. 

8  In  her  letters  she  always  called  him  "my  dear  child." 

MADAM1     I) I-    GBNLIS  25 

de  Chartres  had  the  sad  courage  to  make  his  forme* 
mistress  -uvenx  ss  oi  his  daughters,  and  the  Duchess 
the  passive  cowardice  of  yielding  to  her  husband's 

Mme.  de  Genlis  arrived  at  Bellechasse  at  mid-day. 
The  entire  community,  headed  by  the  prioress,  came 
to  receive  the  little  princesses  at  the  convent  gate. 
They  were  taken  to  the  pavilion  reserved  for  them, 
and  which  was  decorated  throughout  like  a  school- 
room ;  geographical  maps  papered  the  walls  of  the 
staircase,  and  above  the  dining-room  door  mytho- 
logical subjects  had  been  painted.1 

The  convent  rules  as  applied  to  the  pavilion  were 
easy  enough.  Men  were  received  until  ten  o'clock  in 
the  evening,  but  were  not  allowed  to  go  into  the 
garden.  At  ten  o'clock  the  doors  were  closed  and  the 
nun  on  guard  carried  away  the  keys.  No  man  spent 
the  night  in  the  pavilion,  which  communicated  by  a 
wicket-gate  with  the  servants'  quarters,  where  the 
grooms  of  the  chamber  and  footmen  slept,  and  could  in 
case  of  need  have  been  called  up  and  brought  in  by  a 

In  order  to  make  the  life  Mme.  de  Genlis  had 
chosen  as  pleasant  as  possible,  she  was  allowed  to  have 
her  mother  and  her  two  daughters  with  her.  After- 
wards she  had  her  niece  Henriette  de  Sercey  also  ;  but 

1  This  pavilion  bore  the  number   185   Rue   Saint   Dominique.     It 

rd  as  forage  warehouse  during  the  Revolution,  and  was  vacated  in 

the  year  IV.     Sold  Messidor  21,  in  the  year  V.,  by  virtue  of  the  law  of 

;iinal   9    of  the   same  year,  for  the  sum  of  142,100  francs  to  the 

\\  Hrion,  residing  at  No.  143  Rue  Vieille-du-Temple,  it  was  pulled 

down  in  lyoo.     It  was  on  the  site  of  the  present  No.  13.    Nothing  in  the 

interior  remained  as  it  had  been  when  inhabited  by  the  Princes  and 

1'rincesses  of  Orleans. 


"to  avoid  needless  expense"  she  decided  that  none  of 
her  friends  should  dine  at  Bellechasse  except  her 
husband,  brother,  and  two  sisters-in-law — as  a  matter 
of  fact  "  they  seldom  dined  "  there. 

The  Due  and  Duchesse  de  Chartres  went  nearly 
every  day  to  Bellechasse.  Five  or  six  times  a  year 
the  Due  de  Penthievre  brought  pretty  toys  to  his 
grandchildren,  of  whom  he  was  very  fond.  As  to  the 
Due  d'Orleans  and  Mme.  de  Montesson,  they  doubt- 
less disapproved  of  what  Mme.  de  Genlis  was  doing, 
for  they  did  not  appear  at  the  convent  and  never  sent 
any  New  Year's  gifts. 

It  is  difficult  to  imagine  exactly  what  were  the 
duties  of  a  governess  to  such  young  princesses,  and 
Mme.  de  Genlis  says  nothing  on  the  subject  in  her 
Mdmoires.  What  is  known,  though  she  would  not 
acknowledge  it,  is  that  being  imbued  with  Rousseau's 
principles  on  education,  she  tried,  as  he  advises,  to 
take  the  first  place  in  her  pupils'  affections.  Grimm 
describes  a  fete  given  at  Bercy  when  there  was  tilting 
on  the  water,  besides  fireworks,  &c.  ...  at  which  the 
two  princesses,  who  were  barely  three  years  old,  sang 
the  following  duet : — 

Mile.  d'Orleans  (laying  her  hand  on  her  heart)  :— 

"  Maman^  Genlis \  ces  deux  noms-la 
Sont  la!" 

Mile,  de  Chartres  (Adelaide)  :- 

"  Et  tous  deux  font  dire  de  memc 
f  aimer x 

1  Mamma,  Genlis,  these  two  words 

Are  here ! 

And  both  alike  make  me  say, 
I  love. 

1]    OV/'i     3HT 

.vas  the 


From  a  contemporary  print 
(Bibl.  Nat.  Dept.  of  Prints,  Paris] 

EDUCATION    OF    A    PRINCESS         27 

Some  time  after  this/  A  at  Bercy,  Mile.  d'OrK  ,ms 
h.ul  measles.  As  it  appeared  necessary  to  separate  the 
two  sisters  and  as  the  Duchesse  de  Chartres  would 
not  leave  her  sick  daughter,  Mme.  de  Genlis  started, 
unwillingly,  for  Saint  Cloud  with  Mile,  de  Chartres, 
and  the  Duchess  established  herself  at  the  bedside  of 
Mile.  d'Orleans  at  Bellechasse.  "  But  Dr.  Barthes,1 
who  had  taken  Tronchin's  place,  thought,  quite  mis- 
takenly, that  the  princess  might  be  moved  to  the 
Palais  Royal.  ...  It  was  cold,  and  despite  the  pre- 
cautions taken,  the  move  caused  a  relapse  and  the 
child  died  six  days  afterwards." 

The  Duchesse  de  Chartres,  "  who  had  remained 
constantly"  with  her  daughter  "night  and  day  up  to 
her  last  moments,"  -  took  the  measles,  but  had  them 
slightly,  and  happily  recovered.  "  The  princess  who 
remained  to  me,"  wrote  the  Comtesse  de  Genlis, 
44  took  the  name  of  Orleans ;  she  was  then  five  years 
old.  Nothing  can  express  the  sorrow  felt  by  this 
child  at  the  death  of  her  sister." 

Some  months  after  the  death  of  Mile.  d'Orleans, 
in  the  same  year,  1782,  the  Due  de  Chartres  having 
gone  as  usual  to  Bellechasse  between  eight  and  nine 
o'clock  in  the  evening,  spoke  to  Mme.  de  Genlis  about 
the  necessity  of  giving  his  sons3  a  tutor.  "  M.  de 
Schomberg  is  pedantic,  the  Chevalier  de  Bonnard 
wanting  in  the  usages  of  the  world  and  too  provincial, 
the  Chevalier  de  Durfort  is  emphatic  and  exaggerated, 

1  Paul-Louis  Barthes,  born  at  Montpellier  1734,  died  1806. 

1  Journal  de  la  vie  de  S.  A.  S.  la  duchesse  &  Orleans  par  Delille,  son 

in  lime. 

3  The  Due  de  Valois,  afterwards  Louis  1'hilippe  I.,  born   1773;  the 
Due  dc  Monlpciibicr,  born  1775  J  aQd  Comic  dc  Bcuujohm,  born  1779. 


and  M.  de  Thiars  is  flighty."  "  Well !  what  about  my- 
self?" insinuated  Mme.  de  Genlis.  "Why  not?" 
admitted  the  Duke,  delighted  to  make  himself  singular. 
And  lo !  and  behold  the  princesses'  governess  became 
at  the  same  time  the  princes'  tutor.  What  induced 
her  to  assume  so  heavy  a  responsibility  ?  Was  it  the 
pecuniary  emoluments  which  she  hoped  to  get  out  of 
it?  No,  her  husband  had  become  captain  of  the  Due 
de  Chartres'  Guards,  and  his  brother  was  Chancellor 
with  a  salary  of  100,000  francs,  besides  she  was  rich 
enough  through  the  Bruslart  family,  and  had  monetary 
expectations.  But  the  Orleanist  party  was  at  its 
apogee ;  the  gold  which  he  had  scattered  had  brought 
partisans  round  the  first  prince  of  the  blood ;  the 
storm  so  long  in  preparation  was  on  the  point  of 
bursting  forth.  Therefore,  confident  in  the  success  of 
a  conspiracy  which  was  in  great  part  her  work,  it 
behoved  her  to  be  governess  to  him  who — according 
to  all  her  previsions — she  would  one  day  see  seated 
on  the  throne  of  France. 

The  young  princes  slept  at  the  Palais  Royal. 
They  rose  at  six  o'clock.  Towards  eleven  o'clock, 
after  a  Latin  lesson  and  gymnastic  exercises,  they 
were  taken  to  Bellechasse  by  the  wise  and  honest 
M.  Lebrun.1 

1  The  household  was  organised  as  follows  : — 
For  the  Princes — 

Governess  :  Mme.  la  Comtesse  de  Genlis. 

Preceptor :  Abbe  Guyot. 

Reader  :  M.  Lebrun. 

Gentleman-in-waiting  :  Comte  de  la  Rochemont. 

Chaplain  :  Abbe  Famin. 

English  Master  :  Mr.  Powell. 

Valets  de  Chambre  :  Paulin,  Barrois,  Delile,  Plie,  Zeny. 

EDUCATION7    OF    A    PRINCESS         29 

Mme.  dc  GenliY  task  was  a  heavy  one  ;  however, 
she  did  not  hesitate  to  take  her  nephew,  Cdsar  Ducrest, 
also ;  the  boy  had  just  lost  his  mother,  and,  like  the 
other  pupils,  did  credit  to  the  education  his  aunt  gave 
him.  Then,  as  "the  tutor"  had  asked  the  Due  de 
Chartres  for  a  little  English  girl,  in  order  that 
mademoiselle  and  her  brothers  might  learn  English 
while  they  played,  the  Chevalier  de  Graves,  first  equerry 
to  the  Duke,  brought  a  child  from  London  who  did 
not  know  a  word  of  French.  "  They  overwhelmed 
her  with  sweets  and  caresses."  Nancy  Syms,  "whose 
name  seemed  too  common,"  became  the  charming 
Pamela  adopted  by  Mme.  de  Genlis — whose  daughter 
perhaps  she  was — and  who  later  on  married  the  Irish 
patriot,  Lord  Edward  Fitz-Gerald. 

Mme.  de  Genlis,  therefore,  had  under  her  care 
the  Princesse  d'Orle"ans,  the  three  princes,  her  two 
daughters,  her  nephew  Ce*sar  Ducrest,  her  niece 
Henriette  de  Sercey,  and  the  little  English  Pamela. 
These,  eight  children,  who  were  all  clever  and  amiable, 
lived  together  in  the  most  perfect  harmony. 

-'/,•  I'rincess — 

Governess  :  Mme.  la  Comtesse  de  Genlis. 
First  Woman  of  the  Bed-chamber  :  Mile.  Nonon. 
Music  Master  :  M.  Lecuyer. 


Mile.  d'Orle'ans  and  her  fellow-pupils — Mme.  de  Genlis'  system  of 
education — The  habitues  of  Bellechasse — Children's  ball  at  the 
Duchesse  de  Bourbon's — Sojourn  at  Saint-Leu — Spa — Baptism 
and  First  Communion  of  Mile,  d*  Orleans — Projected  marriage. 

MLLE.  D'ORL£ANS  was  not  beautiful ;  her  features 
were  rather  strongly  marked,  irregular  and  severe  ; 
her  forehead  was  too  large,  and  gave  her  face  a 
disagreeable  expression  of  maturity.  Her  abundant 
hair — blonde,  soft,  and  waving — served  as  a  foil  to 
her  "  brunette  complexion  " ;  her  eyes  were  magnificent, 
her  look  grave  and  somewhat  hard.  Her  lips  were 
thick,  her  profile  irregular,  her  figure  ungraceful. 
She  was  headstrong  and  "  domineering,"  violent  also, 
like  her  grandfather  the  Due  de  Penthievre,  but,  like 
him,  good-natured.  Judicious  and  reasonable  like  her 
brother  the  Due  de  Valois,  her  precocious  gravity 
and  masculine  manners  contrasted  with  the  "  charming 
figure,  wit,  and  character  of  the  Comte  de  Beaujolais, 
whose  defects  even  were  pleasing,"  is  the  verdict  of 
his  governess. 

The  daughters1  of  Mme.  de  Genlis  being  older 
than  Mademoiselle,  the  latter  played  chiefly  with 
the  "giddy"  and  violent,  but  witty  and  sensitive 

1  Caroline,  who  married  the  Marquis  de  Lawoestine  (she  was  very 
beautiful),  and  Pulcherie,  who  married  J.  B.  de  Timbrone  Tunbrune, 
Comte  de  Valence,  from  whom  she  was  separated  in  1793.  She  died 

in  1847. 


I  DUCATION    OF    A    PRINCESS         31 

ir  Ducrest;  with  Henrietta  de  Sercey,  "an  ex- 
cellent creature  having  an  essentially  good  character  "  ; 
and  with  Pamela,  whose  lively  mind  and  quick-witted- 
ness  she  liked,  and  whom  she  laughingly  called 
"  Milady,"  according  to  Mme.  de  Gontaut. 

Although  Mme.  de  Genlis  brought  the  princess 
up  with  great  severity,  she  contrived  to  inspire  a 
lively  attachment,  and  to  modify  the  girl's  character 
and  even  her  temperament.  So  keenly  sensitive  that 
the  slightest  contradiction  made  her  cry,  nervous  to 
the  pitch  that  the  least  trouble  made  her  ill,  Mademoi- 
selle grew  up  a  "  model  pupil,"  with  perfect  health, 
44  no  nonsense  about  her,  and  no  predominating  defect." 
Rising  winter  and  summer  at  six  o'clock,  fed  upon 
milk,  roast  meat,  and  bread,  she  was  never  allowed 
any  delicacies,  and  often  to  harden  her  Mme.  de 
Genlis  made  her  lie  upon  boards. 

It  would  be  difficult  to  understand  how  she  could 
endure  this  regime,  and,  above  all,  care  for  the  person 
who  insisted  upon  it,  if  one  did  not  know  that  all  the 
children  brought  up  by  Mme.  de  Genlis  were  pas- 
sionately attached  to  their  governess.  <4 1  have  seen 
the  Princes  and  Mademoiselle,"  wrote  the  Duchesse 
de  Gontaut l  in  her  MSmoires,  4<  kiss  the  ground 
upon  which  she  had  walked,  and  I  confess,  to  my 
shame,  that  one  day  wishing  to  distinguish  myself  in 
sentiment,  I  threw  myself  upon  an  arm-chair,  from 
which  she  had  just  risen,  and,  having  kissed  it  fervently, 
filled  my  mouth  with  dust,  which  calmed  my  zeal." 

The  governess,  however,  never  gave  her  pupils 

1   Mile,  de  Montaut  Navailles,  who  became  governess  to  the  Royal 
children  at  the  Restoration. 


a  moment's  respite.  Everything  was  a  subject  for 
instruction  to  her.  The  princess  spent  her  recreation 
time  in  learning  manual  work  which  did  not  require 
strength — such  as  basket  and  sheath  making ;  she 
made  ribbons,  laces,  did  wood  gilding,  hair  work, 
and  even  made  wigs.  If  she  went  into  Paris  with 
her  companions  it  was  to  visit  picture  galleries  and 
manufactories,  about  which  they  had  previously  read 
in  the  Encyclopedia.  Mile,  de  Montaut  Navailles 
(afterwards  Mme.  de  Gontaut)  obtained  her  mother's 
permission  to  accompany  Mademoiselle  and  the 
princes  in  these  expeditions.  One  day  she  went 
with  them  to  see  mustard  and  vinegar  made  at 
Maille's.  "  The  mischievous  ones  among  us,"  wrote 
Mme.  de  Gontaut,  "  made  great  fun,  which  put 
the  governess  in  a  bad  humour."  Another  time 
they  visited  a  pin  factory.  "  Mme.  de  Genlis 
scolded  the  princes  for  having  said  nothing,  and 
forbade  the  young  girls  to  speak." 

After  dinner  the  children  did  not  play  ;  each  read 
aloud  in  turn  for  a  quarter  of  an  hour  from  a  history 
book.  Mme.  de  Genlis  corrected  faults  of  pronuncia- 
tion, then  "  gave  the  tone  "  herself.  This  lasted  two 
hours.  At  the  time  when  she  was  writing  the  Veilttes 
du  chateau  she  pretended  to  consult  her  pupils  upon 
the  merits  of  the  work.  "It  was  a  critical  moment," 
acknowledges  Mme.  de  Gontaut ;  "  if  the  remarks  were 
badly  expressed  or  futile,  she  showed  her  displeasure 
with  severity." 

Every  Saturday  at  Bellechasse  Mme.  de  Genlis 
received  a  limited  and  chosen  set,  at  first  composed 
of  writers  and  literary  men.  Mile.  d'Orleans,  the 


princes  and  their  fellow-pupils,  did  not  leave  their 
governess's  drawing-room,  for  she  wished  to  accustom 
them  e.irly  to  the  usages  of  society. 

In  company  with  his  witty  and  pedantic  friend 
Schomberg,  D'Alembert  sometimes  went  to  Belle- 
diisse.  He  was  endured  there,  but  not  much  liked. 
The  austere  "mother  of  the  Church"  (as  Mme.  de 
Genlis  was  called)  could  not  forgive  his  philosophical 
opinions,  and  detested  him  for  his  fine  irony  which 
could  "  pinch  without  biting."  He  was  already  ailing 
and  looked  commonplace  at  first  sight  in  his  plain  and 
uniform  suit ;  but  when  he  spoke  in  his  shrill  piercing 
tones  his  small  eyes  lighted  up  with  intelligence. 

Huffbn  paid  rare  visits.  Old,  worn  out,  "unbear- 
ably monotonous,"  according  to  Mme.  du  Deffand, 
"  he  devoted  his  time  to  animals,  and  had  become 
one  from  giving  himself  up  to  this  occupation."  The 
old  marquise  came  also,  but  failed  to  shake  off  her 
eternal  boredom,  and  her  thin  body,  bent  spine,  big 
white  head  and  melancholy  eyes  told  of  a  grieving 
disposition  and  a  dried-up  heart. 

Bernardin  de  Saint-Pierre,  "  the  unhappy  Chevalier 
de  Saint-Pierre,"  as  Mile,  de  Lespinasse  called  him, 
brought  his  sadness,  poverty,  and  ill-humour  to  the 
salon  at  Bellechasse.  He  left  before  the  others, 
always  in  an  angry  mood,  returning  to  his  miserable 
lodging  in  the  Rue  Saint  Etienne  du  Mont  to  wait 
for  the  mission  with  which  he  was  to  be  charged  and 
which  he  never  obtained. 

La  Harpe,  Mme.  de  Genlis'  docile  admirer,  had 
not  lost  all  hope.  He  arrived  every  Saturday  at 
the  same  hour,  "well  powdered,  and  decked  out  in 



his  black  velvet  coat,  gold  jacket,  and  cuffs  of  em- 
broidered net."  Ostensibly  he  sought  to  pass  un- 
perceived,  but  his  bad  temper  soon  gained  the 
mastery,  and  "  the  baby  of  literature "  (as  Fre"ron 
nicknamed  him)  flew  into  a  passion,  growled  and 
became  unbearable. 

At  this  period  Joseph  Chenier  was  one  of  Mme. 
de  Genlis'  cherished  visitors  ;  he  flattered  the  "  tutor's  " 
hobby  by  continually  speaking  on  educational  ques- 
tions. Marmontel  also  "  took  great  pains  to  be 
witty "  without  compromising  himself,  and  lazily 
defended  himself  for  having  eaten  meat  on  Friday 
at  Mme.  Necker's.  "  The  beautiful  Hypatia "  (as 
the  latter  was  called),  tall  and  angular,  stiff,  pompous, 
and  worn  out  with  illness,  effaced  herself  at  her  own 
house  in  the  Rue  Bergere  and  elsewhere,  before  her 
daughter,  the  ugly  and  "  mannish "  young  Baronne 
de  Stael,  who  always  appeared  to  be  in  ecstatic 
contemplation,  but  who  won  the  approval  of  this 
pedantic  circle  by  her  naturally  poetic  if  slightly 
ridiculous  enthusiasm. 

The  painter  Giroux  chatted  in  a  corner  with 
Meyris  the  princes'  drawing-master,  and  his  friend 
David — "lord  of  the  learned  brush" — slipped  away 
from  them  to  talk  politics.  Schlumberger  said 
nothing,  and  Palissot  listened  to  some  malicious 
scandal  which  he  could  draft  into  the  scurrilous 
comedy  he  was  writing  but  not  signing.  Quillard 
discussed  the  merits  of  Gllick  and  Piccini  with 
Marmontel,  the  author  of  the  Contes  Moraux,  and  the 
quarrel  would  have  waxed  venomous  if  the  Chevalier 
de  Chastellux,  the  friend  of  Voltaire  and  the  admirer 

I  DUCATION    OF    A    PRINCESS          35 

of    "  Pnmonr,"  l    had    not    pacified    him    with    a    big 
(irrman   pun   which   raised   a  laugh. 

\\'hen  the  princess  had  reached  the  age  of  seven, 
there  used  to  be  music  in  order  to  form  her  taste. 
She  already  played  well  enough  on  the  harp2  to 
take  her  place  in  the  orchestra  with  Mme.  de  Genlis, 
and  the  latter  was  so  pleased  with  her  pupil's  pro- 
gress that  she  remarked,  "  The  Princess  always 
paid  the  greatest  attention  to  the  lessons  I  gave 
her.  I  can  truly  say  that  I  have  never  known  a 
single  defect  in  Mile.  d'Orle"ans ;  she  was  naturally 
possessed  of  a  lively  piety  and  all  the  virtues.  She 
witty,  and  her  wit  resembled  her  father's  greatly : 
it  was  particularly  shrewd  and  to  the  point.  This, 
combined  with  goodness,  kindness,  and  reasonable- 
ness, made  up  a  personality  as  amiable  to  meet  as 
it  was  steadfast  in  the  intercourse  of  life."  Mme. 
d'Oberkirch,  on  the  contrary,  invited  by  the  Duchesse 
de  Bourbon  to  dine  with  Mademoiselle,  who  was 
then  nine  years  old,  wrote  :  "  The  child  is  not  pretty  : 
the  courtiers  pretend  that  she  will  become  so ;  I 
believe,  on  the  contrary,  that  she  will  be  less  so  as 
she  grows  up.  She  has  a  decided  masculine  air 
which  does  not  please  me  in  a  young  girl.  Her 
governess,  or  rather  her  governor,  Mme.  de  Genlis, 
praises  her  up  to  the  skies.  This  young  Princess 
is  indeed  very  clever,  and  gives  promise  of  great 

1  Mme.  de  Marchais;  she  married  d'Angeviller  afterwards.  Mme. 
du  Deffand  christened  her  "  Pomone  "  on  account  of  the  exquisite  fruits 
she  cultivated  in  her  gardens  at  Montreuil. 

1  A  large  portrait  has  been  preserved  in  the  Orleans  family  of 
moiselle  playing  the  harp,  with  Pamela  sitting  on  a  stool  at  her 
feet,  her  black  eyes  sparkling  with  malice  and  intelligence. 


talent.  Her  character  is  domineering,  ungracious, 
and  difficult :  at  least  that  is  what  her  august  aunt 
tells  me,  for  I  had  scarcely  any  opportunity  of 
judging  for  myself." 

Mme.  d'Oberkirch  met  Mile.  d'Orteans  on  dif- 
ferent occasions  at  the  Duchesse  de  Bourbon's,  who 
— separated  from  her  husband — lived  alone  in  her 
fine  house  in  the  Rue  de  Varennes,  and  liked  to 
bring  her  nephews  and  nieces  together  in  her  mag- 
nificent garden.  "  She  did  not  keep  up  a  great 
household,"  but  entertained  nobly,  "  assisted  by  the 
Comtesse  Julie  de  Se"rent,"  lady-in-waiting  to  her 
Serene  Highness.  "February  25,  1786,  wishing  to 
do  something  for  Mme.  d'Oberkirch's  daughter,  the 
Duchesse  de  Bourbon  invited  a  number  of  children  to 
a  little  ball.  Amongst  these  were  Mademoiselle,  her 
young  brothers,  and  the  Due  d'Enghien.  .  .  .  These 
dainty  little  people  were  delightful.  They  had  been 
dressed  with  the  greatest  elegance  ;  it  was  amusing 
to  watch  their  coquetries,  their  airs  and  graces,  their 
pretentions  and  their  rivalries.  The  world  was 
already  in  their  little  heads  and  in  their  little  hearts. 
A  child  of  six  very  quickly  attracted  the  attention 
of  everybody.  .  .  .  Anglomania  was  just  beginning, 
.  .  .  his  parents  had  dressed  him  up  in  an  English 
frock-coat,  turned-down  boots,  and  a  coachman's 
wig.  .  .  .  They  ate,  danced,  sang  from  noon  till  nine 
in  the  evening." 

During  the  fine  season  Mme.  de  Genlis  took 
all  her  young  people  to  Saint- Leu,  where  they  stayed 
for  several  months  at  a  time.  There,  as  in  Paris, 
even  games  were  made  instructive.  Each  pupil  had 

EDUCATION    OF    A    PRINCESS         37 

his  little  garden,  under  the  direction  of  a  German 
LMrdener,  who  was  only  allowed  to  speak  his  own 
language.  At  dinner  English  was  spoken,  at  supper 

"  We  lived  on  the  ground  floor,"  wrote  Mme. 
de  Genlis.  "One  entered  a  vestibule  first,  the 
fresco  paintings  of  which  represented  the  meta- 
morphoses of  Ovid ;  after  that  came  a  beautiful 
square  drawing-room  looking  on  to  the  garden. 
The  walls  of  this  room  were  covered  with  pictures 
from  Roman  history,  painted  in  oils  on  large  can- 
vases mounted  on  lathes."  The  entire  painting  of 
this  drawing-room  only  cost  900  francs,  Mme.  de 
Genlis  tells  us.  On  one  side  were  "  the  most 
celebrated  Roman  ladies  .  .  .  and  all  the  empresses 
since  Constantine.  .  .  .  Each  face  was  seen  in  profile 
only.  .  .  .  Around  each  profile  was  written  the  name 
of  the  personage  and  the  year  when  she  died." 
Beyond  the  drawing-room  was  a  gallery,  hung  in 
the  same  fashion  with  portraits  of  the  great  men 
of  Greece.  In  Mademoiselle's  bedroom  a  hundred 
and  twenty  small  water-colour  pictures  represented 
subjects  from  French  history.  These  only  cost 
eighteen  francs  apiece  framed. 

M.  Meyris,  a  Pole,  whom  Mme.  de  Genlis  had 
discovered,  taught  the  children  to  paint  in  water- 
colours.  The  governess  made  him  paint  historical 
scenes  on  magic-lantern  slides.  She  also  invented 

ime  quite  in  keeping  with  her  time:  costumes 
were  made  for  her  pupils  who  played  at  famous 
voyages,  such  as  those  of  Vasco  da  Gama.  "  The 
fine  stream  in  the  park"  (of  Saint-Leu),  wrote  the 


governess,  "  represented  the  sea,  a  series  of  pretty 
boats  formed  our  fleets.  I  also  had  a  little  port- 
able theatre  made,  which  was  placed  in  the  large 
dining-room,  where  they  arranged  historical  tableaux 
vivants"  David,  the  celebrated  painter,  amused 
himself  by  grouping  the  actors.  Among  other 
things  they  played  a  pantomime — Psyche  perse- 
cuted by  Venus.  Mme.  de  Lawcestine  personified 
Venus,  her  sister  Pulche"rie,  Psyche,  and  Pamela, 
Love.  "One  will  never  see  three  figures  together 
presenting  so  much  beauty,  charm,  and  grace.  David 
was  enthusiastic  about  this  pantomime  which,  he 
said,  showed  the  perfection  of  ideal  beauty." 

Mme.  de  Genlis  loved  to  show  off  Pamela.  One 
day  Mme.  de  la  Rochejaquelin  went  with  her 
grandmother  to  see  the  pictures  exhibited  at  the 
Louvre,  and  met  there  "  the  three  little  Orleans 
Princes  and  their  sister,  Mademoiselle,  with  Mme. 
de  Genlis — at  once  their  governor  and  governess.  .  .  . 

"  I  was  delighted,"  she  wrote,  "to  see  the  writer 
whose  children's  books  I  read,  whose  little  plays 
I  acted ;  I  had  so  often  noticed  people  smiling  and 
whispering  when  she  was  spoken  of,  that  my 
curiosity  had  been  aroused ;  thus  the  incident  I 
am  about  to  describe  is  as  clear  to  my  mind  as 
though  it  only  took  place  yesterday.  Mme.  de 
Genlis  was  very  simply  dressed  in  quiet  colours ; 
I  am  almost  sure  that  the  hood  of  her  little  black 
mantle  was  drawn  over  her  head.  She  appeared 
thin  and  brown  to  me ;  her  physiognomy  was 
pleasing,  the  mouth,  teeth,  and  eyes  lovely  ;  she 
seemed  so  amiable,  so  gentle,  so  captivating,  and  so 

EDUCATION    OF     A    I'KINCKSS          39 

ituclk  !  The  little  Princes  louked  very  peculiar 
tor  those  days,  as  their  hair  was  done  like  that  of 
little  Knglish  boys.  .  .  .  Whilst  their  under-tutors 
and  the  painters  explained  the  pictures  to  them,  my 
-raiulmother  and  Mme.  de  Genlis  paid  each  other 
a  thousand  pretty  compliments.  The  latter  intro- 
duced her  daughter,  afterwards  Mme.  de  Valence.  .  .  . 
My  grandmother  noticed  a  charming  little  girl  of 
seven  at  her  side.  '  You  have  only  two  daughters,' 
she  remarked  (the  elder,  Mme.  de  Lawcestine,  was 
already  married);  'who  is  this  lovely  little  creature?' 
— '  Oh ! '  replied  Mme.  de  Genlis  in  a  low  voice 
which  was  quite  audible  to  me,  '  this  little  one's 
story  is  very  touching,  very  interesting;  but  I 
cannot  tell  it  you  now.'  .  .  .  Then  raising  her  voice, 
she  added,  '  Pamela,  do  Heloise ! ' 

"  Pamela  at  once  took  out  her  comb  ;  her  beautiful 
unpowdered  hair  fell  in  long  curls  ;  she  threw  herself 
on  one  knee,  and  raising  her  eyes  and  one  arm  to 
Heaven,  put  on  a  wrapt  expression  of  passionate 
ecstasy.  Pamela  remained  in  this  attitude !  Mme. 
de  Genlis  appeared  delighted,  and  made  signs  and 
remarks  to  my  grandmother,  who  complimented  her 
on  the  beauty  and  grace  of  her  young  pupil.  As 
for  me,  I  was  simply  stupefied  and  unable  to  under- 
stand anything.  My  grandmother  hurried  away  to 
laugh  over  this  encounter,  and  for  a  week  after- 
wards she  told  the  story  to  those  who  came  to  see 
her.  And  oh !  what  endless  jests  were  made  over 
Pamela's  education ! " 

In  1787  M.  de  Sillery's  aunt,  Mme.  de  Puyseulx, 
having  died,  Mme.  de  Genlis1  health  suddenly 


suffered  in  consequence  of  this  bereavement.  The 
doctors  advised  her  to  go  and  take  the  waters  at 
Spa.  Not  wishing  to  leave  her  pupils,  she  refused 
to  do  so.  Full  of  solicitude,  the  Due  d'Orleans1 
decided  to  take  the  Duchesse  d'Orleans  and  all 
the  children  to  the  waters.  "  I  was  naturally  much 
touched  by  this  mark  of  consideration  and  kindness," 
wrote  Mme.  de  Genlis. 

They  set  out  for  Spa.  At  that  epoch  everything 
was  very  primitive  along  the  provincial  highways, 
which  they  were  obliged  to  travel  posting.  The 
princes  amused  themselves  by  travelling  like  ordinary 
tourists,  and  had  not  secured  lodgings  beforehand  at 
the  inns.  "  At  Richemont,  all  the  good  rooms  being 
taken,"  says  Mme.  de  Genlis,  "  we  were  horribly 
badly  lodged.  .  .  .  Our  courtiers  and  women  were 
detained  on  the  way,  but  the  Princes,  especially  M. 
le  Due  de  Chartres,2  waited  upon  us  like  good  servants. 
M.  le  Due  de  Chartres  arranged  our  room,  climbed  a 
ladder  in  order  to  nail  quilts  to  the  windows,  which 
had  neither  curtains  nor  shutters,  and  Mademoiselle, 
Henriette,  and  Pamela  made  our  beds.  All  the 
children  were  charming." 

1  The  Due  de  Chartres  had  taken  this  title  upon  the  death  of  his 
father.     Mile.  d'Orleans'  grandfather  died  November  18,  1785,  at  his 
house  in  the  Rue  de  Provence,  where  he  had  retired  since  his  morgan- 
atic marriage  with   Mme.  de  Montesson.     Neither   Mademoiselle  nor 
her    brothers  were  present  at  the  obsequies  of  the  old  duke.     But  a 
funeral    service    was   celebrated    at    Bellechasse,   February    u,   1786. 
The  Abbe   Bourlet  de  Vauxcelles  (reader  to  the  Comte  d'Artois  and 
Vicar-general  of  Autun)  had  been  directed  to  pronounce  a  discourse 
before  the  grandchildren  of  the  deceased,  beginning  thus  :  "  Illustrious 
children,  you  have  been  brought  to  a  lugubrious  ceremony." 

2  Known  as  Due  de  Valois  before  the  death  of  his  grandfather ; 
afterwards  Louis- Philippe  I. 

EDUCATION    OF   A    PRINCESS          41 

\Ylu-n  they  reached  their  destination,  "a  brilliant 
crowd  had  already  assembled  for  the  Spa  season." 
The  Abbe  Delille,  the  Due  de  Liancourt,  and  M.  de 
Chastdlux  were  there.  The  usual  watering-place  life 
led.  Between  nine  and  ten  o'clock  in  the  morn- 
ing they  went  to  drink  the  water  at  the  Gerontiere 
spring,  while  the  afternoon  was  given  up  to  excursions 
in  the  mountains. 

Mademoiselle  and  her  brothers  visited  M.  de 
Limbourg's  beautiful  park,  and,  going  one  day  to  the 
Abbey  of  Franchimont,  they  had  the  prisoners  con- 
fined there  for  debt  liberated  by  means  of  a  sub- 

The  waters  of  Sauveniere  having  proved  beneficial 
to  their  mother,  they  organised  a  fine  fete  for  her, 
decorating  with  tall  flowering  heath  and  garlands  the 
grove  which  surrounded  the  spring,  and  raising  an 
altar  on  a  hillock  of  grass  to  "Gratitude."  The  day 
<>t  the  fete  "the  prettiest  persons  in  Spa"  had  been 
invited  ;  they  were  dressed  in  white,  with  wreaths  of 
heather.  The  Waux  Hall  band  played  as  soon  as 
the  Duchesse  d'Orleans  appeared.  She  was  then  con- 
ducted to  the  altar  where  her  four  children,  with 
Henriette  and  Pamela,  formed  a  sort  of  tableau 
vivant  .  .  .  the  Due  de  Chartres  "holding  a  style 
and  appearing  to  write  the  word  'Gratitude."  "All 
who  were  there  burst  into  tears."  (Mme.  de  Genlis' 

On  returning  from  Spa,  Mademoiselle,  the  princes, 
and  Mme.  de  Genlis  stayed  at  the  Chateau  de  Sillery, 
which  had  just  been  restored.  On  the  occasion  of 
this  visit  M.  de  Sillery  had  had  as  many  little  islands 


constructed  in  the  park  as  the  governess  had  pupils ; 
these  were  all  connected  by  a  charming  bridge  with 
a  large  island  which  bore  the  name  of  Mme.  de 

It  was  after  this  trip  that  the  Due  d'Orleans  went 
so  far  as  to  buy,  at  Mme.  de  Genlis'  request,  the 
estate  of  Mothe,  near  Treport,  in  order  that  his 
children  might  have  facilities  for  learning  marine 
natural  history. 

A  little  while  after  the  journey  to  Spa  Mile. 
d'Orleans  was  baptized.  The  ceremony  took  place 
at  Versailles,  after  the  king's  mass  before  the  whole 
court.  The  castle  chapel  had  been  draped  and 
decorated  with  flowers.  The  young  princess,  whose 
sponsors  were  Louis  XVI.  and  Marie  Antoinette, 
wore  a  white  dress  spangled  with  silver.  She 
received  the  names  -  -  Eugene,  Adelaide,  Louise. 
Adelaide  was  her  mother's  name ;  the  Duchesse 
d'Orleans- Penthievre  being,  in  fact,  the  godchild 
of  Mme.  Adelaide,  daughter  of  Louis  XV. 

"  The  name  of  Eugene  recalled  the  mutual  promises 
of  two  convent  friends."  The  Duchesse  d'Orleans  had, 
in  fact,  been  brought  up  in  the  Abbey  of  Montmartre 
with  Mile.  Eugene  de  Montigny.  They  were  married 
at  the  same  time,  the  one  to  the  Due  de  Chartres,  the 
other  to  M.  de  Talleyrand,  and  each  had  vowed  to 
give  her  first  child  her  companion's  Christian  name  ; 
but  the  princess  could  not  keep  her  promise  without 
the  king's  consent,  and  he,  "  surprised  at  the  name  and 
at  the  importance  the  Duchess  attached  to  her  request, 
told  her  that  he  would  give  his  consent  provided  that 
he  knew  her  motive.  Somewhat  embarrassed  the 


Print-ess  informed  the  Kini;  what  had  passed  bet\v<  -'ii 
herself  and  her  friend.  The  day  after  the  christening 
Louis  \\'l.,  will)  his  usual  kindness,  said  to  Mme.  de 
Talleyrand:  ' /V///V  ttaronnc*  (he  always  called  her 
thus),  •  you  have  not  kept  your  word.' — '  May  I  know, 
Sire,  how  I  have  merited  Your  Majesty's  reproach?' 
— *  Mine,  la  Duchesse  d'Orleans  has  a  daughter  called 
Eugene,'  replied  the  King.  These  words  reminded 
the  Baroness  of  the  conversation  at  the  convent.  .  .  . 
She  answered  the  King  that  she  was  grieved  that  God 
had  not  permitted  her  to  keep  her  word  to  the  person 
she  cared  for  most."  l 

After  the  ceremony  they  left  the  castle  so  that  the 
courtiers  might  throw  christening  sweets  to  the  crowd  ; 
then  Mademoiselle,  who  had  been  presented  at  court, 
got  into  the  queen's  coach.  The  interview  with  the 
Due  d'Angouleme  followed.  From  that  moment  the 
projected  marriage  between  the  Princesse  Adelaide 
and  the  elder  son  of  the  Comte  d'Artois  was  publicly 
talked  about.  It  was  decided  that  the  marriage 
should  take  place  as  soon  as  the  young  prince  had 
attained  the  age  fixed  by  law ;  he  was  still  three 
months  too  young.  "They  began  to  form  the  house- 
hold of  the  future  Duchesse  d'Angouleme.  The 
Duchesse  d'Orleans,  on  this  occasion,  got  her  father 
to  promise  his  granddaughter  the  Hotel  Toulouse  in 
Paris  and  the  estate  of  Ferte  in  Le  Perche.  But  the 
king  took  so  little  part  in  these  arrangements  that  he 
never  offered  anything  for  the  Due  d'Angouleme, 
giving  as  a  reason  for  his  refusal  the  uncertainty  of 
what  he  could  do  after  the  disturbances  had  ceased  .  .  . 

1  Delille,  Journal  (U  la  vie  de  S.  A.  S.  la  Duchesse  cTOrUans. 


and,  for  the  same  reason,  the  Due  d'Orleans  offered 
nothing  personally,  though  M.  Montjoie  makes  out 
that  he  provided  for  an  annual  revenue  of  a  million  ; 
that  is  to  say,  four  hundred  thousand  francs  at  the 
time  of  the  marriage  and  six  hundred  thousand  in  the 
succession.  .  .  .  So  that,  properly  speaking,  it  was  only 
the  Comte  d'Artois  and  the  Duchesse  d'Orleans  who 
busied  themselves  over  the  project " l  which  had  soon 
to  be  abandoned  not  only  because  the  Revolution  was 
on  the  point  of  breaking  out,  but  because  the  king 
refused  to  give  his  consent  to  a  union  which  Marie 
Antoinette  had  long  opposed.2 

1  Comte  Rouzet  de   Folmont,  Explication  du  roman  de  Montjoie. 
(The  Duchesse  d'Orleans-Penthievre  certainly  inspired  this  book  which 
was  a  counterblast  to  the  work  published  in  1796  by  Galard  de  Montjoie  : 
Histoire  de  la  conjuration  de  Louis- Philippe-Joseph-d?  Orleans  surnommc" 

2  The  Prince  de  Condd,  who  wanted  his  grandson  to  marry,  pro- 
posed the  Princesse  Adelaide  to  him.    The  Due  d'Enghien  is  said  to  have 
repulsed  these  overtures  energetically,  repeating  the  words  of  his  aunt, 
Louise  de  Conde,  Soeur  Marie  Joseph  de  la  Misericorde  :  "  I  do  not  like 
that  blood  ! "      This  anecdote   reported  by  a  pamphleteer  is  scarcely 
credible,  the  Due  d'Enghien  being  also,  through  his  mother,  of  "  that 


Thr  Duchcsse  d*Orle"ans — Her  difficulties  with  the  governess — 
rolitical  wen  assiduous  at  Bellechasse  —  Mademoiselle 
tf  Or  leans  at  the  National  Assembly  —  Resignation  of 
Mr,  .>-nlis — Illness  of  the  Princesse  Adelaide  — 

Mme.  de  Gen/is  obtains  permission  to  remain  with  her 
f>nf>ils — Mademoiselle  and  her  brothers  dance  to  the  tune  of 
"  fa  ira  " — Mme.  de  Gen/is  /wrs  Hellechasse — Return  of 
Mme.  de  Gen  Us — The  Duchesse  a*  Or  leans  separates  from 
her  husband. 

THE  breaking  off  of  the  projected  marriage  between 
Mademoiselle  and  the  Due  d' Angouleme — a  humiliation 
added  to  so  many  others — made  the  Due  d'Orteans 
Marie  Antoinette's  enemy  for  ever,  just  at  the  moment 
when  he  would  have  desired  to  be  in  closer  touch  with 
the  court.  The  Duchess  showed  no  resentment  to  the 
queen.  Surprised  at  first,  then  pained,  she  simply 
accused  her  husband  and  her  daughter's  governess, 
Mme.  de  Genlis,  towards  whom  her  feelings  had 
changed  considerably.  "  She  was  deeply  grieved," 
a  Mme.  de  Gontaut,  "at  seeing  so  little  of  her 
children."  The  circumstances  of  the  journey  to  Spa 
had  made  it  impossible  for  Mme.  de  Genlis  to  show 
herself  pitiless  in  this  respect,  and  the  Duchess  was 
thus  afforded  the  pleasure  of  living  with  her  children 
for  some  weeks,  but  the  separation  on  their  return  to 



town  was  cruel,  and  she  suffered  all  the  more  at  being 
systematically  kept  away  from  them. 

"  What  must  have  been  the  Princess's  joy  at 
finding  herself  with  her  children  in  all  the  freedom 
of  travelling  and  country  life ! "  exclaims  Mme.  de 
Genlis  in  her  Mtmoires,  a  propos  of  this  journey. 
"  Although  she  said  nothing,  the  Duchess  had  suffered 
at  seeing  her  influence  over  them  taken  away,  for  she 
had  never  been  permanently  admitted  at  Saint- Leu, 
which  would  have  been  very  natural,  but  might  have 
slightly  interfered  with  games  and  studies." 

Already,  indeed,  at  the  period  of  the  journey 
to  Spa  the  Baronne  d'Oberkirch  was  writing  in 
her  Mdmoires  anent  the  Duchesse  d'Orleans  :  "  The 
appearance  of  this  Princess  pleased  and  touched  me  .  .  . 
her  smile  is  sad,  her  eyes  melancholy ;  when  not  talk- 
ing she  sighs.  She  loves  her  children  passionately, 
and  one  great  source  of  grief  is  to  see  their  direction 
and  education  taken  away  from  her  by  Mme.  de 
Genlis.  I  do  not  like  setting  down  scandals,  but  this 
one  goes  farther  than  all  the  others." 

This  scandal  was  aggravated  by  circumstances. 
As  the  princes  and  Mademoiselle  grew  older,  the 
state  of  affairs  in  France  became  more  and  more 
threatening,  and  the  weak  and  vindictive  Duke, 
worked  upon  by  Laclos,  made  daily  concessions  to 
the  extreme  parties.  The  Duchess,  who  had  made 
the  best  of  her  husband's  infidelities,  would  have 
liked  to  retain  a  certain  influence  over  him  and 
especially  over  her  children.  Like  her  old  father, 
the  Due  de  Penthievre,  whom  she  loved,  she  was 
loyally  attached  to  the  throne  ;  Mme.  de  Genlis,  on 


the  rontrary,  was  enthusiastic  over  the  new  ideas 
and  cultivated  opposite  sentiments  in  her  pupils. 
The  associations  to  which  she  had  subjected  the 
Orleans  children  troubled  the  Duchess  to  such  an 
extent  that  she  dared  not  go  to  Bellechasse  any 
more  for  fear  of  meeting  revolutionists  there;  and 
her  daughter  and  sons  invited  their  friends  to  parties 
at  which  she  was  not  present.  Mme.  de  Gontaut, 
in  her  MSwoires,  mentions  some  of  these  fetes. 
The  Duchess's  name  does  not  appear.  The  governess, 
indeed,  was  all-powerful ;  the  Duke  himself  dared 
not  go  against  her  domineering  will.  Mme.  de 
Gontaut  gives  the  following  vivid  account  of  an 
every-day  incident  :— 

"  The  year  1789  was  very  cold;  the  streets  were 
covered  with  snow.  They  talked  of  a  sleighing  party 
at  Bellechasse  and  Mademoiselle  offered  me  a  seat 
in  her  sleigh,  which  was  driven  by  her  father,  the 
Due  d'Orleans.  The  plan  was  a  children's  dinner 
at  Mousseaux,  blind  man's  buff,  &c.  ...  It  was  a 
charming  fete.  After  dinner  Mme.  de  Genlis  retired 
to  the  apartments  of  the  castle  with  the  Due 
d'Orleans  leaving  us  to  the  care  of  tutors,  masters,  and 
several  members  of  the  household.  ...  At  the  most 
lively  moment  of  blind  man's  buff  a  groom  came  to 
announce  the  hour  of  departure  to  the  great  vexation 
of  everybody.  .  .  .  We  held  a  council,  and  it  was 
decided  that  I  should  be  deputed  to  ...  go  and  ask 
Mme.  de  Genlis  for  an  hour's  grace.  There  were 
several  drawing-rooms ;  we  directed  our  steps  towards 
the  one  where  we  heard  many  voices.  I  was  so  much 
intimidated,  that  having  got  into  the  room  and  finding 


myself  in  a  group  of  men,  I  could  not  see  Mme.  de 
Genlis.  She  had  caught  sight  of  me,  and  the  Due 
d'Orleans,  noticing  my  embarrassment,  took  me  by 
the  hand  and  led  me  to  her.  I  did  my  commission 
very  awkwardly,  being  completely  disconcerted  by  her 
displeasure,  and  she  reluctantly  granted  the  favour 
I  had  come  to  ask." 

The  Duchess  might  perhaps  have  consented  to 
abandon  her  sons  to  the  "tutor,"  but  she  could  not 
make  up  her  mind  to  renounce  all  interest  in  her 
daughter's  education.  And  what  were  the  kind  of 
men  who  went  to  Bellechasse,  whose  conversation 
would  help  to  form  the  mind  of  this  young  princess 
of  the  blood  ?  Neither  La  Harpe,  the  discomfited 
lover  of  Mme.  de  Genlis  (who  was  more  accessible 
to  others,  however),  nor  Bernardin  de  Saint-Pierre, 
who  had  quarrelled  with  Sillery,  nor  any  of  the  witty 
grands  seigneurs  who  formerly  frequented  the  Rue 
Saint  Dominique.  The  men  of  letters  and  learning, 
the  artists  who  used  to  assemble  there  had  been 
replaced  by  politicians  so  much  in  demand  in  the 
salons  just  then.  Mathieu  de  Montauron  and 
Alexandre  de  Lameth  were  timid  conservatives  by 
the  side  of  most  of  the  habitues  of  Bellechasse. 
Here  the  eloquent  and  passionate  Barere  declaimed 
and  Talleyrand  sneered.  David,  Alquie",  Beauharnais, 
Volney,  Voidel,  and  Grouvelle  talked  politics,  sapping 
the  old  beliefs,  turning  secular  traditions  into  ridicule 
before  Mademoiselle,  who  listened,  applauded  without 
understanding,  and  unconsciously  learned  to  hate  the 
ancien  regime. 

Petion  "  cold  as  an  extreme  politician,  rude  as  a 


parvenu^  as  Eamurtinr  describes  him,  solemn,  ill- 
mannered,  and  puffed  up  with  pride,  openly  courted 
the  mistress  of  the  house,  who  did  not  disdain  the 
tardy  homage  of  Mirabeau,  and  received  with  perverse 
pleasure  the  juvenile  compliments  of  the  Due  de 

But  the  Duchesse  d'Orleans  belonged  too 
thoroughly  to  her  time  to  be  greatly  shocked  by 
the  licentious  example  set  to  her  daughter.  She 
cared  little  if  "  capricious  and  charming"  Camille 
Desmoulins  entered  the  drawing-room  at  Bellechasse, 
whilst  "  Mme.  de  Genlis  was  singing  verses  en- 
couraging inconstancy,  to  her  own  accompaniment 
on  the  harp " ;  or  that  "  the  tutor's  daughter,  the 
beautiful  Pamela  and  Henriette  de  Sercey  should 
execute  a  dance  with  seduction  and  voluptuousness."  l 
The  Duchess's  real  grievance  was  that  Desmoulins 
and  all  the  enemies  of  the  state  of  things  to  which, 
by  blood  and  education,  she  was  profoundly  attached, 
habitually  formed  the  society  of  her  daughter ;  and 
that  the  latter,  born  on  the  steps  of  the  throne,  should 
take  pleasure  in  listening  to  a  miserable  attorney's 
son  [Potion],  or  to  a  poor  provincial  barrister  [Barere]. 

Then  she  feared  for  her  children  the  dangers  she 
foresaw  approaching.  Events  succeeded  one  another 
rapidly,  justifying  her  fears.  April  27  the  Hotel 
Re*veillon  was  sacked ;  on  July  14  the  Bastille  was 
taken,  and  the  people  (stirred  up  by  Camille  Des- 
moulins) in  the  Palais  Royal  gardens  accepted  the 
Orleans  colours  as  an  emblem.  And  it  is  easy  to 
understand  the  princess's  emotion  when  she  heard 

1  Camille  Desmoulins'  deposition  before  the  Revolutionary  Tribunal. 



that  the  "  tutor  "  of  her  children  had  had  the  audacity 
to  walk  about  Paris  on  the  evening  of  the  riot,  with 
little  Pamela  dressed  entirely  in  red,  after  being 
present  with  Chartres  and  Beaujolais,  and  perhaps 
Mademoiselle,  in  Beaumarchais'  gardens  during  the 
assault  on  the  citadel.1  Neither  did  she  ignore  the 
fact  that  on  July  10,  when  every  one  in  Paris  was 
trembling  with  fear,  Mme.  de  Genlis  had  given  an 
entertainment  at  Saint- Leu,  where  she  had  played 
at  being  unconcerned. 

"  There  were  theatricals  at  Saint-Leu,  July  10, 
in  honour  of  Mme.  de  Genlis,"  wrote  Mme.  de 
Gontaut  in  her  Mdmoires ;  "  we  received  a  pressing 
invitation  to  be  present.  My  mother  was  there  with 
the  Comtesse  de  Gontaut  (inere)  and  myself.  People 
were  excited,  my  mother  uneasy.  The  Due  d'Orl^ans, 
who  was  expected,  did  not  arrive.  Some  one  during 
the  evening  told  my  mother  in  a  low  tone  that  there 
was  fighting  in  Paris  ;  she  wanted  to  go  away,  being 
very  uneasy  about  the  Marquis  de  Saint-Blancard, 
who  was  captain  of  the  French  Guards.  Mme.  de 
Genlis  treated  these  fears  as  imaginary.  Her  en- 
treaties did  not  prevent  us  from  going  away." 

But  the  violence  of  the  popular  disturbances  in- 
creased, their  object  became  more  definite  and  riots 
more  frequent  ;  already  the  insurrection  had  spread 
to  the  provinces  ;  rebellion  was  no  longer  spoken  of, 
for  the  Revolution — threatening  those  even  who  had 
unchained  it — had  begun.  The  days  of  October  5 
and  6  could  not  fail  to  terrify  a  princess  accustomed 

1  Beaumarchais'  gardens  were  situated  on  the  spot  where  No.  2  of 
the  Boulevard  which  bears  his  name  now  stands. 

ILLNESS    OF   THK    PRINCESS         51 

to  prostrate  herself  before  royalty,  and  the  vote  of 
the  civil  constitution  of  the  clergy  on  the  following 
day  chafed  her  Christian  spirit.  Would  the  "Mother 
of  the  Church"  (Mme.  de  Genlis),  who  prided  herself 
upon  her  devoutness,  moderate  her  revolutionary 
ardour?  Not  so!  She  frequented  the  clubs,  the 
Cordeliers,  the  Assemby — where  she  was  seen  on 
June  i,  1790,  with  Mile.  d'Orteans  who  appeared  to 
take  a  lively  interest  in  the  discussion.  What  a 
spectacle  for  a  young  girl  of  thirteen! 

The  Duchess  could  bear  this  no  longer  ;  wounded 
in  her  prejudices,  her  pride,  her  interests,  her  faith, 
she  remembered  that  she  was  a  mother  also  and 
trembled  for  her  children.  Her  indignation  burst 
forth  and  she  succeeded  at  length,  on  July  10,  1790, 
in  inducing  Mme.  de  Genlis  to  send  in  her  resignation 
to  the  Duke,  who  obstinately  declined  to  accept  it, 
but  promised,  on  the  contrary,  to  bring  about  a  re- 

Whilst  these  negotiations  were  going  on,  Adelaide, 
who  was  highly  nervous  and  had  been  present  at 
some  painful  discussions,  fell  ill.  Belonging  entirely 
to  her  governess,  the  daily  opposition  of  her  mother — 
the  only  one  about  her  who  raised  her  voice  in 
defence  of  the  old  society  tottering  to  its  fall — irritated 
the  girl. 

Then  she  scarcely  knew  that  mother,  and  judged 
her  through  the  veil  which  Mme.  de  Genlis  had 
stretched  before  her  eyes.  She  mistook  the  goodness 
and  gentleness  of  the  rather  ignorant  Duchess  for 
stupidity,  and  the  latter's  great  desire  to  be  near  her 
children  for  obstinacy.  Adelaide's  real  mother  was 


the  person  who  had  taken  her  from  her  cradle  and 
brought  her  up  according  to  her  own  ideas  and  tastes 
— the  vain  little  woman,  cette  Mme.  Necker  dldgante 
whom  caricaturists  represented  "  armed  with  a  stick 
of  barley-sugar  and  a  ferule."  That  being  the  girl 
loved  with  all  her  heart.  Truly  it  must  be  said  that 
Mme.  de  Montesson's  intriguing  niece  cajoled  all  who 
came  near  her ! 

Even  the  Marquis  de  Puyseulx,  a  tiresome  old 
dotard,  allowed  himself  to  be  smoothed  over  by  a 
relation  who  had  been  forced  upon  him ;  the  in- 
constant and  frivolous  Due  d'Orleans  always  retained 
a  grateful  attachment  for  his  tendre  amie;  the  Duchess 
took  to  liking  a  rival  whom  she  loaded  with  favours ; 
Bruslart,  shamefully  deceived,  did  not  abandon  a  wife 
who  would  not  live  with  him,  and  the  pupils  whom 
Mme.  de  Genlis  treated  so  harshly — Mademoiselle, 
whom  she  sent  to  sleep  on  boards — kissed  the  im- 
pression of  her  footsteps.  Thus  Adelaide's  affection 
for  her  mistress  became  sickly  and  exclusive,  en- 
couraged by  those  around  her,  who  were  all  devoted 
to  Mme.  de  Genlis — Cesar  Ducrest,  Pamela,  Hen- 
riette  de  Sercey,  the  habitues  of  Bellechasse,  the  Due 
d'Orleans,  even  the  Due  de  Chartres  who — between 
a  mother  he  neither  loved  nor  knew,  and  a  "  tutor" 
who  flattered  his  amour  propre  and  set  his  senses 
quivering — used  his  ever-increasing  influence  over 
his  sister.  Characteristic  of  his  sentiments  is  the 
following  passage  from  a  letter  of  his  dated  January 
i,  1791:  "I  was  the  first  to  have  the  joy  of 
wishing  'A  Happy  New  Year'  to  mon  amie. 
Nothing  could  make  me  happier ;  in  truth  I  know 

ILLNESS   OF    THE    PRINCESS          53 

not  what  will  Ix-coim-  of  me  when  I  am  no  longer 
with  h 

OIK-  day  Mademoiselle  fainted  in  the  garden  at 
Bellechasse.  This  was  reported  to  Mme.  de  Genlis. 
4i  I  ran,  said  the  latter,  "and  found  her  in  the  most 
frightful  convulsions.  On  opening  her  eyes  and  see- 
ing nu  she  burst  into  tears.  That  scene,  which  will 
never  be  effaced  from  my  memory,  led  to  an  explana- 
tion in  which  I  formally  undertook  to  finish  her  educa- 
tion." The  governess  communicated  her  resolution 
to  the  Due  d'Orl&ins,  who  begged  her  to  write  to 
the  Duchess.  In  that  letter,  which  we  find  in  her 
MtmoireSt  Mme.  de  Genlis  was  very  eloquent,  but 
did  not  touch  upon  the  political  causes  which  had 
occasioned  her  disgrace.  She  described  the  scene 
with  Adelaide,  and  continued :  "  It  is  impossible  for 
me  to  resign,  since  in  the  state  in  which  things  are 
I  am  certain  that  Mademoiselle's  delicate  constitution 
would  not  bear  such  a  sorrow. ...  In  three  or  four  years 
I  shall  retire  from  the  world  not  to  return  to  it  again, 
but  what  a  difference  it  will  make  to  Mademoiselle  to 
leave  me  only  when  her  education  is  finished,  to  see 
nn  happy  at  having  completed  my  work,  to  restore 
her  to  your  arms,  Madame,  and  to  hear  you  applaud 
all  I  have  done  for  her  and  for  you." 

The  Duchesse  d'Orl^ans  wavered  between  the 
pleasure  of  having  her  daughter  near  her,  her  legiti- 
mate motherly  jealousy,  her  distrust  of  Mme.  de  Genlis, 
and  her  anxiety  for  Adelaide's  health,  the  latter's  ner- 
vous malady  troubling  her  greatly.  Acting  on  the 
advice  of  those  about  her,  she  decided  to  accept  a 
compromise.  It  was  settled  that  Mme.  de  Genlis 


should  remain  with  her  pupil,  and  that  the  girl  should 
go  and  see  her  mother  at  the  Palais  Royal  every  day. 
The  Duchess  also  went  three  times  a  week  in  the 
morning  to  see  Mademoiselle  at  Bellechasse,  and  had 
her  alone  with  her  for  an  hour,  overwhelming  her  with 
affectionate  words  and  caresses. 

It  was  about  this  time  that  the  Duchesse  d'Orle"ans 
wrote  a  letter  to  the  Duke  thus  defining  the  quarrel : — 

"  I  will  not  revert  to  the  past  any  more,  the  wrongs 
with  which  I  reproach  Mme.  de  Sillery  exist,  and 
cannot  be  done  away  with  by  her  journal  or  anything 
she  may  tell  you ;  I  saw  and  heard  for  myself  all  that 
displeased  me.  It  is  only,  therefore,  on  account  of 
the  future  that  I  return  to  the  subject  of  Mme.  de 
Sillery.  She  cannot  justify  herself,  but  she  may  make 
reparation,  and  if  I  see  that  her  behaviour  and  that  of 
my  children  is  such  as  I  have  a  right  to  expect  and 
require,  I  am  just,  and  shall  be  happy  to  forget  the 
subjects  for  complaint  she  has  given  me.  There,  mon 
ami,  is  what  is  in  my  heart,  and  what  I  have  already 
begun  to  feel.  Mme.  de  Sillery  was  out  of  temper 
lately.  I  bore  it ;  but  next  day  she  paid  me  attention 
and  wrote  me  a  decent  note.  I  thanked  her  through 
my  daughter,  and  replied  to  her  in  a  manner  with 
which  you  were  as  pleased  as  she  was.  .  .  .  Tres 
cker  ami,  I  must  also  tell  you  that  on  Sunday  Mont- 
pensier  begged  me  to  allow  Cesar  to  come  to  dinner ; 
I  consented,  but  I  confess  I  should  be  angry  if  this 
became  a  habit ;  from  time  to  time  I  consent ;  but  I 
consider  it  quite  unnecessary  that  this  little  boy  should 
come  to  all  my  daughter's  parties.  I  should,  besides, 
be  afraid  of  her  asking  to  bring  her  companions  also, 


which  I  should  very  certainly  decline  to  allow  her  to 
do.  Thus,  chcr  ami,  it  would  be  better  to  avoid  this 
being  dour,  and  you  can  easily  manage  it." 

After  reading  this  letter,  in  which  she  likewise 
mentions  and  excuses  her  husband's  liaison  with 
Madame  de  Button,  the  character  of  the  writer  is 

er  discerned.  An  indulgent  wife  and  a  not 
very  affectionate  mother,  the  Duchesse  d'Orl^ans  is 
especially  anxious  that  attention  should  be  shown  her  ; 
a  princess  before  everything,  her  sentiments  were  the 
outcome  of  her  pride. 

Mme.  de  Genlis,  however,  continued  none  the  less 
to  receive  men  of  advanced  opinions,  and  the  enter- 
tainments given  at  Bellechasse  were  not  always  calcu- 
lated to  please  the  Duchesse  d'Orl^ans. 

"Towards  the  end  of  the  year  1790,"  wrote  Mme. 
de  Gontaut,  "  my  mother  was  obliged  to  return  to 
Paris.  I  had  received  kind  letters  from  Mile.  d'Orl^ans, 
who  begged  me  to  go  and  see  her.  My  mother  had 
a  distaste  for  Bellechasse  which  my  young  heart  could 
not  understand.  I  was  so  well  received  there  that  I 
always  wanted  to  go  again. 

"  My  mother  consented  to  take  me,  but  with  such 
repugnance  that  she  forbade  all  dressiness  in  order  to 

ble,  if  need  arose,  to  shorten  the  visit. 

"  On  entering  the  pavilion  at  Bellechasse  we  saw 
the  Due  d'Orleans  at  the  top  of  the  staircase  talking 
to  a  personage  whose  name  I  forget,  but  who  made  a 
very  painful  impression  upon  my  poor  mother.  We 
entered  the  drawing-room  ;  Mme.  de  Genlis  was  there, 

1  Corrcspondance  dc  Louis-Philippe-Jostph  tfOrttatis,  published  by 
L.  C.  R. 


not  powdered  (powder  was  still  used),  and  wearing  a 
strange  costume  in  three  colours,  while  her  altered 
face  seemed  to  me  to  have  lost  its  habitual  charm. 
Dancing  was  going  on,  and,  I  am  pained  to  add,  the 
orchestra  was  playing  the  tune,  Ah  !  fa  ira,  &c.  A 
quadrille  had  been  made  of  this  horrible  refrain,  which 
was  being  sung  all  over  Paris.  The  Due  de  Chartres 
asked  me  to  dance  with  him  ;  my  mother  would  not 
allow  me  to  do  so.  This  refusal  caused  a  sort  of 
commotion  round  us,  and  my  mother  noticed  it.  *  Oh  ! 
Josephine,'  she  said  to  me,  '  you  wanted  to  come  and 
I  reproach  myself  for  my  weakness.' 

"The  little  Princes  perceived  the  trouble  my 
mother's  vexation  caused  me,  and  talked  together  in 
low  tones.  My  mother  suffered  martyrdom.  I  saw 
this,  and  pressed  her  to  go  away  on  the  pretext  of 
indisposition.  We  left  Bellechasse  never  to  return 
there  again." 

These  receptions,  Mme.  de  Genlis'  attitude,  the 
assiduous  visits  of  Voidel,  Barere,  Petion,  and  Volney 
to  Bellechasse,  the  fact  that  the  Due  de  Chartres  had 
become  a  member  of  the  Jacobin  Club  on  the  intro- 
duction of  de  Sillery,  could  not  fail  to  sadden  the 
Duchesse  d'Orleans,  kept  au  courant  by  Adelaide 
"  from  whom  it  was  very  easy  to  find  out  the  truth 
by  caresses,  reiterated  questions,  and  a  mother's 
rights."  So,  all  at  once  these  tete-a-t£tes  ceased. 
Mme.  de  Chastellux  and  several  other  persons  were 
always  there  to  make  a  third  between  the  Duchess 
and  her  daughter. 

From  that  moment,  without  any  fresh  incidents 
occurring,  the  Duchesse  d'Orleans  declined  to  see 


,  de  Cicnlis  any  more.  To  sonic  of  her  friends' 
questions  she  replied  that  she  felt  an  unconquerable 
dislike  to  her.  Mademoiselle  gave  four  afternoon 
dances  at  Bellechasse  at  which  her  mother  refused 
to  be  present,  and  the  governess  no  longer  accom- 
panied her  pupils  when  they  went  to  dine  at  the 
Palais  Royal. 

In  the  end  the  Due  d'Orleans  was  forced  to  yield 
to  the  Duchess's  entreaties,  and  Mme.  de  Genlis  re- 

ed  orders  to  leave  Bellechasse  on  a  fixed  day.  She 
\\ent  away  secretly,  taking  care  to  write  three  letters 
to  Mademoiselle  to  be  given  to  her  after  her  departure. 
The  first  one  was  very  clever,  full  of  reticence,  useless 
regrets,  and  base,  veiled  accusations  against  Adelaide's 
mother.  It  began  thus  :— 

"  DEAR  CHILD, — I  am  forced  to  go  away  from  you, 
at  least  for  a  time,  but  we  shall  meet  again,  I  hope.  For 
the  sake  of  your  fondness  for  me  be  reasonable  and 
take  care  of  your  health.  .  .  .  Mme.  la  Duchesse 
d'Orleans  has  forced  me  to  leave  you,  but  my  heart 
remains.  Chcre  antic,  you  must  submit  to  a  mother's 
will,  but  in  spite  of  her  severity,  your  mother  loves 
you,  and  would  adore  you  if  she  knew  you  better.  .  .  . 
Ilelieve  that  though  absent  from  my  child,  ma  tendre 
a»iie,  I  only  think  of  her.  Yes !  I  will  write  to  you 
every  day." 

This  letter,  the  two  which  followed,  the  presence 
of  Henriette  de  Sercey,  whom  Mme.  de  Genlis  had 
cleverly  obtained  permission  to  leave  with  Made- 
moiselle, and  that  of  the  Due  de  Chartres,  always  in 
love  with  his  amii\  only  served  to  keep  alive  Adelaide's 
sorrow,  and  she  fell  ill  soon  after  the  departure  of  her 


governess.  She  grew  thinner  every  day,  her  nerves 
were  shaken,  and  her  hands  trembled  continually,  so 
that  she  was  prevented  from  playing  the  harp. 

Mme.  de  Genlis  started  for  Auvergne,  but  at 
Claremont  received  disquieting  letters  respecting 
Mademoiselle's  health.  This  was  just  what  she 
had  counted  upon,  and  relinquishing  a  journey 
which  she  had  been  forced  into  taking,  she  resolved 
to  return  to  Paris.  Not  far  from  Auxerre  a  courier 
from  the  Due  d'Orleans  met  her.  "Chere  amie"  wrote 
the  Duke,  "  enclosed  is  a  copy  of  the  letter  I  sent 
to  Mme.  la  Duchesse  d'Orleans  this  morning,  and 
upon  which  I  base  the  hope  of  my  daughter's  life, 
health,  and  happiness.  ...  Her  mother,  as  you  see 
from  the  letter  she  has  written  to  Montpensier, 
declares  that  she  has  no  rights  over  her,  can  do 
nothing  with  her,  and  depends  entirely  upon  me 
to  do  all  that  is  necessary  for  her."  He  begged 
Mme.  de  Genlis  to  return  to  Bellechasse,  and 
speaking  of  Mademoiselle,  added :  "  She  counts 
upon  you,  her  fondness  for  you  renders  it  a  duty. 
My  children  and  I  unite  with  her  in  asking  you 
to  do  this."  Sillery — doubtless  at  Philippe-Iigalite's 
request — had  added  a  letter  to  the  packet,  in  which 
he  remarked :  "  Monsieur  le  Due  d'Orleans  has 
formally  assured  his  daughter  that  your  return  de- 
pends solely  upon  yourself.  .  .  .  The  poor  little  thing 
is  intoxicated  with  the  happiness  of  imagining  that 
she  will  see  you  again.  .  .  .  Come  back  then ;  all 
who  love  you  are  waiting  for  you  impatiently,  and 
will  not  be  happy  till  they  see  you  again." 

Mme.   de   Genlis   did    not   hesitate   to   return   to 

MOTH  IK    AND   GOVERNESS          59 

Achasse.  He-sides,  the  Duchesse  cl'(  )rlrans  had 
left  Paris  aiul  separated  from  her  husband.  Alt< T 
tliis  futile  struggle  on  the  subject  of  the  education 
of  their  children,  she  had  gone  to  live  with  her 
father  at  the  Chateau  d'Ku.  The  governess,  there- 
fore, resumed  her  accustomed  existence  freed  from  all 
constraint.  "I  returned,"  she  wrote,  "and  found  my 
youn^  pupil  in  a  state  which  cut  me  to  the  heart. 
My  care  and  tenderness  soon  restored  her  to  health." 


Arrest  of  Mile,  d*  Orleans  and  Mme.  de  Genii's  at  Colombes — 
The  two  Orleanist  parties — Departure  of  Mademoiselle  for 
England,  Bath,  Bury,  Isleworth — Return  of  Mademoiselle 
to  Paris — She  leaves  France. 

SOME  time  after  her  return  to  Bellechasse,  Mme. 
de  Genlis,  frightened  at  the  progress  of  the  Revo- 
lution, thought  of  leaving  Paris  with  Mademoiselle. 
To  retire  to  Sillery,  Raiticy,  or  any  other  estate 
was  not  to  be  thought  of.  The  peasants  having 
obtained  what  they  desired — "the  suppression  of 
pigeons,  rabbits,  and  monks  " — and  what  they  would 
never  have  asked  for — "  no  more  feudal  rates, 
twentieths,  tithes,  and  the  rest " — terrorised  the 
country.  Mile.  d'Orleans,  indeed,  as  well  as  Mme. 
de  Genlis  had  a  sad  experience  of  this.  They  were 
going  to  Colombes  in  an  open  carriage  with  the 
Comte  de  Beaujolais,  Henriette  de  Sercey,  and 
Pamela,  when  at  the  beginning  of  the  village  the 
vehicle  was  surrounded  by  a  large  crowd.  It  was 
fair  day,  and  the  people  had  danced  much,  drunk 
more,  and  were  greatly  excited.  The  projected  de- 
parture of  the  royal  family  was  the  sole  topic  of 
conversation  in  the  suburbs  of  Paris.  The  peasants 
imagined  that  the  carriage  contained  the  Queen, 

Madame,    and   the    Dauphine.     M.   de    Baudry,   the 


ARRKST   OF   THE    PRINCESS          61 

commandant  of  the  National  Guard,  might  harangue 
the  people,  but  could  obtain  nothing  save  that  the 
travellers  were  brought  to  him  as  prisoners.  An 
infuriated  rabble  followed  Mme.  de  Genlis  and  her 
pupils,  grossly  insulting  the  young  girls,  and  utter- 
ing cries  of  death  and  hatred.  They  soon  over- 
ran M.  Baudry's  house.  Mme.  de  Genlis  stepped 
forward  and  tried  to  persuade  them  that  she  was 
not  the  Queen,  but  the  wife  of  a  member  of  the 
Assembly.  She  was  not  listened  to,  and  the  dis- 
trustful and  tenacious  peasants  would  not  even 
allow  a  courier  to  be  sent  to  Paris.  It  was  a  criti- 
moment ;  happily  a  man  stepped  up  to  Mme. 
de  Genlis,  and  soothed  the  distress  of  the  prisoners. 
I  am,"  he  whispered,  "an  old  keeper  from  Sillery  ; 
make  your  mind  easy,  I  am  going  to  Paris."  At 
this  moment  the  mayor,  who  had  been  hastily  sent 
for,  appeared  with  his  scarf  of  office.  He  de- 
manded Mme.  de  Genlis'  papers.  The  latter  handed 
him  some  letters,  and  as  she  was  surprised  at  see- 
ing that  he  did  not  look  at  them,  he  admitted  that 
could  not  read ;  but  he  kept  the  letters.  At 
length  the  invaders  agreed  to  retire,  but  not  with- 
out placing  twelve  armed  men  before  the  door  of 
the  house.  These  rather  drunken  guardians  after 
bavin-  sung  fa  ira  several  times  stretched  them- 
es on  the  ground.  The  children  were  then 
able  to  sleep  ;  but  during  the  long  hours  of 
waiting  the  (  nc  Bruslart — mistaken  for  the 

n    whom   she  detested  ;  arrested  as  her  enemy, 
the     Duchesse     d'Orkans,     had     been     some     time 
n  tlu-   Faubourg  Saint  Germain — maltreated, 


hooted  at,  a  prisoner,  must  have  had  bitter 
thoughts ! 

At  last,  at  five  o'clock  in  the  morning  the  Sillery 
keeper  returned.  He  brought  a  laisser-passer  from 
the  municipality  of  Paris.  Then,  sobered  by  sleep, 
the  inhabitants  of  Colombes  no  longer  opposed  the 
departure  of  their  prisoners. 

Some  weeks  after  the  arrest  of  Mme.  de  Genlis 
at  Colombes,  the  royal  family  fled  from  Paris.  The 
king  gone,  the  Orleanists  intrigued.  The  Palais 
Royal  became  the  Palais  d'Orleans.  The  Due  de 
Montpensier  mounted  guard  at  the  Tuileries  and 
had  himself  elected  by  the  Jacobins.  But  the 
Orleanist  faction  was  divided.  Laclos,  Dubois- 
Crance"  and  Danton  demanded  the  dethronement 
of  the  king,  foreseeing  a  council  of  regency  pro- 
vided for  by  the  Constitution ;  it  was  the  ascend- 
ency of  the  Due  d'Orleans,  for  which  they  were 
preparing.  Mme  de  Genlis,  Sillery,  and  Potion 
baffled  their  intrigues.  The  Due  de  Chartres  came 
back  hastily  from  Vendome,  proud  of  his  civic  crown, 
and  was  cheered  by  the  people.  The  Citoyenne 
Bruslart  published  Les  Lefons  d^i,  Gouverneur,  wherein 
she  extolled  her  pupil's  virtues  and  her  own.  The 
papers  daily  sang  the  praises  of  the  Due  de 
Chartres.  The  idea  of  a  regency  made  headway, 
however.  Then,  Mme.  de  Genlis  exerting  her  in- 
fluence over  the  Due  d'Orleans,  whose  irresolute 
character  she  knew  well,  made  him  write  to  the 
journal  of  the  National  Assembly :  "  If  there  is  a 
question  of  a  regency,  I  renounce  for  ever  the 
rights  which  the  Constitution  gives  me."  The 

ARREST   OF   THE    PRINCESS          63 

riv.ilry  of  the  two  Orleanist  parties  brought  about 
the-  failure  of  their  mutual  manoeuvres.  The 
Champs  de  Mars  petition  ended  in  blood,  and  the 
National  Assembly  having  formally  recognised 
Louis  XVI.  as  king,  Mme.  de  Genlis  resolved  to 
start  for  England  with  Mademoiselle. 

Doctors'  orders,  advising  Princesse  Adelaide  to 
take  the  waters  at  Bath,  served  as  pretext  to 
obtain  passports.  But  Mme.  de  Genlis'  enemies 
heard  of  this  plan  of  departure  and  tried  to  pre- 
vent it ;  desiring  thus,  by  separating  the  governess 
from  her  pupils,  to  annul  the  influence  she  had 
retained  over  their  father.  A  petition  was  addressed 
to  the  Duke  to  which  thousands  of  signatures  were 

"It  is  asserted,  Monseigneur,"  ran  this  docu- 
ment, "that  following  the  advice  of  the  female 
governor  you  have  given  your  children,  you  want 
to  get  them  away  from  this  kingdom  and  are 
sending  them  to  Italy.  ...  If  they  did  not  know  how 
to  read,  the  National  Assembly  would  decree  and 
resolve  that  they  should  now  be  taught  to  do  so. 
Does  this  ambitious  and  domineering  woman  seek 
to  twist  and  identify  all  your  thoughts  and  plans 
with  her  own  ?  Or  has  she  merely  wit,  wild  ideas, 
and  principles  which  make  her  look  at  everything 
from  her  own  point  of  view  ?  Ought  the  first 
Prince  of  the  blood  in  France  to  be  subjected  still 
—at  seventeen  years  of  age — to  frequent  and  ridi- 
culous punishments,  and  to  the  harshness  and  cap- 
rices of  this  woman  ?  The  people  are  alarmed  at 
this  proposed  journey ;  and  nowadays  the  people 


murmur,  banish,  and  condemn  promptly.  It  would 
be  dangerous  to  identify  your  conduct  in  any  way 
with  that  of  our  enemies.  .  .  .  Leave  in  our  midst 
scions  who  are  dear  to  us  on  account  of  the  hope 
we  cherish  of  seeing  them  animated  by  the  same 
spirit,  the  same  love  of  public  welfare  as  yourself." 

The  Duke,  anxious  before  all  things  to  spare 
his  beloved  daughter  the  dangers  he  saw  increas- 
ing daily,  assented  to  Mme.  de  Genlis'  plan,  and 
on  October  n,  1791,  Mademoiselle  started  in 
company  with  her  governess,  Henriette  de  Sercey, 
and  Pamela.  But  Mme.  de  Genlis,  fearing  with 
reason  that  "her  departure  might  create  a  dis- 
agreeable sensation  in  the  provinces,"  "  especially 
as  she  had  no  man"  with  her  "who  could,"  if 
needful,  "  harangue  the  people  and  the  munici- 
palities," communicated  her  fears  to  Potion,  who 
offered  to  escort  her  to  London.  In  a  letter 
written  by  her  from  Bath  to  the  Due  d'Orle"ans, 
November  3,  1791,  she  explained  how  it  was  that 
Voidel  also  joined  the  party  :— 

"  I  had  settled  that  Petion  should  go  with  us  to 
London,  and  afterwards,  having  decided  to  set  out  all 
of  a  sudden,  fancied  he  would  not  come,  as  we  had 
arranged  to  start  only  on  the  4th  or  5th  of  this  month. 
Then  I  thought  of  M.  Voidel.  M.  de  Sillery  answered 
for  him  on  condition  that  I  should  provide  him  with  a 
carriage  to  Bath,  send  him  back  to  London,  and  have 
him  conveyed  from  Calais  to  Paris.  This  arrange- 
ment was  made  one  evening,  and  being  obliged  to  set 
out  on  the  morrow,  I  wrote  to  Petion  to  tell  him  I 
was  starting,  that  he  need  not  come  though  I  should 


be  glad  to  have  him.  He  took  me  at  my  word,  and  I 
not  sorry  to  have  two  instead  of  one  to  help  me 
through  the  terrible  dangers  I  had  to  face.  That  was 
how  it  was  I  came  to  take  them  both. 

"  lY-tion  I  left  in  London  while  we  were  changing 
h«  >rses  and  brought  M.  Voidel  here.  I  sent  him  back 
to  London  in  a  chaise  which  Dufour  paid  for." l 

When  Mile.  d'Orleans  arrived  at  Bath  the  season 
was  nearly  over ;  but  hotels  and  villas  were  still  full 
of  people.  Always  pleasing,  with  its  bright  houses 
dotted  along  the  banks  of  the  lazy  Avon,  encircled 
by  pretty  wooded  hills,  Bath  was  no  longer  the 
sort  of  common  drawing-room  of  which  Goldsmith 
spoke,  but  a  great  town  "  Londonised,  crowded  with 
buildings,  immeasurably  aggrandised."  Mademoiselle 
nevertheless  enjoyed  the  contrast  which  existed 
between  Bath  and  Paris  at  that  epoch.  For  "  Bath, 
happy  Bath,"  to  quote  Hannah  Moore's  words,  was 
gay  as  though  there  were  no  wars,  crimes,  or 
sufferings  in  the  world."  Brilliant  dramatic  re- 
presentations took  place  every  day.  There  were 
numerous  entertainments,  but  manners  were  dis- 
solute, liaisons  easy,  debauch  habitual. 

Mademoiselle,  Henriette,  Pamela,  and  Mme.  de 
Genlis  took  no  part  in  the  gaieties  of  Bath  because 
these  were  too  costly.  They  had  left  Paris  with  only 
a  hundred  louis  in  their  pockets,  and  not  knowing 
when  they  would  receive  money  they  economised. 

As  soon  as  the  season  was  over,  Mme.  de  Genlis, 
Mademoiselle,  Henriette,  and  Pamela  went  to  Bury 

1  Correspomlance    df    L.-Thilippc- Joseph    (COrltans^    published    by 
L.  C.  R.  (2nd  edition,   1801). 



in  the  county  of  Suffolk.  There  they  stayed  quite 
safely  for  more  than  a  year.  Only  money  was  want- 
ing. For  economy's  sake  the  princess  had  to  content 
herself  with  frugal  fare  and  a  bed  without  coverings. 
That,  besides,  was  quite  in  accordance  with  Mme.  de 
Genlis'  system  of  education,  and  she  thus  showed 
a  sort  of  preference  for  her  most  illustrious  pupil 
by  accustoming  her  to  shiver  with  cold,  whilst  she, 
herself,  Henriette  de  Sercey — who  was  only  a  niece 
— Pamela  who  was  .  .  .  one  knows  not  who,  slept 
warmly  on  soft  feather  beds.  But  perhaps  Victor 
Hugo,  who  is  our  authority  for  this,  is  not  altogether 
to  be  believed. 

At  Bury  Mme.  de  Genlis  was  called  Mme. 
Bruslart.  Her  manners  gave  offence,  and  she  be- 
haved with  the  greatest  foolishness.  According  to 
the  whim  of  the  moment  she  would  introduce  the 
persons  around  her — and  they  were  numerous  enough 
— as  great  nobles,  artists,  servants,  or  equals. 

It  was  said  at  Bury  that  the  distress  of  Made- 
moiselle and  her  governess  doubtless  arose  from  the 
fresh  difficulties  produced  by  the  regime  of  equality. 
As  may  well  be  imagined,  it  was  nothing  of  the  kind ; 
but  the  Due  d'Orleans  had  sent  no  more  money  since 
the  decree  of  October  9,  1792,  confiscating  the  property 
of  the  dmigrds.  He  wanted  his  daughter  and  Mme. 
de  Genlis  to  return  to  France,  believing  that  after  his 
long  explanations  and  humiliation  at  the  Hotel  de 
Ville  he  could  obtain  a  dispensation  for  Mademoiselle. 

The  Due  d'Orleans  went  to  the  Hotel  de  Ville  and 
presented  Manuel,  the  procureur  syndic,  with  a  petition 
which  has  since  been  published.  In  it  he  stated  that 

S<  tJOURN    IN    ENGLAND  67 

not  wishing  to  leave  his  daughter  in  Paris  without 
himself  fearing  that  "his  wife  might  return,  take 
possession  of  her,  and  change  her  education "  ;  the 
girl's  health  having  besides  "  been  upset  by  the  shocks 
caused  by  his  differences  with  Mme.  d'Orleans  respect- 
ing her"  ...  he  decided  to  send  her  to  England  with 
Mme.  de  Genlis.  .  .  .  But  he  had  written  to  Mme. 
de  Sillery  and  his  daughter  to  come  back  .  .  . 
"their  health  alone  had  retarded  their  return  up 
till  then." 

Manuel  refused  to  accept  the  petition  unless  the 
I  )uc  d'Orteans  took  another  name,  and  with  a  dramatic 
gesture,  pointing  to  the  two  statues  of  Liberty  and 
Equality,  he  suggested  the  latter  as  godmother.  The 
Duke,  who  had  come  to  solicit  for  his  daughter,  was 
obliged,  though  not  without  repugnance,  to  accept 
this  ludicrous  name. 

Mme.  de  Genlis,  who  was  frightened  and,  besides, 
in  safety  at  Bury,  declined  to  obey  the  order  to  re- 
turn. "  I  have  just,  cher  ami"  she  wrote  to  the  Due 
d'Orteans,  "  received  your  letter  of  the  4th  in  which 
you  inform  me  that  we  must  be  in  Paris  by  the  first 
days  of  May  ;  that  is  to  say,  in  a  month's  time.  It  is 
vry  surprising  to  recall  us  at  a  moment  when  there 
are  far  more  disturbances  than  when  we  left,  and  war 
as  well — either  probable  or  declared.  Potion,  who 
writes  by  the  same  post,  sends  me  word  that  it  would 
be  great  folly  to  return  at  this  moment ;  as  being  in 
safety,  I  ought  at  least  to  wait  until  the  end  of  the 
summer  when  everything  will  be  cleared  up.  M.  de 
Beaujolais  gives  his  sister  details  of  very  alarming 
disturbances ;  other  letters  which  I  have  received 


confirm  this ;  the  emperor's  successor  shows  the 
same  disposition  as  his  father,  it  is  inconceivable  to 
send  for  us  at  this  juncture."1 

And  she  remained  at  Bury  till  the  day  when  she 
learned  of  the  arrival  of  the  Due  de  Liancourt. 
Doubtless  imagining  that  he  had  been  sent  by 
Philippe-Iigalite,  she  lost  her  head  and  fled  without 
paying  her  numerous  creditors  who,  on  hearing  of  her 
precipitate  departure,  invaded  the  house  she  had  just 
quitted.  To  "  prevent  alarm  "  she  had  left  her  niece, 
Henriette  de  Sercey,  as  hostage,  and  when  the  poor 
little  thing  found  herself  surrounded  by  people  she 
had  never  seen,  who — having  rummaged  everywhere 
without  finding  anything — spoke  to  her  very  angrily, 
she  was  so  overwhelmed  with  terror  that  she  went 
into  violent  hysterics.  Thereupon  Mme.  de  Genlis 
returned,  bringing  the  money  she  had  had  much 
difficulty  in  borrowing.  Having  settled  her  creditors, 
she  started  off  once  more,  taking  with  her  the  still 
terrified  Henriette  de  Sercey. 

From  Bury  she  went  to  London  with  her  pupils, 
but  only  remained  there  a  few  days,  preferring  to 
accept  Sheridan's  invitation  to  stay  with  him  at 
Isle  worth. 

During  Mme.  de  Genlis'  sojourn  under  his  roof, 
Sheridan  fell  in  love  with  Pamela  and  asked  for  her 
hand.  The  girl  attracted  him  on  account  of  her  great 
likeness  to  his  wife  who — some  time  before  her  death 
— had  run  away  with  Lord  Edward  Fitz-Gerald. 
Pamela  agreed  to  marry  Sheridan,  but,  it  must  be 

1  Correspondence  de  Louis- Philippe-Joseph  tf  Orleans,  published  by 
L.  C.  R. 

KKI  I  R.N    TO    PARIS  69 

owned,  \\iihout  enthusiasm,  and  as  she  could  never 
quite  make  up  her  mind  they  were  not  really  engaged. 
Shortly  afterwards  Fitz-Gerald  met  Pamela  and  fell 
in  love  with  her  for  the  same  reason  as  Sheridan  had 
done.  He  was  unhesitatingly  accepted.  Thus  the 
charming  Irish  patriot,  who  was  to  play  a  prominent 
part  in  the  political  troubles  of  his  country,  took  from 
Sheridan,  one  after  the  other,  the  two  women  he  had 

The  Due  d'Orleans'  orders  reached  the  governess 
even  in  this  retreat.  They  were  so  categoric  that  it 
was  impossible  to  refuse  to  obey  them.  M.  Maret 
(afterwards  Due  de  Bassano)  had  been  sent  by  the 
Due  d'Orleans  to  bring  Mademoiselle  and  Mme.  de 
Genlis  back  to  Paris.  The  latter  tried,  nevertheless, 
to  evade  the  duke's  commands,  and  it  seems  that  the 
attempt  at  kidnapping  mentioned  in  her  Mtmoires— 
the  result  of  a  plot  hatched,  according  to  her,  by  a 
group  of  tmigrts  who  wanted  to  place  Adelaide  in  the 
hands  of  a  foreign  sovereign — was  merely  a  tale 
invented  afterwards.  However  that  may  be,  Made- 
moiselle did  arrive  in  Paris  with  her  governess, 
Henriette  de  Sercey,  Pamela,  and  M.  Maret  in  the 
first  days  of  November  1792. 

11 1  went  to  see  Mme.  de  Genlis  at  Bellechasse," 
wrote  Barere,  "two  days  after  her  arrival.  I  was 
astonished  to  find  M.  Gaudet  there;  but  was  told 
that  he  had  been  commissioned  by  M.  de  Sillery,  who 
knew  him,  to  ask  the  Convention  to  make  an  exception 
to  the  emigration  decree  in  favour  of  Mme.  de  Genlis 
and  Mile.  d'Orleans,  whose  father  was  a  member  of 
the  Assembly.  M.  Gaudet  and  I  undertook  to  ask  for 


this  exemption  after  having  each  separately  consulted 
the  opinion  of  our  colleagues." 

These  proceedings  occupied  several  days,  and 
Mademoiselle  "  could  only  imperfectly  enjoy  the 
happiness  of  once  more"  seeing  her  father,  her 
brother  Beaujolais,  her  friends,  and  her  mother, 
who  was  "  much  changed  and  frightfully  weak "  ; 
"  for  I  am  afraid,"  she  says,  "  that  we  shall  be  obliged 
to  leave  them  yet  again." l  It  was,  in  fact,  decided  to 
postpone  the  demand  for  exemption  and  to  wait  until 
the  public  mind  was  pacified,  and  Mme.  de  Genlis 
was  constrained  to  retire  from  Paris  with  Mile. 
d'Orleans.  They  set  out  for  Belgium,  M.  de  Sillery, 
the  Due  d'Orleans,  and  Cesar  Ducrest  accompanying 
them  as  far  as  the  frontier.  Mademoiselle  was  not  to 
return  to  France  until  twenty-two  years  later. 

i  Letter  from  Mile.  d'Orleans  to  her  brother  Louis  -  Philippe  at 
Tournay  (November  20,  1792),  published  in  the  Intermddiaire  des  cher- 
cheurs  et  curieux^  July  20,  1897,  by  Comte  Beugnot.  In  this  letter 
Mademoiselle  already  interests  herself  in  politics.  She  speaks  of  the 
"  ci-devant  roi"  apropos  of  the  iron  safe,  and  as  she  states  that  nothing 
was  found  in  it,  "  does  not  understand  what  that  means,"  and  suspects 
that  there  is  "  some  treachery  underneath." 




Arrival  of  Mile,  d*  Or  leans  at  Tour  nay — The  Republican 
armies — Defection  of  Dumouriez — The  camp  at  Saint- 
.•Imand — The  Due  de  Chartres  obliges  Mnte.  de  Genlis 
to  take  charge  of  his  sister — Front  Saint-Amand  to 
Mons — Mademoiselle  ill  at  Mons — Departure  for  Switzer- 
land— SchaffJiausen — Zurich — Zug — Attempt  upon  Made- 
moiselle's life. 

THE  "  four  Jacobin  dmtgr&s"  arrived  at  Tournay  in 
the  first  days  of  December  1792.  Namur  had  just 
been  taken  by  assault,  and  the  whole  of  Belgium  was 
in  the  power  of  the  French.  The  army,  confident 
in  its  general-in-chief,  had  conquered,  singing  the 
patriotic  hymn  ;  but  ill-clothed  and  starving,  the  soldiers 
(who  had  forgotten  their  sufferings  in  the  joy  of 
victory),  feeling  incapable  of  a  winter  campaign,  began 
to  desert  in  large  numbers,  and  the  inactive  officers 
lolled  idly  about  the  towns. 

Many  "very  alarming"  revolts  occurred  amongst 
these  undisciplined  troops ;  and  Mademoiselle  was 
taken  ill  one  day  after  seeing  two  men  killed  under 
her  windows.  Mme.  de  Genlis  nursed  her  devotedly 
"  day  and  night."  The  loss  of  Pamela 1  the  joyous 

1  Pamela  (1777-1831)  was,  according  to  contemporaries,  the  daughter 

of  Mme.  de  Genlis  and  the  Due  d'Orleans.      She  married  Lord  Edward 

Fitz-Gerald  (1763-1798),  younger  son  of  the  Duke  of  Leinster,  at  Tournay 

._.     After  the  reverse  of  the  Irish  revolutionists,  Fitz-Gerald  (who 



companion  of  her  infancy,  had  depressed  Mile. 
d'Orleans,  who  was  nevertheless  cheered  by  frequent 
visits  from  her  brothers,  Chartres  and  Montpensier, 
and  by  the  presence  of  Mme.  de  Genlis'  daughter, 
Mme.  de  Valence.  Besides  which  all  the  French 
passing  through  Tournay  came  to  sympathise  with 
"this  young  princess  "  who,  to  quote  Lamartine,  was 
"  endowed  with  noble  grace,  a  precocious  mind,  and 
an  energetic  soul." 

It  was  at  the  period  when  Adelaide  arrived  at 
Tournay  that  Louis  XVI.  was  brought  to  judgment. 
"  Thinking  solely  of  his  duty,"  the  first  prince  of  the 
blood  voted  for  the  king's  death.  The  Due  de 
Chartres  did  not  approve  of  Philippe-^galite's  odious 
conduct,  and  "  wrote  a  very  hard  letter  to  his  father, 
who  never  forgave  him."1  Mademoiselle  was  dis- 
mayed, and  she  and  Mme.  de  Genlis  (whose  husband 
had  excused  himself)  centred  all  their  hopes  and 
affection  upon  the  Due  de  Chartres. 

The  execution  of  Louis  XVI.  provoked  a  storm 
of  indignation  throughout  Europe.  The  secretary  of 
the  French  legation  at  Rome  was  massacred,  the 
Empress  of  Russia  turned  the  French  out  of  her 
dominions,  and  the  French  ambassador  in  London 

was  their  generalissimo)  committed  suicide.  Pamela  then  took  refuge 
with  Mme.  de  Genlis  at  Hamburg,  where  she  married  again — the 
American  consul  Pitcaris.  Divorced  in  1812,  she  returned  to  Paris  and 
made  herself  notorious  for  her  eccentricities  at  the  Due  de  la  Force's 
at  Montauban.  At  fifty  years  of  age,  dressed  as  a  shepherdess  of  the 
eighteenth  century,  she  kept  sheep.  In  1830  Pamela  tried  to  see  Louis- 
Philippe,  who  refused  to  receive  her.  She  died  in  1831  in  great  poverty. 
^Journal  de  Mme.  Elliott:  "I  remember  the  letter  perfectly,  for  I 
had  it  in  my  possession  for  two  days.  The  Duke  burnt  it  in  my  room, 
the  last  time  he  came  to  see  me." 

\\ITil    DUMOUKIKZ1    ARMY  75 

ived  orders  to  leave  Kngland  within  eight  days. 
Then  hostilities  broke  out  afresh.  On  March  16 
Diimouric/  attacked  the  Austrians  at  Tirlemont  and 
i".>ived  them  to  fall  back,  but  the  next  day  he  was 
beaten  at  Nerwinde.  Danton  and  Lacroix,  who 
knew  and  had  perhaps  approved  of  their  general's 
plans,  arrived  at  Louvain  just  as  Dumouriez  retreated 
vanquished  into  that  town.  They  tried  to  make  him 
realise  the  unfortunate  consequences  of  a  defeat.  He 
put  them  off,  and  the  same  evening  there  took  place 
at  Ath  that  famous  conference  at  which  the  Due  de 
Chartres,  Mack  (the  mandatory  of  the  Prince  de 
Cobourg),  Dumouriez  and  his  lieutenants,  Montjoie 
and  Valence,  were  present ;  it  was  a  sort  of  general 
staff  of  that  constitutional  monarchy  which  the  re- 
bellious general  dreamed  of  giving  to  France.  Then, 
as  if  the  better  to  demonstrate  their  attachment  to  the 
Orleans  family,  the  conspirators  repaired  to  Tournay 
to  see  Mile.  Adelaide  and  Mme.  de  Genlis.  The 
latter  was  "charmed,"  she  said,  "to  see  that  cele- 
brated man,  Dumouriez,"  and  doubtless  still  more 
charmed  to  take  part  in  a  conspiracy,  the  happy 
issue  of  which  would  have  meant  the  consummation 
of  all  her  intrigues. 

During  the  two  days  the  Ath  confederates  re- 
mained at  Tournay,  General  Dumouriez  gave  Mile. 
d'Orleans — "  whose  virtues  and  misfortunes  made  her 
interesting " —proof  "  of  the  respectful  interest  she 
deserved,"  and,  as  she  was  afraid  of  falling  into  the 
hands  of  the  Imperialists,  he  took  her  to  Saint-Amand 
with  Mme.  de  Genlis  and  Henriette  de  Sercey. 

At  the  camp  of  Saint-Amand,  which   was  filled 


with  spies  from  the  Convention,  it  was  easy  for  Mme. 
de  Genlis  to  gain  an  idea  of  the  state  of  mind  of  the 
troops.  She  foresaw  the  check  to  Dumouriez'  plans, 
and  no  longer  thought  of  anything  but  how  to  join 
Lady  Edward  Fitz-Gerald  in  England.  The  en- 
treaties of  the  Due  de  Chartres,  the  supplications  of 
her  "  dear  Adele,"  above  all  the  impossibility  of  getting 
horses  delayed  her. 

During  this  time  the  Convention,  which  had  long 
hesitated,  passed  decrees  against  Dumouriez  and  his 
accomplices,  and  the  Comite  du  Salut  Public  summoned 
to  its  bar  not  only  the  rebellious  general  but  also  the 
Due  de  Chartres.  Four  commissioners — the  austere 
Camus,1  the  barrister  Lamarque,2  Bancal,3  Quinette4 
and  the  Minister  of  War — Beurnonville,  were  dele- 
gated to  Saint-Amand.  Dumouriez  resolved  to  refuse 
obedience  to  the  Convention,  and  eluded  the  affectionate 
counsels  of  his  friend  Beurnonville  ;  then,  in  face  of 
the  threats  of  Camus,  he  had  the  Conventionals 
arrested  and  placed  as  hostages  with  the  Austrian 
general  Clairfayt.  "  They  came  at  midnight  to  tell 
me  this  strange  news,"  wrote  Mme.  de  Genlis,  "  which 
still  further  increased  the  extreme  desire  I  had  to 

1  Camus,  born  and  died  in  Paris  (1740-1804)  ;  he  was  exchanged  in 
1795  f°r  Mme.  Royale  and  became  president  of  the  Cinq-Cents. 

2  Lamarque  (i7S3-i%39)  became  president  of  the  Cinq-Cents  in  1797  ; 
exiled  in  1816,  he  returned  to  France  in  1818  and  lived  in  retirement 
until  his  death. 

3  Bancal  des  Essarts,  born  1750  near  to  Montpellier;  he  remained 
two  years  and  a  half  in  captivity  and  died  in  1826. 

4  Quinette,  born  at  Soissons  in  1762,  died  in  1821  at  Brussels,  whither 
he  had  retired  in  1816,  attainted  by  the  law  against  the  regicides.     He 
was  prefect  of  the  Somme  in  1800  and  a  peer  of  France  during  the  Cent 


start,  hut  I  could  ;;et  no  horses  until  ten  o'clock  next 
day,  .  .  .  Mademoiselle's  position  cut  me  to  the  heart, 
but  as  I  was  no  longer  her  governess,  I  decided  not 
to  associate  her  either  with  my  misery  or  my  perils 
and  to  leave  her  in  her  brother's  hands." 

Hut  "everything  pointed  to  a  speedy  revolt  in 
the  camp  "  ;  the  Due  de  Chartres  was  under  sentence 
of  arrest,  and  Mademoiselle  long  ago  condemned  to 
death  for  contumacy.  Keep  his  sister  with  him,  fly 
with  her,  or  pass  her  through  France,  the  young  prince 
could  not  think  of  doing  ;  and  the  selfishness  of  which 
Mme.  de  Genlis  gave  proof,  when  mad  with  terror 
at  the  dangers  which  threatened  her,  did  not  fail  to 
estrange  the  Due  de  Chartres  from  his  chcre  amie. 
He  doubtless  sought  other  means  of  placing  Adelaide 

ifety,  but  finding  none  and  time  pressing,  decided 
to  confide  her  to  her  governess  at  whatever  cost. 
Up  to  the  last  moment  before  starting  the  latter 
continued  to  meet  the  young  prince's  entreaties  with 
an  inflexible  refusal.  She  had  already  said  good-bye 
to  her  pupil  and  stepped  into  the  carriage,  when  the 
Due  de  Chartres  ran  to  his  sister's  room,  where  she 
lay  in  bed  shivering  with  fever,  threw  some  clothes 
over  her,  carried  her  down  and  placed  her  fainting 
and  in  tears  on  Mme.  de  Genlis'  lap.  The  latter, 
disarmed  and  having  no  more  time  to  lose,  ordered 
the  postillion  to  start.  Such  is  Mme.  de  Genlis' 
own  account  in  her  Precis  de  ma  conduite  pendant 
la  Resolution. 

"  There  were  four  of  them  in  the  berline : " 
Adelaide,  Henriette  de  Sercey,  Mme.  de  Sillery,  and 
M.  d<-  Montjoie.  The  women's  faces  were  hidden  by 


great  veils.  Mademoiselle  wept,  cold  as  marble  in 
her  light  muslin  dress.  After  a  two  hours'  drive 
they  reached  a  village  filled  with  volunteers,  half  a 
league  from  Valenciennes,  where  the  carriage  broke 
down,  and  the  travellers  had  to  wait  in  a  low  wine- 
shop for  an  hour  while  it  was  being  repaired.  When 
they  started  again,  night  had  fallen  and  "the  roads 
becoming  worse  and  worse,"  they  were  "  obliged,  in 
spite  of  the  excessive  cold,  to  alight  from  the  carriage." 
They  had  gone  but  a  few  leagues  when  suddenly 
they  were  stopped  "  by  soldiers,"  who  from  afar  had 
perceived  the  man  with  a  lantern  who  was  " guiding" 
them.  Mme.  de  Genlis  went  straight  to  the  officer 
in  command  of  the  little  troop,  spoke  to  him  in 
English,  laughed  loudly,  did  a  thousand  silly  things 
and  contrived,  one  knows  not  how,  to  continue  her 

Not  far  from  Qu^vrain  they  were  stopped  again. 
This  time  by  a  patrol  of  the  enemy.  Mme.  de  Genlis 
insisted  upon  being  taken  before  the  governor  of  the 
town.  The  latter,  thinking  he  recognised  her  as 
Mme.  de  Langsberg,  Princess  of  Moravia,  showed 
the  prisoner  a  deference  which  addressed  itself  more 
to  the  great  German  lady  than  to  the  Citoyenne  Brus- 
lart.  Owing  to  this  mistake  the  travellers  obtained  a 
good  escort  to  the  frontier. 

On  reaching  Mons — outside  France  at  last — the 
fugitives  only  found  a  little  inn  in  which  to  lodge, 
situated  on  the  principal  place,  and  full  of  people. 
They  expected  only  to  sleep  there,  but  Mademoiselle, 
who  was  ill  when  they  left  Saint-Amand,  coughed  all 
night,  the  next  day  "  measles  were  declared,"  and 

RETREA  I    TO   S\VI  r/I- KLAND        79 

som«-  days  later  Henrietta  de  Sercey  was  attacked 
also,  which  obliged  Mme.  de  Genlis  to  remain  at 
Mons  for  a  longer  time  than  she  desired. 

The  Due  de  Chartres,  who  had  managed  after  a 
revolt  to  take  refuge  in  the  enemy's  camp  at  Tournay, 
came  to  see  his  sister  in  the  night  of  April  5. 

Mme.  de  Genlis  busied  herself  with  getting  pass- 
ports from  Mack,  which  allowed  her  to  pass  into 
Switzerland  with  M.  de  Montjoie  and  her  two  pupils. 
They  quitted  Mons  April  13;  the  2Oth  they  were  at 
Wiesbaden.  After  Wiesbaden,  to  avoid  the  trenches 
of  the  French  armies  [at  Cassel]  they  were  obliged  to 
follow  an  inconvenient  road,  and  to  circle  round  the 
Hessian  camp  for  more  than  an  hour.  The  situation 
was  terrifying.  They  crossed  devastated  fields,  aban- 
doned farms,  villages  in  flames.  The  cannon  thundered 
in  the  distance,  and  sometimes  they  heard  the  crackling 
of  a  fusilade.  ...  At  length,  after  several  days  of 
tribulation,  the  travellers  arrived  "safe  and  sound"  at 
Schaffhausen.  The  need  of  rest  for  Mile.  d'Orl^ans 
made  them  "stay  some  time  in  that  town,"  which  to 
this  day  has  still  preserved  its  aspect  of  the  Middle 
Ages,  with  its  houses  ornamented  with  bay-windows 
and  its  varicoloured  frescoes.  The  great  tower  of 
Fort  Munoth  calls  to  mind  the  combats  of  other  days, 
and  beneath  the  gloomy  arcades  of  the  cathedral 
cloister  one  is  quite  surprised  at  meeting  a  peaceable 
pedestrian  in  place  of  an  old-time  bravo. 

The  Due  de  Chartres  soon  joined  his  sister  at 
SchafThausen  ;  by  short  stages  and  not  without  danger 
h<  had  traversed  Germany  in  a  cabriolet  At  Frank- 
fort he  had  read  in  the  papers  Marat's  threatening 


words  to  the  Convention  :  "Set  a  price  on  the  heads 
of  the  fugitive  Bourbons.  ...  I  have  already  de- 
manded the  death  of  the  d'Orle"ans,  and  now  renew 
the  motion  ; "  at  the  same  time  he  saw  an  account  of 
"  a  more  than  eight  hours'  seance,"  and  how  Barbaroux 
and  Boyer-Fonfrede  insisted  upon  Egalite  and  Sillery 
being  guarded  at  sight.  Lassource — a  friend  of 
Roland's — accusing  Danton  of  being  in  connivance 
with  Dumouriez,  demanded  the  arrest  of  Philippe 
Joseph  d'Orleans.  This  was  refused  at  first  but 
granted  afterwards. 

Thus  the  pleasure  of  finding  herself  in  safety  with 
the  Due  de  Chartres,  after  the  dangers  both  had  run 
and  those  they  had  escaped,  was  clouded  for  Made- 
moiselle by  the  sadness  of  learning  that  her  father 
had  just  been  arrested  with  all  their  relations  who 
had  been  singled  out  by  the  vengeance  of  the  Con- 
vention. The  Duchesse  d'Orleans  alone  appeared  to 
have  been  forgotten  ;  but  the  Duchesse  de  Bourbon — 
the  Duke's  sister,  the  Prince  de  Conti,  his  uncle,  and 
lastly  his  son,  the  young  Comte  de  Beaujolais,  had 
been  incarcerated  at  Abbaye  on  April  7.  In  the 
night  of  the  9th  to  loth  they  were  transferred  to  Mar- 
seilles. A  prison  had  been  prepared  at  Notre  Dame 
de  la  Garde,  where  the  Due  de  Montpensier,  who 
was  serving  in  the  Republican  armies  at  Nice,  had 
been  ordered  to  join  them. 

Mile.  d'Orleans  and  her  brother,  accompanied  by 
Mme.  de  Genlis  and  Henriette  de  Sercey,  left  Schaff- 
hausen  May  6  ;  they  arrived  at  Zurich  the  same  day, 
and  took  up  their  abode  at  the  Hotel  de  l'Epe"e. 
This  hotel,  with  its  projecting  storeys,  its  sharply 


pointed  gables,  covered  with  varnished  tiles,  was  situ- 
ated in  the  centre  of  the  town,  on  a  small  place, 
ornamented  by  a  pretty  Renaissance  fountain.  Zurich 
not  then  the  sumptuous  city  it  has  since  become. 
Its  streets  were  steep  and  narrow,  its  houses,  as  high 
as  towers,  confined  by  the  old  ramparts,  were  chiefly 
on  the  left  bank  of  the  Limmat,  with  its  clear  and 
rapid  waters.  Close  to  the  lake  several  new  edifices- 
corporation  buildings  for  the  most  part — had  just  been 
erected.  These  were  in  that  heavy  style  known  as  the 
German  Louis  XV.,  and  foreshadowed  the  massive 
buildings  which  in  our  days  have  invaded  the  town. 

Ott,  the  hotelkeeper,  who  was  a  magistrate  of 
Zurich,  received  the  Orleans  family  with  deference. 
"Yesterday  evening,"  he  wrote  to  his  wife  at  Baden 
on  May  7,  "a  good  many  strangers — French  and 
Irish — arrived.  They  came  with  thirteen  horses.  .  .  . 
Amongst  them  was  the  Due  de  Chartres.  .  .  .  There 
are,  besides,  three  gentlemen,  three  women,  and  three 
servants.  All  dine  at  five  o'clock,  and  have  asked 
the  price  of  everything.  They  want  to  stay  here 
some  days."  * 

They  had  even  counted  upon  settling  down  at 
Zurich,  but  "when  they  had  to  give  their  names  to 
the  magistrates  the  unfortunate  appellation  of  Mile. 
d'Orluans  and  her  brother  put  an  end  to  this  arrange- 
ment." They  then  decided  to  take  refuge  at  Zug  in 
the  cant  »n  of  Argovie. 

At  this  epoch  the  mountain  roads  were  rough  and 
difficult,  and  Mademoiselle,  who  was  barely  convales- 

1  Unpublished  letter,  the  original  of  which,  in  German,  is  to  be  found 
in  the  \Vasserkirche  Library,  Zurich. 



cent,  was  greatly  fatigued  by  the  short  journey.  She 
cheered  up,  however,  on  perceiving,  amongst  the 
already  budding  nut-trees,  the  pleasant  houses  of 
Zug  reflected  in  the  lake.  They  lodged  in  a  villa 
a  little  way  out  of  the  town.  It  was  small,  but  light 
and  bright,  surrounded  by  a  large  meadow,  and  only 
separated  from  the  lake  by  the  road.  Adelaide  took 
to  her  usual  occupations  at  Zug,  going  out  but  little, 
and  then  only  to  visit  the  poor  or  pray  at  the  church. 
And  perhaps  she  might  have  forgotten  the  sorrows  of 
exile  in  a  country,  isolated  seemingly  from  the  rest  of 
the  world  by  a  barrier  of  high  mountains,  if  Zittum— 
with  its  wooden  cages  and  dreary  prisons — had  not 
called  to  mind  the  fact  that  there,  also,  men  actuated  by 
hatred  had  made  innocent  victims.  The  hideous  witch- 
craft trials,  in  the  last  of  which  thirty-seven  victims 
had  perished  at  the  stake,  were  still  a  living  memory. 
The  exiles  lived  under  an  assumed  name ;  they 
were  believed  to  be  Irish,  and  thus  hoped  to  remain 
undisturbed.  One  day,  however,  the  Due  de  Chartres 
was  recognised  by  some  tmigrts  who  had  seen  him 
formerly  at  Versailles.  Some  hours  later  the  whole 
of  the  little  town  of  Zug  knew  who  they  were.  Articles 
appeared  in  German  newspapers,  and  the  Senate  at 
Berne  reproached  the  authorities  at  Zug  for  giving 
shelter  to  the  Prince  and  Princesse  d'Orleans.  The 
chief  magistrate  of  the  town  was  obliged  to  banish 
from  his  canton  "  persons  who  by  their  conduct  were," 
he  confessed,  "  an  example  to  everybody."  "  He  com- 
municated his  decree  with  the  greatest  consideration," 
says  Mme.  de  Genlis,  contenting  himself  by  inform- 
ing them  of  his  embarrassment. 


Driven  from  Zug,  Mme.  de  Genlis  and  her  pupils 
formed  a  "  thousand  romantic  plans,"  and  would 
doubtless  have  been  obliged  to  carry  one  of  them 
into  effect,  if  General  de  Montesquiou-F^/.ensac,  a 
deputy  of  the  nobility  in  1789,  who,  taking  refuge  in 
Switzerland,  had  rendered  great  services  to  the  autho- 
rities at  Geneva,  had  not  obtained  permission  for 
Mile.  d'Orl£ans  and  her  companions  in  misfortune  to 
enter  the  convent  of  Sainte-Claire  at  Bremgarten. 

The  day  before  their  departure  from  Zug,  the 
princess  nearly  fell  a  victim  to  a  cowardly  attempt 
upon  her  life.  It  was  ten  o'clock  in  the  evening, 
and,  somewhat  earlier  than  usual,  she  had  just  left 
the  drawing-room,  where  she  was  accustomed  to  re- 
main every  day  after  dinner  reading  until  rather  late. 
On  leaving  the  room  she  had  placed  her  hat  on  the 
knob  of  a  chair  near  to  an  open  window.  Thus  from 
outside  it  might  have  been  thought  that  Adelaide 
was  still  seated  in  her  usual  place.  She  had  scarcely 
left  the  room  when  a  great  stone  was  thrown  through 
the  window,  breaking  the  glass,  causing  the  hat  to 
fall,  and  smashing  to  atoms  a  Japanese  vase  which 

at  the  back  of  the  drawing-room. 

The  Due  de  Chartres  failed  to  catch  the  scoundrels, 
who  were  supposed  to  be  French  tmigrts ;  and  during 
the  night  the  harness  belonging  to  his  horses  was  cut 
to  bits.  These  incidents  did  not,  however,  retard  the 
departure  of  the  prince  and  princess  and  their  suite. 

ihelemy,  French  ambassador  in  Switzerland,  men- 
tioned their  presence  at  Lucerne,  where  the  Due  de 
Chartres  took  a  bath,  and  they  arrived  at  Bremgarten 
towards  the  end  of  J  une. 


Mademoiselle  s  arrival  at  Bremgarten — The  convent  of  Sainte- 
Claire — The  Princess's  occupations — Letters  to  the  Duke 
of  Modena  and  the  Princesse  de  Conti — Mademoiselle 
leaves  Bremgarten  and  separates  from  Mme.  de  Genii's — 
She  retires  to  Fribourg  near  to  the  Princesse  de  Conti,  who 
tells  her  of  the  execution  of  Philippe- -£galite'. 

WHEN  the  Due  de  Chartres  arrived  at  Bremgarten 
with  his  sister,  General  de  Montesquieu  said  to  him  :— 

"  There  is  nothing  for  it  but  for  you  to  wander 
in  the  mountains,  stopping  nowhere  for  any  length 
of  time." 

Leaving  his  sister,  whom  he  was  not  to  see  again 
for  fifteen  years,  and  accompanied  only  by  his  faith- 
ful servant  Beaudoin,  the  young  prince  travelled  all 
over  Switzerland  on  foot,  "  not  spending  more  than 
thirty  sous  a  day  for  food,  bed,  and  the  satisfaction 
of  all  his  other  needs,"  according  to  Governor 
Morris.  At  last,  "  not  possessing  more  than  thirty 
francs  in  all  the  world,"  he  went  to  M.  de  Montes- 
quiou,  who,  through  the  medium  of  Captain  Jost 
de  Saint-Georges,  got  him  into  the  college  of 
Reichnau,  in  the  Grisons,  as  professor  of  mathe- 
matics at  a  salary  of  1400  francs  a  year,  under  the 
name  of  Chabaud-Latour,  an  dmigrt,  to  whom  the 
post  had  been  promised  and  who  did  not  come  to 
take  it  up. 

THE    PKINCKSS   AT    BlfiMGARTEN     85 

1  he    Due    de    Chartres    had     left     Mademoiselle 

against   his   will,   and    it   was   not   without    reluctance  he  had  again   confided   her  to   Mme.  de   Genlis' 

Urged    by    M.  de    Montesquieu,    he    decided 

lo  so  after  assuring  himself  that  under  the  cir- 
cumstances he  could  not  find  a  safer  retreat  for  his 
sister  than  a  convent.  The  convent  of  Sainte- 
Claire  was  very  well  situated  outside  Bremgarten 
and  in  the  midst  of  fields.  "  It  was  not  like 
those  then  in  existence  in  France."  The  nuns 
were  not  under  severe  rules,  and  spent  the 
greater  part  of  their  day  in  reading,  praying,  or 

Mile.  d'Orteans  had  taken  the  name  of  Mile. 
Stuart.  She  was  believed  to  be  an  Irish  orphan, 
and  passed  as  Henriette  de  Sercey's  sister  and 
Mine,  de  Genlis'  niece,  the  latter  being  called 
Mistress  Lennox. 

Some  time  after  her  arrival  at  Bremgarten 
Mademoiselle  was  attacked  by  very  violent  dysentry 
from  which  she  suffered  for  several  months.  It  was 
during  her  convalescence  that  Egalite'  and  Sillery 
were  executed.  Mme.  de  Genlis  fell  ill  in  her  turn 
under  the  pressure  of  grief  which  she  could  not 
show,  but  she  managed  so  \vell  that  her  pupil 
(who  did  not  read  the  newspapers)  was  long  in 
ignorance  of  the  crimes  of  the  Terror,  and  only 
learned  of  the  death  of  her  father  after  leaving 
Bremgarten.  Mme.  de  Genlis,  in  fact,  had  reason 
to  tear  that  any  violent  emotion,  coupled  with  the 
constraint  of  not  betraying  herself,  might  for  ever 
undermine  Adelaide's  health,  for  her  naturally  very 


acute  nervous  sensibility  had  been  increased  by  the 
miseries  of  exile. 

During  the  first  months  of  her  sojourn  at  Brem- 
garten,  Mademoiselle  received  a  few  visitors  (Cesar 
Ducrest,  M.  de  Jouy,  &c.),  but  her  illness  and 
that  of  her  governess  kept  callers  away.  Even  M. 
de  Montesquiou,  whom  Mme.  de  Genlis  had  pro- 
bably annoyed,  came  no  more  to  the  convent.  Mile. 
d'Orl£ans  was  obliged  to  content  herself  solely  with 
the  companionship  of  the  nuns  who,  however,  were 
very  good  to  her.  Mme.  Muller,  the  superior,  spent 
long  hours  with  the  young  girl  whose  painful 
position  she  had  either  guessed  or  knew  about. 
Adelaide  became  friendly,  too,  with  a  novice  of 
her  own  age,  Antonia,  the  sister  of  a  M.  Conrad, 
a  citizen  of  Bremgarten,  who  sent  bouquets  of  rare 
flowers  daily  to  Mademoiselle,  which  she  amused 
herself  by  painting.1 

Besides,  Mme.  de  Genlis,  who  was  always  more 
or  less  of  a  pedagogue,  would  not  have  suffered 
her  pupil  to  remain  idle  for  a  moment.  Every 
morning  Mademoiselle  attended  mass  in  the  con- 
vent chapel  ;  three  times  a  day  she  walked  in 
the  garden  ;  she  spent  three  hours  in  painting,  the 
harp  took  up  the  same  amount  of  time,  and  she 
even  learned  to  play  the  piano.  One  hour  a  day 
was  devoted  to  writing  real  or  imaginary  letters. 
She  was  in  correspondence  with  the  Due  de 

1  A  great-grandson  of  this  Conrad  is  still  living  at  Bremgarten.  His 
name  is  Fritz  Conrad,  and  owns  the  Hotel  des  Trois  Rois  at  Bremgarten. 
He  showed  us  water-colours  painted  by  Mile,  de  Sercey  which  were 
given  to  his  great-grandfather  by  Mme.  de  Genlis. 


Chartres  and  Lady  Edward  Fitz-Gerald,  and  wrote 
letters  to  her  father  every  day,  which  were  not 
sent  away.  In  the  evening  she  sewed,  knitted, 
embroidered,  and  did  tapestry  work. 

In  spite  of  her  occupations  and  the  affection 
shown  her,  the  princess's  health  remained  uncertain. 
Imagine  the  position  of  this  young  girl  separated 
from  her  eldest  brother,  having  no  news  of  the 
father  whom  she  loved,  and  still  believed  to  be  in 
this  world ;  ignorant  of  the  fate  of  her  brothers 
Montpensier  and  Beaujolais,  whom  she  knew  to 
be  imprisoned  at  Marseilles ;  and  away  from  a 
mother  who — though  still  free  at  Vernon — had  not 
answered  one  of  her  letters.  Thus  "  Mademoiselle," 
wrote  Mme.  de  Genlis,  "  whose  gaiety  was  naturally 
exuberant,  had  lost  this  happy  gift  of  nature ;  but 
her  character  had  changed  without  becoming  em- 
bittered. Her  melancholy  was  so  gentle  that  it 
was  less  like  sadness  than  the  development  of  an 
extreme  sensibility.  .  .  .  Neither  complaint  nor  mur- 
mur ever  escaped  her  lips.  When  she  was  troubled, 
she  wept,  kept  silence,  and  prayed  fervently  to 
God.  .  .  .  Her  piety,  which  was  truly  angelic,  gave 
her  true  philosophy  !  " 

Monetary  troubles  added  to  this  sadness.  Mme. 
de  Genlis,  who  alone  contributed  to  Mile.  d'Orl&ms' 
maintenance,  saw  her  resources  diminishing,  and  it 
was  doubtless  she  who  prompted  her  pupil  to  ask 
for  help  from  the  Duke  of  Modena,  the  Due  de 
Penthievre's  brother-in-law.1  In  the  letter  she  wrote 

1  Hercule   Renaud   d'Este,    born     1727,   was   then   66.     His   sister, 
,  married    to   the    Due   de    Penthievre,   was    Adelaide's 


to  her  great-uncle,  which  is  to  be  found  in  the 
Marquis  de  Piers'  collection,  Mademoiselle  begins 
by  giving  all  the  details  of  her  wandering  life 
since  the  beginning  of  the  Revolution ;  "  On  arriv- 
ing in  Switzerland,"  she  continued,  "  I  was  ab- 
solutely helpless  and  penniless,  hearing  nothing 
from  my  Mother,  to  whom  I  have  written  several 
times  to  tell  her  of  my  position,  living  entirely  at 
Mme.  de  Sillery's  expense,  who  has  had  no  other 
means  of  providing  me  with  the  necessaries  of 
existence  but  by  selling  a  work  in  manuscript.  .  .  . 

".  .  .  In  this  extremity,  I  apply  to  you,  my 
dear  Uncle,  having  the  honour  to  belong  to  you, 
and  as  the  person  whom  my  Mother  always  re- 
garded as  a  father  ;  besides,  I  remember  that  some 
months  ago  a  person  remarked  in  my  presence  that 
my  Mother  had  said  she  fervently  desired  that  I 
might  be  in  Italy  with  you,  my  dear  Uncle.  Had 
I  had  enough  money  to  go  there,  I  should  have  done 
so.  What  ought  I  to  do  ?  Would  you  be  kind 
enough  to  receive  me?  Would  you  give  me 
shelter  ?  Would  you  consider  it  suitable  for  me 
to  be  in  a  convent  in  Italy  ?  I  will  do  everything 
you  wish. 

"But  as  I  have  been  obliged  to  send  all  my 
servants  back  to  France,  it  would  be  necessary,  if 
you  decide  for  me  to  go  to  Modena,  that  you 
should  be  kind  enough  to  send  a  woman  and 
servants  to  fetch  me,  money  to  pay  for  the  journey, 
and  also  two  hundred  and  fifty  louis,  out  of  which 

grandmother.     His  other   sister,  Fortunee-Marie,  had  married   Louis- 
Frangois-Joseph  de  Bourbon  Conti. 

THE    rKINCKSS    OF    CONTI  89 

I  awe  Mine,  de  Sillery  two  hundred  (which  she 
has  advanced  for  my  keep),  the  other  fifty  I  owe 
here  in  the  town  ;  and  the  wherewithal,  besides, 
to  buy  an  out-  fit  in  order  that  I  may  appear 
decently  at  your  court,  having  the  honour,  my 
dear  Uncle,  to  be  so  nearly  related  to  you.  If  my 
dear  Uncle  desires  me  to  remain  here  in  my 
convent,  I  should  not  ask  for  so  much.  ...  I  venture 
to  beg  my  dear  Uncle  to  give  me  his  advice  and 
orders,  and  to  help  me  out  of  a  position  which  I 
have  not  deserved  since  —  on  account  of  my  age, 
sex,  and  the  time  I  have  spent  in  foreign  countries 
—  I  have  in  no  way  contributed  to  the  misfortunes 
of  the  Revolution,  from  which  I  suffer,  however, 
more  than  anybody." 

The  Duke  of  Modena  was  a  coward,  and 
niggardly  to  boot,  although  very  rich.  He  replied 
to  his  niece  that  "  political  reasons  prevented  him 
from  receiving  her,"  and  sent  her  the  meagre  sum 
of  a  hundred  and  eighty  louis. 

But  the  Due  de  Chartres  —  who  kept  up  a 
correspondence  with  his  sister  and  had  long  been 

king  the  means  of  taking  her  away  from  Mme. 
dc  Genlis,  "about  whom  he  had  so  much  to  com- 
plain "  —heard  that  his  ^reut-aunt,  the  Princesse 
d<  Cunti,  was  living  at  Fribourg.  He  knew  the 
princess  to  be  "very  kind,  extremely  charitable, 
helpful,  and  <^ood-natured."  l  Confident,  therefore,  that 
she  would  not  refuse  to  send  for  the  daughter  of 

1  Carmontelle   painted   her  in   1768   in  an  elegant  white 

Tim  portrait  is  at  Chantilly.     "The  Princess's  goodness  almost  makes 
one  forget  her  ugliness."     (Gruyer,  Lcs  I'ortraits  de  CarmontdU.} 


her  dear   niece,    the    Duchesse   cTOrleans,    he   made 
Mademoiselle  write  the  following  letter  to  her  :— 

"  MY  DEAR  AUNT, — For  the  last  eleven  months  I 
have  been  in  Switzerland,  and  for  the  last  ten 
cloistered  in  a  convent.  On  arriving  in  Switzerland 
I  did  not  know  that  my  Aunt  was  here,  and  wrote 
to  my  Mother  (then  at  large)  to  inquire  her  com- 
mands. I  gave  four  letters  to  my  people  (whom  I 
sent  back  to  France)  for  her,  besides  writing  several 
times  when  favourable  opportunities  occurred ;  but 
not  one  of  her  replies  has  reached  me,  and  I  have 
been  vainly  waiting  and  hoping  for  one  for  the 
last  four  months.  At  length,  losing  hope,  I  ap- 
pealed to  the  Duke  of  Modena  as  the  only  person 
in  my  family  who  could  help  me.  After  taking 
this  step  five  months  ago,  I  learned  that  my  dear 
Aunt  was  in  Switzerland.  As  I  see  absolutely 
nobody,  I  had  been  in  ignorance  of  the  fact  till 
then.  The  Duke  of  Modena  cannot  receive  me. 
When  his  reply  arrived  I  was  dangerously  ill  from 
the  effects  of  measles  and  a  languishing  malady 
from  which  I  have  not  yet  quite  recovered,  so  that 
I  had  not  the  honour  of  writing  at  once  to  my 
Aunt.  Six  weeks  afterwards  I  begged  M.  Honeggre, 
a  magistrate  here,  to  be  good  enough  to  have  my 
letter  safely  conveyed  to  Fribourg.  I  did  not  wish 
to  trust  it  to  the  post,  because  I  fancied  that  my 
Aunt  was  not  living  there  under  her  own  name, 
and  did  not  know  the  one  she  had  taken.  M. 
Honeggre  absolutely  declined  to  undertake  this 
commission  without  being  able  to  give  me  a  reason 


l'ir  his  refusal.  Two  months  ago,  M.  Hoze,  a 
famous  doctor,  came  here  whom  I  consulted  about 
my  health,  asking  him  at  the  same  time  if  he  knew 
any  one  in  Fribourg  to  whom  he  could  send  a  letter 
that  would  be  delivered  to  my  Aunt.  M.  Hoze 
replied  that  he  knew  nobody  at  Fribourg,  but 
would  endeavour  to  find  some  one,  and  would  under- 
take my  commission  ;  that  is  why,  my  dear  Aunt, 
tin  application  I  take  the  liberty  of  making  to-day 
has  been  so  long  deferred.  .  .  . 

" .  .  .  It  will  of  course  be  a  very  great  trouble  to 
me  to  be  separated  from  a  person  (Madame  de  Genlis) 
whom  I  have  never  left  since  infancy,  who  has  taught 
me  all  I  know,  has  made  great  sacrifices  for  me,  and 
who — during  the  last  six  months  especially — has  be- 
stowed such  care  and  attention  upon  me,  and  rendered 
me  services  to  which  I  owe  my  life  ...  for  a  long 
while  I  have  unhappily  been  prepared  for  this  separa- 
tion. .  .  .  It  is,  therefore,  sincerely  with  the  desire  of 
obtaining  this  favour  that  I  venture,  my  dear  Aunt,  to 
ask  you  earnestly  to  receive  your  unhappy  niece!  I 
am  sixteen  and  a  half.  For  two  years  and  a  half 
I  have  been  out  of  France,  I  have  neither  enough 
knowledge  nor  experience  to  have  an  opinion  upon 
affairs  ;  and  not  only  have  I  never  been  talked  to 
about  them,  but  for  two  years  I  have  not  been  allowed 
t< )  read  any  newspapers  ;  I  only  know  that  these  are 
full  of  such  cruel  and  impious  things  that  it  is  im- 
possible for  a  young  person  to  read  them.  Nothing 
can  ever  change  the  principles  of  religion  and 
humanity  which  have  been  instilled  into  me  from  my 
cradle.  If  my  Aunt  deigns  to  receive  me  and  give  me 


the  most  honourable  and  loving  shelter  I  can  now 
have,  she  will  find  in  me  all  the  submission,  respect, 
and  affection  of  the  tenderest  daughter.  I  am  con- 
vinced that  in  placing  myself  in  her  hands  I  am  carry- 
ing out  my  Mother's  wishes.  And  it  is  doubtless 
better  for  my  Mother's  safety  that  I  am  only  writing 
this  now  that  she  is  no  longer  at  liberty  ;  for  if  I  had 
gone  at  once  to  my  Aunt  while  she  was  still  free, 
it  might  have  been  supposed  in  France  that  I  was 
acting  upon  her  orders,  and  this  might  have  implied 
a  correspondence  between  herself  and  me  which 
would  have  been  accounted  a  crime  to  her.  But  this 
inconvenience  unhappily  no  longer  exists,  since  for 
several  months  she  has  not  been  at  liberty,  and  I 
have  been  eleven  months  in  Switzerland.  I  implore, 
my  dear  Aunt,  kindly  to  take  into  consideration  the 
fact,  that  if  she  does  not  deign  to  give  me  shelter, 
and  Mme.  de  Genlis  is  obliged  to  go  away,  I 
absolutely  do  not  know  what  is  to  become  of  me.  It 
would  be  impossible  to  remain  in  the  convent  where 
I  am  without  her  ;  besides  which  the  air  of  this  place 
does  not  suit  me ;  the  convent  garden  is  not  a  large 
one,  the  accommodation  is  dreadful,  and  I  feel  that  I 
should  succumb  to  my  troubles  if  I  were  alone  with 
a  strange  person.  My  eldest  brother  is  only  twenty  ; 
his  age  and  position  prevent  him  from  acting  as  my 
adviser  or  guardian  ;  and  even  if  he  could  come  and 
stay  with  M.  de  Montesquiou  (as  they  seem  to  think) 
in  a  few  months'  time,  I  could  not  be  in  the  same 
house,  as  M.  de  Montesquiou  has  young  unmarried 
men  living  with  him  ;  besides,  I  confess  that  living  in 
Bremgarten,  where  I  have  gone  through  so  much 


trouble,  would  be  terrible  without  the  person  who  has 
brought  me  up  since  infancy.  ...  I  take  the  liberty 
of  entering  into  all  these  details  in  order  that  my  Aunt 
may  thoroughly  understand  my  position  ;  for  the  rest, 
I  only  want  to  do  as  she  wishes.  I  ask  her  commands, 
and  will  carry  them  out,  whatever  they  may  be.  I 
earnestly  implore  her  to  be  kind  enough  to  let  me 
have  them  promptly,  because  Mme.  de  Genlis  will 
probably  be  obliged  to  take  a  journey  soon  on  her 
own  business.  I  hope  that  my  dear  Aunt  will  excuse 
this  long  letter,  and  kindly  receive  the  assurance  of 
the  respect  and  attachment  of  her  unhappy  niece, 


"This  3rd  April  1794, 
at  Bremgarten." 

Ten  days  afterwards  Mademoiselle  received  a 
n-ply  "at  once  simple  and  touching"  from  her  aunt. 
The  Princesse  de  Conti  gladly  accepted  the  charge, 
but  the  difficulties  she  encountered  with  regard  to  the 
Kribourg  magistrates  caused  the  departure  of  her  niece 
to  be  postponed  for  a  month. 

The  last  weeks  spent  by  Mademoiselle  at  Brem- 
garten were  saddened  by  the  real  pain  she  felt  at 
parting  from  her  governess,  and  by  the  stupid  in- 
terference of  M.  Diffenthaler,  a  magistrate  of  the 
town.  Heing  doubtless  in  communication  with  the 
DiK  de  Bourbon  or  the  Prince  de  Conde,  this 
istrate  had  received  orders  to  watch  over  Mile. 
d  ( )rl(  ans  for  fear  lest  Mme.  de  Genlis  should  carry 
her  off  secretly.  And  Adelaide  was  subjected  to  such 
annoying  surveillance  that  she  was  even  deprived  of 


the  permission  she  had  enjoyed  up  till  then  of  walking 
in  the  country  beyond  the  convent.  She  complained 
with  so  much  firmness  in  several  letters  to  M. 
Diffenthaler  that  she  had  already  gained  her  point 
when  Mme.  de  Pons  Saint- Maurice  arrived  at  the 
convent  of  Sainte-Claire,  sent  thither  by  the  Princesse 
de  Conti.  This  lady  was  very  beautiful,  and  her 
graciousness  softened  a  separation  which  Mademoiselle 
submitted  to  against  her  will.  The  Comtesse  de 
Pons  took  Adelaide  to  a  village  not  far  from  Con- 
stance,1 where  she  stayed  for  two  months,  and  then 
her  aunt  insisted  upon  her  entering  Fribourg  by  night 
and  hiding  herself  in  a  convent.  It  seems  that  Mme. 
de  Conti  had  had  "  great  trouble  in  obtaining  leave 
from  the  authorities  to  send  for  her  niece,  and  was 
not  altogether  without  anxiety  respecting  the  per- 
mission she  had  obtained."1 

On  arriving  at  Fribourg,  Mile.  d'Orleans  "  knew 
hardly  anything  about  the  misfortunes  of  her  family." 
She  was  not  ignorant  of  the  fact  that  "  for  some 
months"  her  mother  had  been  "no  longer  free,"  but 
she  knew  nothing  of  the  circumstances  which  pre- 
ceded her  arrest.  The  Princesse  de  Conti  told  her 
that  the  Duchesse  d'Orleans,  having  taken  refuge  first 
at  Eu  with  the  Due  de  Penthievre,  then  at  Radepont, 
and  afterwards  at  Anet — the  Chateau  d'Anet  now  so 

1  Perhaps  Mademoiselle  was  permitted  to  see  a  sort  of  community 
formed  of  religious  e'migre'es  whom  the  Comtesse  de  Pons  Saint- Maurice 
— who  had  had  time  to  place  funds  abroad — had  gathered  together  at 
Constance  where  "  she  made  them  work  at  embroideries  under  discipline 
and  provided  for  them." 

Cf.  the  Memoires  de  VAbbt  L ;  also  Comtesse  de  Boigne,  Memoires. 

2  Memoires  de  FAbbe  L . 

EXECUTION    01     TIIK    DUK1  95 

dreary,  once  so  gay — had  subsequently  settled  at 
\  near  Vernon.  It  was  while  there  that  the  old 
duke  heard  of  the  death  of  Louis  XVI.,  and,  broken 
down  by  grief,  expired  gently  on  March  4,  1793,  in 
the  arms  of  his  daughter,  who  was  arrested  some 
months  afterwards  and  taken  to  the  Luxembourg 
where — at  the  time  of  Mademoiselle's  arrival  at  Fri- 
bourg  in  the  beginning  of  July  1794 — she  still  was. 

Reassured  as  far  as  she  could  be  with  regard  to 
hrr  mother's  fate,  Mademoiselle  inquired  about  her 
brothers,  still  prisoners  at  Marseilles  with  their  Aunt 
Bourbon  and  the  Prince  de  Conti.  To  the  questions 
she  put  respecting  the  Due  d'Orl&ins  no  one  dared 
reply ;  suspecting  some  misfortune,  she  insisted  upon 
knowing  the  truth,  and  they  were  obliged  to  tell  her 
that  her  father  had  been  guillotined  by  those  for 
whom  he  had  sacrificed  his  fortune  and  his  honour. 
I  n  her  terrible  sorrow  Adelaide  shed  floods  of  tears  ; 
then,  after  close  questioning,  obtained  the  details  she 
wanted  to  hear — the  Duke's  detention  at  Notre  Dame 
de  la  Garde,  his  transfer  to  Fort  Saint  Jean,  the 
terrible  journey  from  Marseilles  to  Paris  in  company 
with  commissioners  of  the  Comite*  de  Surete*  Ge*ne>ale; 
the  insults  of  the  populace  at  Aix,  Orgon,  and 
Auxerre;  the  outrages  which  awaited  the  Jacobin 
Prince  in  Paris,  then  the  Conciergerie,  the  Revolu- 
tionary Tribunal  -  -  presided  over  by  the  Marquis 
Antonelle  (a  former  habitut*  of  the  Palais  Royal),  and 
last  of  all  the  execution  (November  6,  1794). 

Thus  the  Revolution,  pitiless  for  all,  did  not  dis- 
criminatr  in  the  choice  of  its  victims.  The  guillotine 
worked  permanently.  Ex-priests,  magistrates,  finan- 


ciers,  were  delivered  to  the  executioner.  Even  the 
revolutionists  were  not  spared.  Petion,  who  had 
taken  the  journey  to  London,  Potion,  who  loved  Mme. 
de  Genlis,  had  forestalled  the  scaffold,  and  his  body 
was  found  in  a  field  half  devoured  by  dogs.  And 
Barbaroux,  Philippe  Egalite's  accuser? — Executed  at 
Bordeaux.  Sillery,  Duprat,  Barnave,  Vergniaud, 
with  their  Girondin  friends,  had  been  guillotined.  And 
Danton,  the  Septembriseur,  Danton  the  "  Orleanist "  ? 
— Sacrificed  also  to  the  ambition  of  Robespierre,  with 
Camille  Desmoulins  whom  Mademoiselle  d'Orleans  had 
so  often  seen  at  Bellechasse. 

The  greater  number  of  those  whom  Adelaide  had 
known  were  dead.  Nobody,  indeed,  was  sure  of  the 

"  La  guillotine  la-bas^ 

Fait  toujours  merveilk. 
Le  tranchant  ne  mollit  pas. 

La  loifrappe  et  veille"  * 

Every  evening  "  at  the  hour  when  the  sun  was 
leaving  the  city  to  its  shadows — at  the  hour  of  ruddy 
skies,  with  a  clank  of  iron  and  the  gallop  of  horses, 
the  grand  hecatomb  surged  on  to  the  Place  de  la  Re- 
volution. ..."  And  the  carts  succeeded  one  another 
more  numerous  every  day.  "The  knife  fell,  and  the 
earth  could  not  absorb  all  the  blood  from  the  guillo- 
tine. And  those  who  returned  from  the  Place  de  la 
Revolution  dragged  two  bloody  soles  through  the 
town.  .  .  ." 

A  profound  sadness  took  possession  of  Mademoi- 

1  There  the  guillotine — still  works  wonders — its  keen   edge  is   not 
blunted — the  law  strikes  and  watches. 

I  XECUTION    OF    PIIILI1  r.ALITK    07 

srllr.  Strangers — enemies  almost — surrounded  IVT. 
There  was  no  one  about  her  who  did  not  secretly 
hi,  unc  her  father,  no  one  who  had  a  word  of  pity  for 
him.  That  father  who  had  cherished  her,  she  must 
weep  for  in  secret ;  his  name  was  odious  to  every- 
body ;  all  the  crimes  of  a  revolution  of  which  he  was 
neither  author  nor  master — but  merely  an  instrument 
alternately  employed  and  broken  by  it — were  imputed 
to  him.  To  whom  could  Adelaide  confide  her  dis- 
tress ?  She  turned  to  her  whom  she  had  always  called 
sa  chtre  maman.  Completely  crushed,  but  grateful  to 
Mme.  de  Genlis  for  having  concealed  her  own  grief  for 
the  sake  of  her  pupil's  health,  she  wrote  the  following 
letter  to  her  :— 

"Oh!  ...  darling  friend,  to  what  consummation 
of  misfortunes  has  Heaven  reduced  me !  Alas !  .  .  . 
I  know  all.  .  .  .  Ah!  what  sorrows  and  what  suffer- 
ings .  .  .  my  too  unhappy  heart  experiences!  How 
cruel  life  is!  ...  But  my  religion  and  my  heart, 
beloved  friend,  order  me  to  bear  it  for  the  sake  of 
those  I  love ;  my  life  belongs  to  others,  not  to  myself, 
and  I  take  care  of  it  as  a  trust  which  they  have  con- 
fided to  me.  Alas !  it  is  only  those  dear  ones  whom 
I  love  so  tenderly  who  can  attach  me  to  it.  Oh !  my 
friend,  do  you  think  that  those  who  are  thoroughly 
unfortunate  and  do  not  kill  themselves  are  with- 
out religion  ?  No,  I  cannot  believe  it ;  without  this 
all-powerful  incentive  who  would  not  get  rid  of  an 
existence  become  altogether  too  painful  ?  .  .  .  And, 
thanks  to  the  principles  you  have  given  me,  do  not  be 
uneasy,  very  dear  friend,  God  sustains  your  unfortunate 
Add.-,  and  ogives  her  a  strength  and  courage  truly 



superhuman.  My  aunt  shows  me  such  feeling  and 
tenderness  that  I  am  much  touched,  and  softens  as 
far  as  is  possible  by  her  excessive  goodness  my  cruel 
and  horrible  position.  Good-bye,  fond  and  darling 
friend.  I  embrace  you  with  all  the  tenderness  of  my 
unhappy  heart.  I  cannot  write  you  a  longer  letter 
to-day,  it  will  be  for  the  next  time.  Give  me  news 
of  your  dear  self  often  ;  alas !  I  have  more  need  of 
that  every  day !  .  .  ." 


l^rincesse  dc  Contfs  life  at  Fribourg — MoJUmoMU  is  shut 
up  in  a  convent — She  has  difficulty  in  getting  used  to 
her  aunfs  ways — Rupture  of  the  relations  between  Mile. 
ins  and  Mme.  de  Genii s — The  Duchesse  a" Orleans 
sends  her  daughter  presents — The  French  armies  invade 
Switzerland — Mademoiselle  and  tier  aunt  take  refuge  at 
Landshitt,  near  Presbourg. 

THE  Princesse  de  Conti  was  known  at  Fribourg 
under  the  name  of  Comtesse  de  Friel.  The  Comtesse 
de  Coursac,  the  Canon  of  Malta,  the  Chevalier  de 
Ravenel,  and  the  Comtesse  des  Roches  formed  her 
household.  Everybody  lived  upon  the  subsidies  sent 
by  the  Duke  of  Modena,  who  had  made  "a  very 
advantageous  bargain"  with  his  sister.  He  had  had 
all  the  jewels  she  possessed  sent  to  him,  and  in  return 
paid  her  an  annuity  of  small  importance.  This  annuity 
allowed  the  Princess,  by  the  exercise  of  economy,  to 
help  the  numerous  Emigre's  who  had  taken  refuge  in 
Fribourg,  and  were  for  the  most  part  destitute  of  any 
means  of  subsistence.  "  True,  there  was  no  longer  any 
smartness  of  dress ;  the  women  had  no  ornaments 
but  their  virtue  and  cleanliness;  dainty  materials  and 
laces  had  disappeared  ;  all  clothing  was  strong  and 
durable.  The  Princess  herself  had  the  courage  to  set 
an  example  for  this  reform,  and  wore  a  costume  which 
had  only  cost  thirty  francs  altogether."  She  enjoyed 


"  no  consideration"  at  Fribourg  on  account  of  "her 
title  of  Princess,"  but  "  was  regarded  in  the  same  light 
as  the  other  dmigrds"  and  "  was  amenable  to  the  same 
regulations"  .  .  .  "they  never  spared  her  a  visit,  and 
were  perpetually  coming  to  inquire  her  age,  as  if  they 
did  not  know  it  already,  after  having  asked  so  many 
times."  l 

As  soon  as  Mademoiselle  arrived  at  Fribourg  she 
was  shut  up  in  the  Couvent  de  la  Visitation  de  la 
Chapelle  au  Bois.  There  she  lived  a  very  retired  life, 
"  having  no  acquaintances  save  those  authorised  by  her 
venerable  aunt." *  Only  with  M.  Babe,  her  confessor, 
could  she  speak  freely.  M.  de  Dax,  President  of 
the  Parliament  at  Dijon,  the  Princess  Louise's  friend 
and  adviser,  and  the  "good"  Bishop  of  Fribourg, 
had  alone  been  allowed  to  see  her.  In  order  that 
the  young  girl's  isolation  might  be  greater  still,  the 
windows  of  her  prison  were  decorated  with  purple  and 
gold ;  that  is  to  say,  "  she  was  not  excused  one  of  the 
tiresome  formalities  which  regulate  the  decorum  of 
her  high  rank." *  Mme.  de  Conti  made  sacrifices  for 
her,  giving  her  her  own  lady-in-waiting,  and  several 
femmes-de-chambre,  and  insisting  that  her  niece's  table 
should  be  better  served  than  her  own. 

All  these  precautions  and  this  exaggerated  atten- 
tion to  etiquette  prevented  anybody  from  approaching 

1  The  Abbe  Lambert,  who  gives  these  details  in  his  Mfrnoires,  had 
been  private  chaplain  to  the  Due  de  Penthievre.  Since  1793  he  had  been 
charged  by  the  Duchesse  d'Orle"ans  to  negotiate  a  reconciliation  between 
the  members  of  the  elder  branch  of  the  Bourbons  and  those  of  the 
younger  branch.  His  memoirs  are  all  the  more  interesting,  as  he  only 
reported  what  he  saw.  Unfortunately  all  the  part  relating  to  the  negotia- 
tions he  had  undertaken  has  not  been  published. 

Lll-K    AT    FkrebtJRG  ioi 

Adelaide.      It  had  l>een  ^i veil  out  in  Fribour^  she 

;in  enthusiastic  Jacobin  ;  the  Princesse  de  Conti 

•d    Irst   the  tmigrts  might  do  her  harm,   and  at 

the  same  time  she  herself  mistrusted  the  opinions  of 

Philippe  Hyalite's  daughter. 

Madame  de  Boigne  recounts  in  her  Mbnoires  that 
Mademoiselle  found  herself  "hounded  by  the  perse- 
cutions of  the  Emigration"  and  "they  wanted,  in 
the  form  of  a  letter  to  the  king,  to  wring  from  her 
a  profession  of  faith,  wherein  she  should  deny  her 
father  and  repudiate  her  brothers."  Such  a  thing 
is  incredible,  for  what  value  could  be  attached  to  a 
profession  of  political  faith  signed  by  a  young  girl 
of  seventeen  ? 

Mademoiselle,  who,  at  Bellechasse,  had  been  accus- 
tomed to  the  companionship,  on  terms  of  equality,  of 
Mme.  de  Genlis'  daughters  and  niece,  bore  the  con- 
straint imposed  upon  her  with  difficulty.  She  suffered 
without  complaining,  however.  But  when  the  Superior 
of  the  Visitation,  who  filled  the  anomalous  position  of 
companion  to  her,  wanted  to  give  herself  the  airs  of  a 
governess,  she  was  severely  reprimanded.  A  princess, 
and  obliged  to  submit  to  the  annoyances  of  etiquette, 
Mile.  d'Orlcans  insisted  upon  being  treated  as  a  prin- 
cess, and  "only  recognised  Mme.  de  Conti  as  having 
the  ri^ht  to  her  obedience." 

The  Abbe  Lambert  was  the  "fourth  person  ad- 
mitted to  the  honour  of  presenting  his  respects.  ...  I 
recognised  her,"  he  wrote,  "  still  more  from  the  expres- 
sion of  goodness  with  which  her  countenance  glowed, 
than  from  the  points  of  resemblance  I  found  to  her 
respected  mother  .  .  .  and  I  attributed  an  air  of 


embarrassment,  which  I  noticed,  to  the  presence  of 
the  Princesse  de  Conti,  to  whose  ways  I  fancied  she 
was  not  yet  quite  accustomed.  A  melancholy  expres- 
sion lingering  upon  her  visage  indicated  a  heart  still 
more  suffering  than  her  body.  She  also  bore  some 
traces  of  illness,  but  it  was  impossible  to  confound 
them  with  those  left  by  deeply  felt  sorrows." 

The  Princesse  de  Conti  was  nevertheless  very 
kind.  Whatever  the  weather,  she  went  every  even- 
ing to  see  Mile.  d'Orleans,  who,  for  her  part,  only 
wanted  to  become  more  intimate  with  her  aunt.  It 
was  not  that  the  princesses  were  hostile  to  each  other  : 
they  were  dissimilar.  Like  all  the  members  of  her 
family,  the  Duke  of  Modena's  sister  was  very  much 
attached  to  the  old  regime.  Her  prejudices  were 
great,  her  knowledge  small,  her  religion  sincere  but 
superstitious  and  exaggerated.  Mademoiselle,  on  the 
contrary,  bore  the  imprint  of  the  virile  education  she 
had  received.  A  wide  instruction  had  made  her  clear 
sighted  and  thoughtful.  She  was  pious  in  moderation, 
but,  at  that  epoch,  still  frankly  so.  And  though  her 
father's  death  had  cooled  her  revolutionary  ardour, 
without  realising  the  fact,  perhaps,  she  remained  at- 
tached to  the  liberal  ideas  in  which  her  infancy  had 
been  cradled.  Thus  she  continued  to  keep  up  a 
correspondence  with  Mme.  de  Genlis,  which  her  in- 
dulgent aunt  had  not  ventured  to  interrupt  without 
having  a  good  reason  for  doing  so.  The  opportunity 
soon  occurred.  Mme.  de  Genlis  sent  her  dear  A  dele 
a  miniature  "  representing  a  white  rose  and  a  red  rose 
on  a  blue  ground ;  the  Princesse  de  Conti  said  that 
these  were  the  three  colours,  and  consequently  a  re- 

LIFE    AT    FRIBOURG  103 

voluti«»n,iry  rml)!rm."  It  was  difficult  to  prove  the  con- 
trar\ •;  M.ulnn. >iscllc  assorted,  however,  "that  there 
\\rn-  live  colours,  is  there  were  some  little  brown 
stalks  and  a  green  box  "...  but  the  Princess  persisted 
in  her  interpretation  of  the  gift,  and  forbade  her  niece 
to  write  to  her  former  governess  any  more.  Such 
at  kast  is  the  version  given  by  Mme.  de  Genlis  in 
her  Mtmoires.  She  adds:  "  Mile.  d'Orl&ms  found 
means  of  obeying  whilst  still  giving  me  news  of  her- 
self; she  told  her  confessor  about  her  trouble,  and 
begged  him  to  write  to  me  on  his  own  account ;  this 
ecclesiastic  did  so  for  eighteen  months ;  I  sent  him 
letters  which  he  passed  on ;  finally,  however,  he  was 
obliged  to  go  to  Vienna.  Mademoiselle  wrote  to 
him  there,  and  our  communications  continued  for  six 
months  ;  but  one  day  I  received  a  letter  from  a  person 
in  Vienna,  whom  I  did  not  know,  telling  me  not  to 
write  to  the  priest  any  more  as  he  had  just  died.  I 
wept  for  him  sincerely  since  I  had  no  more  news  of 
Mile.  cl'Orleans.  .  .  ." 

On  the  morning  of  July  29,  when  Adelaide  had 
been  settled  for  two  months  in  the  Ursuline  convent, 
the  cry,  "It  is  over;  Robespierre  is  dead!"  echoed 
as  far  as  Switzerland,  where  the  news  of  the  opening 
of  the  prisons  was  received  with  joy.  Mademoiselle 
was  then  able  to  correspond  with  the  Duchesse 
d'Orleans,  who  had  been  transferred  to  Dr.  Bel- 
h<  mime's  house.  She  was  detained  there,  but  enjoyed 
greater  liberty  than  at  the  Luxembourg.  The  house 
was  a  refuge  for  prisoners  who  had  interest.  As  long 
as  they  paid  Dr.  Belhomme  kept  them  ;  if  their 

urces  were   exhausted   he   sent  them  back  to  an 


ordinary  prison,  where  the  revolutionary  tribunal 
knew  how  to  find  them  ;  and  this  the  Duchesse  du 
Chatelet  and  M.  de  Gramont  experienced  to  their 

Mademoiselle  wrote  affectionate  letters  to  her 
mother,  and  a  M.  Prevost  was  entrusted  to  carry 
them  to  Paris,  where  he  was  sent  by  the  Abbe 
Lambert.  He  was  not  able  to  see  the  Duchesse 
d'Orle"ans,  but,  through  the  medium  of  Madame  de 
la  Noue,  the  latter  had  180  louis,  three  gold  rings, 
some  hair,  and  three  letters  conveyed  to  him. 

The  letter  addressed  to  Mademoiselle x  "  under  the 
guise  and  title  of  extracts  from  Mme.  de  Sevigne*, 
was  worthy  of  that  celebrated  lady  on  account  of  the 
turns  of  expression  and  the  warmth  of  the  maternal 
sentiments  it  contained." 

The  Abbe  Lambert  remitted  160  louis  to  M. 
de  Montesquiou,  who  was  providing  for  the  Due 
d'Orleans,  and  went  to  take  Mademoiselle  from  her 
mother,  the  Duchess,  a  wand  encircled  with  a  little 
gold  plaque  on  which  these  words  were  engraved  : 
"  When  will  this  bring  you  to  me  ?  " 

It  was  the  beginning  of  the  year  1795,  Mile. 
d'Orleans  had  already  been  living  near  to  her  aunt 
for  a  year.  Mme.  de  Conti  was  so  kind  and  indulgent, 
and  Mademoiselle's  conduct  had  been  so  filial,  that 
"confidence  had  been  established  between  them,  and 
all  the  ease  which  the  differences  of  age,  character, 
and  position  rendered  possible  existed  in  their  rela- 
tions. .  .  .  Mademoiselle  had  won  all  hearts  by  her 
goodness.  .  .  .  Kindly  and  very  good  to  every- 

1  The  quotations  on  this  page  are  from  the  Abbe  Lambert. 


body,  sh<  was  particularly  so  to  the  persons  who 
served  her.  .  .  .  Every  one  in  the  nunnery  lik»-d 
In  r  ;  the  good  spoken  of  her  had  gone  beyond  the 
convent  walls,  and  all  in  Fribourg  thought  as  well  of 
her  as  did  the  nuns  amongst  whom  she  dwelt,  and 
whom  she  edified  by  her  example.  The  tmigrts 
themselves  had  forgotten  their  unjust  prejudices  and 
felt  an  interest  in  and  an  esteem  for  her.  .  .  .  Un- 
fortunately her  health  was  still  indifferent  and  fluctu- 
ating. .  .  ." 

M.  Provost  had  brought  back  news  with  him  from 
France  as  well  as  letters  and  presents.  This  news 
was  satisfactory  to  the  princesses.  The  nation  seemed 
to  have  gone  off  its  head  and  was  hurrying  towards 
a  reaction,  Paris  was  terrorised  by  a  band  of  young 
men  "in  grey  hats,  green  cravates,  white  stockings, 
and  flowing  garters."  These  were  the  jeunesse  dorde 
of  Fr^ron  who  had  thrown  Marat's  bust  into  the 
stream.  The  Compagnies  de  J^sus  and  du  Soleil 
were  plundering,  killing,  and  burning  at  Lyons,  Aix, 
Tarascon,  and  Marseilles.  Carrier  had  already  been 
guillotined.  Fouquier-Tinville,  Hermann,  Lanne,  and 
thirteen  of  their  accomplices  were  to  be  executed  at 
the  Place  de  Greve,  and  Billaud-Varenne  and  Collot 
d'Herbois  were  on  their  way  to  exile. 

The  tmigrts  rejoiced,  believing  that  the  end  of 
their  life  of  misery  and  privations  was  in  sight  ; 
everybody  talked  of  returning  to  France  ;  the  most 
audacious  had  already  crossed  the  frontier.  But 
S t->iTlct  and  Charette  were  defeated  and  arrested, 
ami  the  last  of  the  Chouans  dispersed  after  the 
rout  at  Ouiberun ;  the  Vendemiaire  elections  had 


been  favourable  to  the  Directoire,  and  the  rising  of 
the  1 2th  had  been  repressed  by  a  general  of  twenty- 
eight,  bearing  with  him  the  hope  of  the  entire  nation, 
that  nation  which  in  the  words  of  Suleau  "  was  to 
bend  in  silence  under  his  iron  rod."  A  wind  of 
democratic  folly  blew  through  Europe.  On  August 
25,  1796,  the  inhabitants  of  Reggio,  who  bore 
the  Este  domination  unwillingly,  appealed  to  Bona- 
parte. The  latter  broke  through  the  armistice  con- 
cluded with  the  Duke  of  Modena,  and  with  the  Duchy 
and  the  neighbouring  provinces  formed  the  Cispadane 

At  this  period  the  Princesse  de  Conti,  deprived  of 
the  pension  which  her  brother  allowed  her,  was  in 
"the  most  alarming  position."1  The  Abbe  Lambert 
wrote  to  the  Duchesse  d'Orleans,  who  was  "  powerless 
to  do  anything,"  and  went  to  see  the  Prince  de  Conti, 
a  prisoner  at  Marseilles,  and  still  more  helpless.  The 
Princess  thereupon  settled  herself  for  economy's  sake 
in  the  Ursuline  convent  with  her  niece,  "  whose  health 
had  somewhat  improved."  The  Comtesse  des  Roches 
was  in  the  confidence  of  both  princesses  ;  "  her  age — 
between  the  extreme  youth  of  the  one  and  the  old 
age  of  the  other — fitted  her  to  serve  as  a  happy  link 
between  two  persons  made  to  love  and  esteem  one 

When  the  Duke  of  Modena  found  himself  safely  in 
the  emperor's  dominions  with  the  major  portion  of 
his  wealth,  though  he  had  been  obliged  to  give  up  ten 
million  francs  and  many  pictures  and  statues  to  the 
French,  he  had  "  his  sister  informed  that  he  would 

1  Abbe  Lambert. 


faithfully  continue  to  keep  the  engagements  lie  had 
contraeted  with  her."  Hut  money  troubles  having 
disappeared,  graver  t  'Mi^ed  the  princesses  to 

e  Switzerland.  For  in  spite  of  the  outposts  of 
safety  with  which  that  country  had  surrounded  its 
frontiers,  Switzerland  seemed  desirous  of  authorising 
the  French  armies  to  violate  its  neutrality.  Besides 
the  greater  number  of  cantons  had  already  got  rid  of 
the  frnigrds.  Bale,  Lucerne,  Zurich,  S chaff hausen,  les 
Grisons  had  recognised  a  democratic  constitution,  and 
Brune,  having  been  able  without  fighting  to  penetrate 
the  Vaud  country,  was  marching  upon  Fribourg,  whilst 
Schauenberg,  having  crossed  the  Rhine,  threatened 
Soleure.  Barthelemy,  French  Ambassador  to  Switzer- 
land, knew  that  Mademoiselle  was  with  her  aunt. 
"They  told  me,"  he  wrote  to  his  Government,  "that 
Mme.  de  Conti  had  had  Mile.  d'Orl^ans  taken  away 
from  that  slut  Mme.  de  Sillery." 

It  was  necessary  to  depart.  So,  by  short  stages, 
in  an  open  carriage,  concealing  their  names,  the  two 
princesses  (separated  from  part  of  their  suite)  took 
refuge  in  Bavaria,  where  they  received  a  favourable 
welcome  from  the  Elector. 

Through  a  dreary,  muddy  plain  they  reached  the 
marshy  banks  of  the  Isar,  which  encircles  with  its 
graceful  curves  the  coquettish  town  of  Landshut, 
whose  red  brick  houses,  surrounded  by  gardens,  are 
dominated  by  the  old  castle  of  Trausnitz,  a  sort  of 

^ed  fortress,  which  the  French  armies  had  occu- 
pied two  years  previously.  The  two  princesses  settled 
in  a  district  of  the  town  called  the  Valley  of  the  Blest. 
The  Duke  of  Bavaria  had  assigned  them  an  old  build- 


ing  as  residence,  which  was  only  separated  from  the 
monastery  of  Seligenthal  "  by  the  church  to  which  it 
belonged."  It  had  none  of  the  magnificence  its  title 
of  electoral  apartment  suggested.  It  was  small,  incon- 
venient, almost  abandoned,  and  furnished  merely  with 
indifferent  chairs  and  a  few  rickety  tables.  The 
Princesse  de  Conti  was  obliged  to  procure  a  complete 
set  of  furniture  at  her  own  expense,  and  to  have  some 
repairs  done.  Thus  the  lodging  was  made  habitable, 
but  there  was  only  just  room  for  the  princesses,  the 
Comtesse  des  Roches,  and  a  small  number  of 

"  As  at  Fribourg,"  wrote  the  Abbe  Lambert,  who 
doubtless  accompanied  Mme.  de  Conti,  "the  table 
was  served  by  trie  community.  The  Princess  prided 
herself  upon  the  kind  of  magnificence  which  reigned 
there.  Indeed,  such  is  the  difference  in  fertility  and 
in  the  abundance  and  price  of  commodities  between 
Bavaria  and  Switzerland,  that  at  the  same  cost  she 
found  herself  better  off  than  she  had  yet  been  since 
leaving  France.  I  know  even,  through  Mme.  des 
Roches,  that  in  more  than  one  way  she  was  better  off 
than  in  the  times  of  her  prosperity.  Above  all,  she 
had  better  health  and  greater  ease  of  mind." 

Mile.  Adelaide  d'Orleans  remained  two  years  in 
Bavaria ;  she  was  then  again  obliged  to  fly  before  the 
invading  French  armies  and,  accompanied  always  by 
her  aunt,  to  take  refuge  in  a  convent  at  Presburg  in 
Hungary,  until  the  day  when  she  was  able  to  join  her 
mother  in  Spain. 


Tin  I)HC  tfOrl.-an*  at  Bretngarten — His  journey  to  Germany 
and  the  North  of  Europe — Doings  of  the  Orleanist  faction 
— Interview  between  the  Due  a* Orleans  and  Baron  de  Roll — 
Negotiations  between  the  Duchesse  a*  Orleans  and  the  Direc- 
toire  Government — The  Orleans  Princes  in  America — Their 
arrival  in  London — They  are  reconciled  to  the  elder  branch. 

AT  the  period  when  Mile.  d'Orl^ans  left  the  convent 
of  Sainte-Claire,  her  eldest  brother  was  still  at 
Reichnau  in  the  Grisons.  There  he  had  learned  of 
the  death  of  his  father.  "This  blow  struck  him  pain- 
fully." But  having  become  the  head  of  the  House  of 
Orleans  he  sought  to  play  his  part.  The  essential 
thing  for  him  was  to  leave  Reichnau,  and,  thanks  to 
Captain  Jost  de  Saint  -  Georges,  he  succeeded  in 
obtaining  a  passport  in  the  name  of  Corby. 

Under  this  name  he  arrived  at  Bremgarten 
(January  2,  1794),  which,  for  the  sake  of  prudence, 
he  entered  by  night.  At  the  house  of  M.  de 
Montesquieu  he  met  the  Comtesse  de  Flahaut,  an 
old  family  friend. 

The  Countess  had  kept  up  friendly  relations  with 
Gnuverneur  Morris,  at  one  time  Ambassador  of  the 
United  States  to  France,1  whom  the  Duchesse 

1   Horn  1752  ;  died  1815.     A  lawyer,  then  United  States  Minister  in 

France-,  lx   had  had  some  difficulties  with  the  revolutionary  (Government. 

>n  suspicion,  he  left  France  in  1793  ant'  travelled  in  Europe  for 




d'Orleans  had  formerly  welcomed  with  much  kind- 
ness at  the  Palais  Royal.  Mme.  de  Flahaut  put 
Morris  au  courant  of  the  new  Due  d'Orleans'  position  ; 
"  his  whole  ambition,"  she  wrote,  "is  to  go  to 
America  and  there  forget  the  grandeur  and  sufferings 
of  his  youth." 

Morris  approved  of  this  projected  voyage  and  sent 
the  money  necessary  for  it.  .Mme.  de  Flahaut  ad- 
dressed him  "a  thousand  thanks  for  his  affectionate 
and  consoling  letter " ;  then,  to  reassure  him  com- 
pletely as  to  the  repentant  sentiments  of  the  former 
member  of  the  Jacobin  Club,  she  added  :  "  Hamburg 
is  full  of  people  he  does  not  want  to  see  ;  Mme.  de 
Sillery  is  at  Altona  .  .  .  there  is  also  General  Valence 
three  hours'  from  Hamburg  ...  he  has  personal 
reasons  for  desiring  never  to  meet  these  people 

The  Due  d'Orleans  started  some  time  afterwards 
for  Germany,  taking  the  Comtesse  de  Flahaut, 
Beaudoin,  and  M.  de  Montjoie  with  him.  Every- 
body rejoiced  at  this  departure,  about  which  the 
Duchesse  d'Orleans — kept  au  coiirant  by  Morris- 
felt  "  inexpressibly  happy."  The  Duke  had  agreed 
to  everything  so  as  to  have  the  means  of  leav- 
ing Switzerland.  Arriving  at  Hamburg  he  met 
Dumouriez — doubtless  amongst  the  persons  he  did 
not  wish  to  see — and  .  .  .  put  off  his  departure  for 
America.  "  To  hide  himself  from  everybody,"  or 
rather  to  be  "  ready  for  anything  "  and  "  near  every- 
thing," he  undertook  a  journey  to  the  north  of 
Europe,  passed  through  Copenhagen,  Elsenor,  Goth- 
enberg,  visited  the  Gulf  of  Salten,  the  Quastrom,  and 


i  i  i 

the  fisheries  of  the  Lofoden  Isles.  Then  he  crossed 
h  Lapland,  ran  through  Finland,  and  after 
bavin-  stayed  some  weeks  at  Stockholm,  took  up  his 
residence  at  Frederikstadt  in  Holstein. 

Politics  had  alone  prevented  the  departure  of  the 
Due  d'Orleans  for  America  ;  thus  during  his  trip  to 
the  north  of  Europe  he  was  not  inactive.  Mme.  de 
Genlis,  who  knew  her  pupil  well  and  did  not  hesitate 
to  criticise  his  conduct,  wrote  of  him  at  this  epoch : 
"  The  Due  d'Orldans  has  many  partisans ;  if  people 
do  not  take  care,  he  will  get  together  a  number  of 
.persons  who  have  taken  part  in  the  Revolution  .  .  . 
for  instance,  all  those  forty  thousand  individuals  who 
have  bought,  re-sold,  or  are  still  possessors  of  national 
property."  Mme.  de  Genlis  saw  clearly.  M.  de 
Vauban  notes:  "The  Orleanist  faction  is  being 
stirred  up  in  every  way,  and  reinforced  by  everything 
that  calls  itself  constitutional ;  it  acquires  greater  con- 
sistency day  by  day.  The  people  who  are  most 
attached  to  the  Bourbons  even  would  allow  them- 
selves to  be  won  over  to  the  Duke's  party,  since 
some  of  them  —  although  monarchists  —  refuse  their 
support  to  Puisaye,  unless  Monseigneur  le  Due 
d'Orl&ms  goes  and  puts  himself  at  the  head  of  the 
royalist  provinces,  such  is  their  ultimatum."  Others 
went  so  far  as  to  write:  "The  first  Bourbon  who 
puts  himself  at  our  head  will  become  King."2 

Louis  XVIII.'s  attempt  to  approach  the  Due 
d'Orleans  under  these  circumstances  was  inopportune, 
to  say  the  least  of  it,  and  not  likely  to  prove  successful. 

1  Letter  dated  from  Hamburg,  quoted  by  Mallet  du  I'.m 
1  D'Allonville,  Mtmoircs  Secrets. 


In  1795  the  Comte  de  Provence — who,  since  the  death 
of  his  nephew  the  dauphin,  had  had  himself  pro- 
claimed King  of  France  and  Navarre — being  driven 
from  Verona  had  gone  to  Riegel  in  the  duchy  of 
Baden,  and  placed  himself  at  the  head  of  Condi's 
army.  From  Riegel  he  sent  Baron  de  Roll  to  his 
cousin  the  Due  d'Orleans,  "  bearing  a  letter  in  his  own 
handwriting,  wherein  it  was  stated  that  all  that  was 
necessary  to  secure  pardon  for  regrettable  mistakes 
and  errors  was  for  the  Prince  to  express  his  sincere 
repentance  to  him,  by  word  of  mouth,  when  he  should 
come  and  join  the  army  of  Condd" 

Baron  de  Roll's  report,  giving  minute  details  of 
his  interview  with  the  Duke,  remained  amongst  the 
papers  of  the  Mare"chal  de  Castries,  and  was  first 
published  by  the  Temps,  November  27,  1902.  The 
Due  d'Orle"ans  had  tried  to  keep  out  of  the  way  at 
first,  and  Roll  did  not  get  to  him  till  June  4.  After 
energetic  protestations  of  devotion,  the  Prince  said  to 
Roll :  "  The  King  talks  about  mistakes  and  errors,  in 
the  tone  of  a  father  or  master,  that  is  always  the  same 
language  as  the  proclamation.  .  .  .  '  You  were  faith- 
less to  the  God  of  your  fathers.  .  .  .  You  were  rebel- 
lious to  the  authority  which  had  been  established  to 
govern  you.  .  .  .  There  are  crimes  the  atrocity  of 
which  are  beyond  the  bounds  of  clemency.'  ...  As 
to  my  joining  Condi's  army  it  is  impossible.  .  .  . 
That  army  is  under  the  command  of  an  Austrian 
general.  ...  So  long  as  His  Majesty  has  not  made 
known  his  intention  of  giving  France  a  limited  mon- 
archy ...  I  shall  look  upon  it  as  my  duty  not  to 
participate  in  measures  contrary  to  my  principles  and 

EXILE    IN    AMI- RICA  113 

opinions,  which  I  never  can  or  will  sacrifice."  The 
next  day  the  Due  d'  "persisted  in  these 
in^s,"  adding  that  were  he  to  take  part  in  intrigues 
against  his  country,  he  should  compromise  his  mother 
and  brothers.  And  he  would  neither  write  nor  send 
any  one  to  the  King. 

In  face  of  this  categorical  refusal,  the  royalists  took 

The  infamous  Due  d'Orle*ans  lives  again 

in  his  son,"  writes  the  pamphleteer  Puisaye ;  and  the 

Directoire   Government    grew    uneasy   and    tried   to 

remove  the  Due  d'Orle*ans. 

The  occasion  was  propitious.  The  Duchesse 
d'Orteans  had  left  Dr.  Belhomme's,  September  1 3, 1 795, 
but  her  property  was  always  sequestered  and  her  sons, 
Montpensier  and  Beaujolais,  still  in  prison  at  Marseilles, 
though  she  was  always  begging  for  them  to  be  released. 
So  a  bargain  was  concluded  ;  the  princes  should  be  set 
at  liberty,  but  must  start  immediately  for  America, 
preceded  by  their  eldest  brother.  The  Duchess  made 
this  arrangement  known  to  Louis-Philippe :  "  Your 
country's  interest  and  that  of  your  relatives,"  she 
wrote,  "  requires  you  to  put  the  barrier  of  the  seas 
between  us  ;  I  am  persuaded  that  you  will  not  hesitate 
to  give  this  proof  of  your  attachment,  especially  when 
you  know  that  your  brothers,  imprisoned  at  Marseilles, 
are  starting  for  Philadelphia.  .  .  .  Reverses  must  have 
early  made  a  man  of  my  son  ;  he  will  not  refuse  his 

d  mother  the  consolation  of  knowing  that  he  is 
near  to  his  brothers.  .  .  .  Let  the  prospect  of  soothing 
the  ills  of  your  poor  mother,  of  making  the  position 
of  your  relatives  less  painful,  and  contributing  to 
secure  the  tranquillity  of  your  country  ...  let  this 



prospect  excite  your  generosity  and  sustain  your 
loyalty.  .  .  .  May  I  soon  learn  that  my  Charles  and 
Antoine  have  embraced  their  elder  brother.  .  .  .  Try 
to  arrive  at  Philadelphia  at  the  same  time  as  they 
do,  sooner  if  you  can.  The  minister  of  France  at 
Hamburg  will  facilitate  your  voyage."  It  was  difficult 
for  the  Due  d' Orleans  to  remain  deaf  to  the  Duchess's 
entreaties.  "  When  my  fond  Mother  receives  this 
letter,"  he  replied,  "  her  orders  will  have  been  carried 
out,  and  I  shall  be  on  my  way  to  America." 

The  Due  d'Orl&ms  wrote  at  the  same  time  to 
Morris  :  "  I  have  just  received  a  letter  from  my 
Mother,  who  orders  me  to  undertake  a  voyage  to 
your  country,  and  informs  me  that  this  voyage  will 
ameliorate  her  position  and  that  of  her  family. 
Consequently  I  am  starting  in  all  haste." 

He  embarked,  in  fact,  on  the  America,  September 
24,  1796,  and  arrived  at  Philadelphia,  October  21, 
where  his  two  brothers  joined  him,  February  8,  1797. 
The  Due  de  Montpensier  wrote  as  follows  to  his 
sister,  August  14: — 

"  I  hope  you  received  the  letters  we  wrote  to  you 
from  Pittsburgh  nearly  two  months  since ;  we  were 
then  in  the  midst  of  a  long  journey  which  came  to 
an  end  a  fortnight  ago.  It  lasted  four  months  ;  we 
have  been  a  thousand  leagues  in  that  space  of  time, 
and  always  on  the  same  horses,  except  for  the  last 
hundred  leagues  which  we  have  covered  partly  by 
water,  partly  on  foot,  partly  on  hired  horses,  and 
partly  in  a  stage  coach.  We  saw  a  great  many 
savages,  and  even  stayed  several  days  in  their 
country  ;  they  are,  in  general,  the  best  natured  people 

l.nriS-PHILIPPE    IN    AMERICA        115 

in  the  world,  except  when  drunk  or  excited  by  anger. 
Th<  us  a  wonderful  welcome,  and  our  b< 

French  contributed  greatly  to  this  good  reception, 
for  they  are  very  fond  of  our  nation.  The  most 
intrrrsting  sight  we  saw  afterwards  was  the  Niagara 
Falls,  whither  I  told  you  we  were  going  from  Pitts- 
burgh ;  it  is  the  most  imposing  and  majestic  spectacle 
I  have  ever  set  eyes  on.  I  made  a  sketch  of  the 
Falls,  and  hope  to  paint  a  water-colour  which  my 
dear  little  sister  will  certainly  see  at  our  fond  mother's  ; 
but  it  is  not  yet  begun,  and  will  take  a  good  deal 
of  time,  as  it  is  not  by  any  means  a  small  piece  of 

"  To  give  you  an  idea  of  the  delights  of  travelling 
in  this  country,  I  must  tell  you,  dear  sister,  that  we 
spent  fourteen  nights  in  the  woods  devoured  by  all 
kinds  of  insects,  often  wet  to  the  skin  without  being 
able  to  dry  ourselves,  and  having  nothing  but  bacon 
to  eat.  ...  I  could  never,  I  declare,  advise  anybody 
to  go  on  such  a  journey  ;  however,  we  are  far  from 
repenting  having  taken  it,  as  we  have  all  returned 
in  excellent  health  and  have  naturally  made  some 
more  acquaintances." 

Some  months  later  the  three  brothers  were  at 
New  Orleans.  On  March  31,  1798,  they  landed  at 
Havana.  The  Spanish  Government,  an  ally  of  the 
Directoire,  wanted  at  first  to  drive  them1  away  from 

ue  dc  Frobcrff,  representative  of  the  Dues  d'Orldans  who 
are  in  the  island,  has  solicited  help  for  them  and  permission  to  travel 
in  the  Kind's  dominions  in  America.  Hut  His  Majesty,  on  account  of 
the  statr  of  finances,  has  not  been  able  to  accede  to  the  first  demand, 
ni>!  after  due  consideration  to  the  second,  and  he  has  charged  me  to 
warn  Your  Excellency  that  he  does  not  wish  the  said  seigneurs  to  remain 


the  island  ;  then,  afraid  lest  they  should  go  and  join 
their  mother  in  Spain,  kept  them  prisoners.  In  May 
1799  they  managed  to  escape;  but  England  declined 
to  receive  them,  and  towards  the  end  of  that  year 
they  were  at  New  York.  After  the  i8th  Brumaire 
they  embarked  on  the  Grantham  with  England's 
permission,  and  reached  London  in  January  1800. 
Bonaparte  was  all-powerful  in  France,  and  "accom- 
panied by  the  god  of  war  and  the  god  of  fortune," 
was  preparing  the  way  for  the  Empire.  It  was  to 
the  Due  d'Orle"ans'  interest  to  get  in  touch  with  the 
members  of  the  elder  branch  and  propose  a  sort  of 
alliance  against  the  "usurper,"  and  he  did  not  miss 
this  opportunity.  As  early  as  the  month  of  February 
he  obtained  the  interview  he  desired  with  the  Comte 
d'Artois,  and  on  the  i6th  he  and  his  two  brothers 
signed  a  letter  in  which  they  offered  the  "  legitimate 
King"  "the  tribute  of  homage  of  their  inviolable 

The  Comte  de  Provence  responded  graciously, 
and,  as  a  token  of  forgiveness,  decorated  the  Due 
de  Montpensier  and  the  Comte  de  Beaujolais  with 
the  order  of  the  Saint  Esprit,  besides  consenting  to 
be  godfather  to  the  youngest  son  of  Philippe-Egalite" 
(who,  as  yet,  had  only  been  privately  baptized)  on 
condition  that  his  grandson  was  not  called  Joseph  : — 

in  Havana,  nor  in  any  part  of  the  Spanish  possessions  in  the  New 
World,  except  in  Louisiana.  I  inform  Your  Excellency  of  this  so  that 
he  may  know  the  King's  will  and  may  carry  it  out.  God  keep  Your 
Excellency  many  years. 

"•Signed:  MARIE  ANNE  Louis  DE  URQUIJO. 

"At  ARANJUEZ,  May  21,  1799." 

Quoted  in  L?  Explication  du  roman  de  Montjoie. 


"You  can  call  him  Louis,"  IK-  \\n>tr  to  his  brother, 
"  and  any  other  naim:  you  consider  suitable,  but  not 
Joseph,  for  was  their  father's  name,  and  it  must 
not  be  found  in  this  branch  again." 

In  the:  fervour  of  reconciliation  the  Due  d'Orle*ans 
agreed  to  join  the  English  lleet  and  Condi's  army 
at  Minorca,  though  his  desire  to  see  his  mother  was 
afterwards  put  forward  as  a  reason  for  this  decision  ; 
but  he  made  no  attempt  to  join  her  ;  and  it  was  not 
until  eight  years  later  that  he  went  to  see  her,  not 
from  affection,  but  in  order  to  obtain  her  necessary 
consent  to  his  marriage.  It  was  simply  owing  to  a 
counter-order  that  he  was  able,  in  after  years,  to 
affirm  that  he  had  never  borne  arms  against  his 
country.  He  could  not,  however,  destroy  the  letters 
he  had  written  at  this  period.  "  If  the  unjust  use 
of  superior  force  succeeded  in  placing — in  fact,  though 
not  by  right — any  other  than  our  legitimate  King  on 
the  throne  of  France,  we  should  obey,  with  as  much 
confidence  as  fidelity,  the  voice  of  honour  which 
enjoins  us  to  call  with  our  last  breath  upon  God, 
the  French  and  our  sword.^ 

"  I  am  attached  to  the  King  of  France,  my  senior 
and  my  sovereign,  by  all  the  oaths  which  can  bind  a 
man,  by  all  the  duties  which  can  bind  a  prince.  .  .  ." 

At  the  court  of  Sicily,  where  the  Due  d'Orleans 
soon  went  to  seek  his  fortune,  he  will  be  seen  giving 
still  greater  proof  of  his  attachment  to  ideas  which 
he  had  opposed  in  his  youth,  and  which  he  again 
opposed,  from  interested  motives,  under  the  Resto- 


The  Duchesse  d  Orleans  exiled  in  Spain — Saria — Figuieres. 
Mile,  d"  Orleans  joins  her  Mother — The  Duchesse  d*  Orleans 
and  her  "  Chancel/or" — The  Abbe  de  Saint  Far  re — The 
Princesse  Adelaide  leaves  the  Duchesse  d* Orleans.  Why? 

AFTER  the  coup  d'ttat  of  Fructidor  18  the  Directoire 
deported  people  in  masses.  "  Not  a  drop  of  blood 
must  be  shed,"  the  Deputy,  Boulay  de  la  Meuthe, 
had  said  to  the  Cinq-Cents  ;  "  we  must  send  away 
conspirators.  Henceforth  deportation  will  be  the  sole 
means  of  securing  public  safety  ;  and  we  shall  thus 
get  rid  of  priests  and  dmtgrds."  Aristocrats  were 
got  rid  of  in  the  same  manner.  Thus  the  decree  of 
September  6,  1797,  drove  the  Citoyenne  Egalite  (the 
Duchesse  d'Orleans)  and  her  sister-in-law,  the  Citoy- 
enne Veritd  (the  Duchesse  de  Bourbon)  out  of 
France.  They  left  Paris  in  the  night  of  Fructidor 
28  (September  14),  taking  with  them  a  number  of 
servants  and  a  few  faithful  followers — Mmes.  de  la 
Tour  du  Pin  and  de  Chastellux,  Dr.  Gueydan,  and  the 
Abbe  de  Kayser  (the  Duchesse  d'Orleans'  chaplain). 
The  Directoire  put  four  or  five  ramshackle  berlines  at 
the  disposal  of  the  exiles,  wherein  "  they  hastily  piled 
so  many  packages  and  provisions  that  the  attendants 
could  scarcely  find  room  for  themselves."  The 
journey  was  long  and  trying ;  it  took  eighteen  days 
to  reach  Perpignan. 


THE    DUCHESS    IN    SPAIN  119 

Rou/et,  a  member  of  the  Conseil  des  Cinq-Cents, 

<xl  to  be  allimrcl  to  ;iccompany  the  convoy.  He 
had  known  the  Duchesse  d'Orleans  at  Dr.  Belhomme's 
house,  where — accused  of  "  moderantisme  " — he  had 
been  incarcerated  during  the  Terror.  The  desired 
permission  was  refused ;  but  he  had  vowed  a  respect- 
ful cult  to  the  widow  of  Philippe-6galit£ — "  an  in- 
finitely tender  feeling,  wherein  pity  for  the  misfortunes 
of  that  noble  woman  had  as  much  place  as  admiration 
for  the  smiling  philosophy  with  which  she  bore  them." 
He  set  off,  nevertheless,  stowing  himself  somehow 
amidst  the  baggage,  and  was  only  discovered  at 
Uzerches  famished  and  footsore,  but  more  devoted 
than  ever. 

The  travellers  reached  the  Pass  of  Perthus,  in 
the  Pyrenees,  on  Vend^miaire  13,  and  after  remaining 
two  months  at  Figuieres,  settled  at  Saria,  a  quarter  of 
a  league  from  Barcelona. 

The  house  inhabited  by  the  princesses  was  "old, 
full  of  rats  and  still  more  objectionable  insects,"  says 
the  Abbe  Lambert.  They  had  to  pay  300x3  francs 
a  year  for  it,  though  the  property  was  not  worth 
10,000  francs  altogether.  The  Duchesse  d'Orleans' 

rtment  "  comprised  two  little  rooms,  separated  by 
a  secret  closet  from  her  maid's  room."  The  Abb£ 
Lambert's  description  of  the  furniture  is  worth  quot- 
ing :  4<  Her  work  and  card  table  was  a  mere  assem- 
blage of  planks  badly  joined  together  by  a  coachman, 
who  had  turned  carpenter  from  a  desire  to  be  useful. 
The  dining-table  was  on  movable  legs,  and  could  be 
folded  up  against  the  wall,  so  as  to  occupy  no  more 
than  one  or  two  feet  Mme.  la  Duchesse  de  Bourbon 


had  helped  to  construct  the  magnificent  screen,  com- 
posed of  cardboard  boxes  strengthened  with  diverse 
pieces  of  wood  and  reeds,  the  colouring  and  ornamen- 
tation of  which  had  been  carried  out  by  her.  The 
chimney-piece  was  small  and  low  ;  it  had  been  made 
narrower  in  accordance  with  French  taste.  Wicker 
chairs  of  the  commonest  description  were  ranged 
round  the  room.  In  the  middle  next  to  the  cabinet 
was  an  arm-chair  (also  in  wicker-work,  but  completely 
lined  with  morocco  cushions)  which,  by  sheer  in- 
genuity, had  been  converted  into  a  sofa.  This  was 
a  present  from  their  cousin,  the  King  ;  opposite  to 
it  stood  a  curtainless  bed,  and  in  the  corner  an  antique 
table  with  gilt  feet.  A  mirror  hung  against  the  wall 
between  these  old  pieces  of  furniture  and  the  French 
window,  which  opened  on  to  the  terrace  at  the  side  of 
the  fire-place." 

During  her  stay  at  Saria  the  Duchesse  d'Orleans 
often  received  news  of  her  daughter.  September  17, 
1799,  the  Empress  of  Russia  wrote  thus:  "  My 
dearest  friend,  I  have  just  seen  some  one  who  lives 
in  the  same  place  as  Mademoiselle,  your  daughter, 
and  sees  her  frequently  ;  he  does  nothing  but  praise 
her.  If  only  you  could  be  near  each  other!  What 
a  consolation  for  you  to  have  her  in  your  arms,  to 
weep  with  her  and  live  together  !  " l  This  consolation 
was  soon  granted  to  the  Duchesse  d'Orleans.  Louis- 
Philippe,  then  at  Twickenham  with  his  brothers  and 
reconciled  to  the  Comte  de  Provence,  succeeded  in 
obtaining  from  foreign  governments  the  authorisation 

1  Letter  quoted  by  Delille,  Journal  de  la  vie  de  S.A.S.  la  Duchesse 
d 'Orleans. 

TIIK    Pl'CHl'SS    IN    SPAIN  121 

which  his  mother  .mil  sister  had  long  bt:<  n 
And  on  November  29,  1802,  Adelaide  arrived  at 
licrcs,  where  the  Duchesse  d'Orleans  had  been 
living  since  the  month  of  April  of  the  same  year. 
"  What  joy  for  this  fond  mother  to  embrace  her  dear 
dan-  hu-r !  "  wrote  Delille.  "  How  happy  she  was  to 

in  her  to  her  heart  every  day!  .  .  .  Mademoiselle 
possessed  all  the  qualities  calculated  to  soften  Her 
Highness's  position.  She  was  remarkable  for  a  care- 
fully cultivated  mind,  for  infinite  grace,  and  a  great 
talent  for  playing  the  harp  and  painting." 

On  arriving  at  the  Ermitage  (as  the  house  was 
called)  Adelaide  found  that  a  large  establishment  of 
twenty-one  persons  lived  at  her  mother's  expense. 
It  was  true  that  Rouzet,  "the  good  Rouzet,"  who  had 
assumed  the  title  of  chancellor  to  Her  Serene  High- 
ness, directed  the  Princess's  household  with  zeal  and 
economy.  His  devotion  had  in  no  wise  decreased, 
but  he  behaved  as  if  he  were  master  of  the  house,  and 
his  influence  over  the  Duchesse  d'Orleans  became 
-rcater  every  day.  Thanks  to  the  King  of  Spain — 
less  miserly  with  his  titles  than  with  his  cash — he  had 
become  Comte  de  Folmont,  and  "wore  on  his  em- 
broidered satin  coat  the  Maltese  cross  and  the  cordon 
of  Saint  Charles  of  Naples." 

Mademoiselle  did  not  greatly  enjoy  being  with  a 
mother  whose  chancellor  absorbed  all  her  time,  and 
in  a  small  town  where  the  diversions  were  the  same 
every  day,  and  consisted  of  much  church-going,  a  few 
visits  to  the  hospital,  and  a  short  walk  under  the 
galleries  of  the  grand  place.  Sometimes  during  the 
fine  season,  however,  they  took  a  volland  (hired 


carriage)  and  drove  across  the  vast  plain  of  Muga, 
planted  with  olives,  to  the  little  port  of  Rosas ; 
or  else  they  climbed  the  mountain  road,  shaded  by 
green  oak-trees,  to  the  Chateau  de  Bellegarde  to  view 
the  land  of  France  from  afar. 

One  evening  a  smart  tartane  (a  two-wheeled  car- 
riage with  a  white  linen  awning)  drawn  by  a  team 
of  mules,  their  harness  adorned  with  pompoms  and 
bells,  stopped  at  the  Ermitage.  An  abbe  was  lolling 
back  comfortably  among  the  cushions.  He  wore  a 
"  puce  -  coloured  cassock  in  fine  cloth,  fastened  by 
diamond  buttons,  jabot  and  sleeves  of  lace,  and  shoes 
with  gold  buckles  set  with  rubies."  This  was  the 
Abbe  de  Saint  Farre,  the  careless  prodigal  son  of 
Mme.  de  Villemonble  and  half-uncle  of  the  Princesse 
Adelaide.  Bored  at  Garcia  with  his  sister,  the 
Duchesse  de  Bourbon  (who  gave  him  moral  lectures), 
he  had  come  hoping  to  find  greater  indulgence  from 
the  Duchesse  d'Orle"ans,  a  little  pocket-money,  and 
freedom  to  divert  himself  as  he  liked. 

He  was  gladly  welcomed,  "  lived  in  clover,"  shar- 
ing the  Duchess's  modest  fare — "soup,  a  piece  of 
boiled  beef,  two  entrees  " — and  paid  his  footing  with 
his  high  spirits,  good  humour,  and  sparkling  wit.  His 
niece  did  nothing  but  tease  him,  and  far  from  being 
angry  at  this,  when  not  away  amusing  himself  at 
Barcelona,  he  would  take  the  girl  on  the  sea  in  a 
little  boat  he  had  bought  for  her.  Saint  Farre  was 
at  Figuieres  when  the  Queen  of  Etruria  and  her  son 
stopped  there.  The  Queen  had  a  saintly  soul,  but 
her  appearance  was  vulgar.  As  to  her  son,  he  was  so 
timid  that  he  cried  when  he  had  to  ride  on  horseback, 

DEPARTURE    FROM    SPAIN          123 

and  turned  taint  at  si^lit  of  a  L^UII.  Despoiled  of 
IHT  estates  by  Bonaparte,  she  was  on  her  way  to 
take  possession  of  that  chimerical  kingdom  of  Oporto 
which  Napoleon  had  promised,  but  never  gave  her. 

In  February,  1808,  a  French  army  invaded  Cata- 
lonia and  occupied  Figuieres.  The  princesses  were 
not  interfered  with,  but  the  soldiers  lived  on  plunder 
and  soon  wore  out  the  patience  of  the  inhabitants, 
who  rose  against  them  on  June  12,  1808.  The  French, 
n  unawares,  were  obliged  to  fly  before  the  rioters. 
They  took  refuge  in  Fort  San-Fernando,  whence  they 
bombarded  the  town.  The  first  bomb  fell  upon  the 
Duchesse  d'Orle"ans'  house.  The  frightened  prin- 
cesses hastily  gathered  some  clothes  together  and 
prepared  to  leave  the  Ermitage,  when  the  French 
troops,  having  made  themselves  masters  of  the  town, 
came  and  occupied  the  cross  roads.  On  the  i3th 
Figuieres  was  again  bombarded,  and  as  it  was  im- 
possible to  fly  in  broad  daylight,  they  waited  until 
nightfall ;  but  a  detachment  of  soldiers  surrounded 
the  house,  and  they  had  to  make  up  their  minds  to 
endure  the  fire  of  the  I4th.  On  the  evening  of  that 
day  the  cannonade  ceased,  and  the  way  being  clear, 
they  started  at  nine  o'clock. 

Their  departure  was  both  romantic  and  comical— 
tragic  also,  for  the  least  imprudence  would  have  be- 
trayed the  princesses.  They  had  to  take  away  as 
much  linen  as  possible,  provisions  and  souvenirs,  so 
that  their  servitors  brushed  against  the  walls  as  they 
went  out  with  the  heavy  burdens  they  were  carrying 
on  their  shoulders. 

The  Duchess  decided  to  ask  for  shelter  at  the  con- 


vent  of  Villasacra,  situated  more  than  a  league  from 
the  town.  In  order  to  get  there  they  had  to  cross 
the  Manolde,  a  torrent  which  was  generally  dried  up 
in  autumn,  but  in  spring  was  full  of  swirling  waters ; 
into  this  the  fugitives  plunged,  the  Duchess  and  her 
daughter  being  carried  across,  and  after  a  painful 
climb  they  arrived  at  the  convent.  It  was  midnight. 
The  Duchess,  Mademoiselle,  and  their  ladies  were 
obliged  to  sleep  on  mattresses  placed  for  them  on 
the  floor  of  the  hall. 

The  princesses  stayed  three  weeks  at  the  con- 
vent of  Villasacra.  Then,  when  all  hope  of  returning 
to  Figuieres  was  at  an  end,  they  set  out  for  Terruel 
de  Montgris.  From  there  Mademoiselle  took  ship  to 
join  her  brother  at  Malta.  "  This  separation,"  wrote 
Delille,  "although  necessitated  by  circumstances,  was 
very  painful  for  Mademoiselle  who,  during  the  six 
years  she  had  been  with  her  mother,  had  given  con- 
vincing proof  of  her  affection  and  filial  piety." 

Delille  does  not  explain  what  the  imperious  cir- 
cumstances were  which  thus  forced  Mademoiselle 
d'Orleans  to  leave  her  mother.  Perhaps  monetary 
considerations  impelled  her  to  do  so  ;  the  Duchess 
indeed  "  had  not  received  the  moderate  pension  given 
her  by  the  French  Government  since  January  1808," 
and  had  had  to  have  recourse  to  Rouzet,  which  made 
Mademoiselle's  position  rather  delicate.  It  is,  indeed, 
Rouzet 's  presence  near  the  Duchess  which  accounts  in 
great  measure  for  the  Princesse  Adelaide's  departure. 
Certainly  there  had  never  been  the  least  sympathy 
between  mother  and  daughter.  When,  on  arriving 
at  Fribourg,  Mademoiselle  heard  of  her  father's  death 

DF.PARTITRF    FROM    SPAIN          125 

and  of  the  terrible  things  which  had  happened  during 
the  Revolution,  she  had  written  letters  to  her  mother 
full  of  an  exaggerated  remorse  for  her  own  wrong- 
doing in  the  past.  She  was  then  under  the  influence 
of  her  aunt;  her  great  desire  was  to  live  with  her 
mother,  and  she  did  not  realise  that  the  latter  was 
so  much  attached  to  her  chancellor.  But,  once  at 
Figuieres,  she  quickly  perceived  that  the  affection 
which  subsisted  between  Folmont  and  the  Duchess 
was  exclusive  and  tiresome.  Added  to  which,  Rouzet, 
with  the  jealousy  of  a  man  deeply  in  love,  took  a 
violent  dislike  to  Princess  Adelaide,  whose  presence 
— she  was  then  thirty-one  years  of  age — might  be- 
come inconvenient,  and  who  was  not  of  a  character  to 
put  up  easily  with  the  "  strange  proceedings  of  M. 
Folmont,"  according  to  the  testimony  of  Mme.  de 
Boigne.  Indeed,  the  following  letter,  written  in  1810 
by  Louis-Philippe  to  Queen  Caroline  of  Naples,  ex- 
plains better  than  any  commentary  why  Mademoiselle 
was  obliged  to  leave  her  mother  : — 

"  .  .  .  I  must,  therefore,  express  very  sincerely 
my  profound  gratitude  for  all  the  efforts  you  have 
made  to  restore  my  poor  Mother  to  herself,  and  to 
revive  the  fondness  for  her  children  in  which  she 
gloried.  If  she  would  but  examine  her  pretended 
grievances  against  her  children,  in  good  faith,  she 
would  see  that  these  are  reduced  to  the  imaginary 
reproach  of  not  having  regard  for  him  for  whom  they 
have  done  much  more  than  my  Mother  should  ever 
(for  her  own  sake)  have  desired  them  to  do ;  and  to 
the  none  the  less  imaginary  reproach  of  having  wel- 
comed, and  treated  well,  those  whom  the  incompati- 


bility  of  temperament  of  the  said  personage  had  driven 
from  her,  reducing  her  to  a  t£te-a-t£te,  of  which  we  are 
victims  as  well  as  herself ;  for  do  not  doubt,  Madam, 
that  she  does  suffer  greatly  in  every  way.  .  .  ." l 

The  Duchesse  d'Orleans  was  only  able  to  stay 
two  months  at  Terruel  de  Montgris.  She  took  refuge 
at  Palamos  with  M.  Taverne,  captain  of  the  port, 
then  three  months  afterwards  set  out  for  Tarragona. 

A  violent  storm  prevented  her  from  landing  at 
that  town.  New  Year's  Day,  1809,  she  was  at 
Mahon,  where  Mademoiselle  and  the  Due  d'Orleans 
soon  came  to  fetch  her. 

1  This  letter  was  published  in  the  Intermediaire  des  chercheurs  et 
curieux  (January  10,  1902). 


'h  nf  the  Due  de  Montpensier  and  the  Comte  de  Beaujolais — 
The  Due  <rOrli'-ans  at  Palermo — His  official  betrothal  to 
Marie  Ann' lie — Princess  Adelaide  meets  her  brother 
again — Her  affection  for  him — Their  intrigues — They 
go  to  Mahon  for  their  mother — The  Due  d*  Orleans' 
marriage — The  King  and  Queen  of  Naples — The  wr tu- 
bers of  the  Orleans  family  pester  the  English  Government 
with  demands  for  money — The  Due  a"  Orleans  is  driven 
from  Spain — The  Duct  the  Duchesset  and  Mademoiselle 
a*  Orleans  conspire  against  Ferdinand  IV.  and  Marie 
Caroline — Exile  of  the.  Queen  of  Naples. 

THE  Orleans  princes  lived  at  Twickenham  in  a 
mansion  which  they  rented  from  George  Pococke,  a 
Member  of  Parliament.  Mme.  de  Boigne  describes 
as  follows  the  early  part  of  their  life  in  England : — 
"  All  three  having  retired  to  a  little  house  at  Twicken- 
ham in  the  neighbourhood  of  London,  lived  there  in 
the  most  modest  and  comfortable  manner.  Their 
friend,  M.  de  Montjoie,  composed  their  court,  and 
fulfilled  the  function  of  gentleman  of  the  chamber 
on  the  rare  occasions  when  any  form  of  etiquette 
was  necessary. 

"In  spite  of  my  first  dislike,  I  soon  perceived  that 
M.  de  Montpensier  was  as  amiable  as  he  was  clever 
and  distinguished.  He  was  passionately  fond  of  the 


arts  and  music,  which  the  Due  d'Orle"ans  tolerated 
out  of  regard  for  his  brother.  Nothing  could  be  more 
touching  than  the  affection  of  these  two  princes  for 
each  other,  and  their  devotion  to  M.  de  Beaujolais, 
who  did  not  respond  to  their  care.  He  was  idle, 
flighty,  and  inconsistent,  and  when  able  to  emancipate 
himself  in  London,  plunged  into  all  the  scrapes  possible 
to  a  young  man  of  fashion.  In  spite  of  a  charming 
face  and  distinguished  appearance,  he  had  got  into 
such  bad  habits  that  he  had  lost  the  bearing  of  persons 
in  good  society,  so  that  when  one  saw  him  coming  out 
of  the  opera  one  avoided  meeting  him,  lest  he  should 
be  in  a  state  of  complete  intoxication. 

"The  Due  de  Montpensier  was  ugly,  but  per- 
fectly gracious  and  amiable ;  his  manners  were  so 
noble  that  his  face  was  soon  forgotten.  The  Due 
d'Orle"ans,  who  was  handsome  enough,  had  no  dis- 
tinction either  in  figure  or  manners,  and  never  seemed 
completely  at  his  ease.  His  conversation,  although 
very  interesting,  was  a  little  pedantic  for  a  man  of 
his  age.  In  short,  he  had  not  the  good  fortune  to 
please  me  as  much  as  his  brother,  with  whom  I  should 
have  greatly  liked  to  talk  more  than  I  dared." 

The  Due  d'Orle"ans,  who  went  a  great  deal  into 
London  society,  became  more  and  more  English  in 
his  manner  of  living  and  even  in  his  dress. 

The  great  subject  of  anxiety  to  the  Prince  was  the 
health  of  his  two  brothers.  During  the  course  of  their 
long  detention  in  the  prisons  at  Marseilles,  the  Due 
de  Montpensier  and  the  Comte  de  Beaujolais  had, 
indeed,  contracted  the  germs  of  the  disease  which  was 
to  prove  fatal.  In  the  beginning  of  1807  tne 


(1  ( )rlc  ans  took  them  to  Christchurch,  in  the  south  of 
Kn^land,  where  the  climate  was  warmer.  The  Due 
de  Montpensier  soon  died  there,  and  was  buried  in 
Westminster  Abbey.  The  Comte  de  Beaujolais,  to 
please  his  elder  brother,  consented  to  go  to  Malta. 
The  heat  there  was  so  i^reat  that  Louis- Philippe  wrote 
to  Ferdinand  IV.,  King  of  Naples,  asking  for  per- 
mission to  take  his  brother  to  the  foot  of  Mount  Etna 
in  Sicily.  When  the  reply  came  it  was  too  late ;  the 
Comte  de  Beaujolais  had  died,  May  29,  1808.  He 
was  twenty-eight  years  old. 

Some  weeks  after  the  obsequies  of  his  brother, 
to  whom  "  the  greatest  honours  were  paid,"  Louis- 
Philippe,  summoned  by  a  fresh  letter  from  Ferdinand 
IV.,1  went  to  the  casino  at  Camastra,  where  the  royal 
family  of  Naples  was  assembled.  "  The  Queen,"  the 
Due  d'Orl6ans  related  afterwards,  "  was  waiting  for 
me  on  the  steps  of  the  palace  when  I  presented  myself. 
She  took  me  by  the  hand,  and  led  me  to  her  apart- 
ment. There,  in  the  embrasure  of  a  window,  holding 
my  head  in  her  hands,  she  looked  at  me  for  a  long 
while  without  speaking.  '  I  ought,'  she  said  at  length, 
'  to  detest  you,  for  you  have  fought  against  us  for  a 
long  time,  and  nevertheless  I  feel  a  liking  for  you.' ' 
After  this  she  sent  for  the  Princesses  Isabelle  and 
Marie  Am£lie,  and  presented  them  to  the  Due 
d'Orteans.  "  He  is  of  ordinary  height,"  Marie  Amelie 
noted  in  her  diary  that  same  evening,  "  rather  stout, 

1  The  House  of  Naples  had  certainly  thought  of  a  marriage  between 

Marie  Amtlic  and  the  Due  d'Orldans.    The  placing  of  Marie  Caroline's 

numerous  children  was  not  easy.     Count  Tedor  Golowkin  notes  in  his 

The  Queen's  liaison  with  a  lover  had  prevented  her  eldest 

daughter  from  marrying  the  Due  d'Aoste." 



neither  handsome  nor  ugly  in  appearance.  He  has 
the  features  of  the  House  of  Bourbon.  He  is  polite 
and  very  well  educated." 

Being  a  clever  man,  the  Due  d'Orl^ans  professed 
very  legitimist  sentiments  at  the  court  of  Palermo,  and, 
after  having  officially  concluded  his  betrothal  with 
Marie  Amdie,  went  so  far  as  to  agree  to  "act  as 
mentor  "  to  the  Prince  of  Salerne,  his  future  brother- 
in-law,  whom  Ferdinand  IV.  was  sending  to  Spain  to 
exercise  the  regency  over  that  kingdom,  after  the  en- 
forced retirement  of  Ferdinand  VII.  Once  in  Spain, 
the  Duke  counted  upon  tl  inducing  Murat  and  Junot  to 
betray  the  Empire,  and  proposed  to  cross  the  Pyrenees 
and  march  upon  Paris  in  the  name  of  Louis  XVIII.,"1 
but  the  junta  of  Seville,  yielding  to  pressure  from 
England,  interdicted  Spanish  territory  to  the  two 
princes.  The  Due  d'Orleans  then  set  out  for  London 
and  tried  to  get  this  prohibition  withdrawn,  but  in 

While  Louis-Philippe  was  in  England,  his  sister, 
Mademoiselle  Adelaide,  had  gone  to  meet  him  first  at 
Malta,  then  at  Gibraltar ;  it  was  only  at  Portsmouth 
that  she  caught  him  up. 

One  can  imagine  how  delighted  the  brother  and 
sister  were  to  meet  again.  It  was  fifteen  years  since 
they  had  seen  each  other.  They  swore  never  to  leave 
one  another  again,  and,  indeed,  from  this  time  forward 
Princess  Adelaide  gave  herself  up  to  her  brother. 
She  manifested  a  disinterested,  ardent,  and  almost 
maternal  affection  for  him  ;  shared  his  joys,  sorrows, 
and  dangers ;  identified  her  ideas  with  his ;  often 

1  Fauche  Bore),  Memoires, 


directed  and  always  assisted  him,  and  lived  in  his 
home  in  complete  abnegation  and  forgetfulness  of 

At  Portsmouth  the  brother  and  sister  embarked 
on  the  English  man-of-war  for  Sicily.  Leaving 
Spithead,  October  15,  they  arrived  at  Gibraltar, 
December  20.  Thence  they  went  to  Malta.  The 
Due  d'Orle"ans  busied  himself  with  keeping  up  intrigues 
in  Spain,  which  were  intended  to  impress  the  insur- 
rectional regency  with  the  importance  of  his  inter- 
vention. And  he  was  always  actuated  by  the  desire 
of  being  the  first  Bourbon  to  re-enter  France.  But  a 
more  pressing  affair  called  him  to  Sicily.  A  number 
of  persons  at  the  court  of  Palermo  had  banded  them- 
selves together  with  the  object  of  preventing  the  Duke's 
marriage  to  Marie  Ame*lie.  Fabrizio  Ruffo,  Prince  de 
Castelcicala,  Ferdinand  IV.'s  Ambassador  in  London, 
and  the  Marquis  de  Circello,  who  knew  "the  bound- 
less ambition  of  the  Duke,"  were  at  the  head  of  this 

Leaving  his  sister  at  Malta  with  Mme.  de  Mont- 
joie,  therefore,  Louis-Philippe  started  for  Sicily.  He 
landed  at  Girgenta  and  went  on  horseback  as  far  as 
Palermo.  A  few  days  sufficed  to  dissipate  the  pre- 
judices against  him. 

From  Palermo  the  Duke  embarked  for  Cagliari, 
where  he  counted  upon  meeting  his  mother,  but  the 
Duchess  had  left  Sardinia  three  months  previously  and 
settled  at  Mahon  ;  all  the  same  her  son  stayed 
some  time  at  Cagliari,  where  they  were  busily  getting 
troops  together  against  France.  "There  are,  "wrote  the 
Duke  at  this  epoch,  "  French  armies  in  Spain,  Naples, 


and  Dalmatia  which  are  likely  to  find  themselves  in 
disastrous  positions — at  least  I  hope  so.  That  will  be 
the  time  to  appeal  to  men's  passions."  The  first  thing 
was  to  induce  the  vanquished  generals  to  become 
traitors,  the  next  to  rouse  all  the  royalists  in  the  south 
of  France. 

But  Eckmlihl,  Essling,  and  Wagram  shattered  the 
Prince's  illusions.  He  returned  to  Palermo,  where  he 
was  joined  by  his  sister.  Leaving  Malta,  September 
i,  1809,  on  the  Py lades,  she  had  the  delight  of  seeing 
the  whole  panorama  of  the  Conque  d'Or  slowly  unfold 
before  her  eyes  on  the  morning  of  the  3rd,  as  Palermo 
appeared  in  all  the  gracious  radiance  of  its  white 
houses  emerging  from  the  mists.  She  set  foot  on  the 
Place  de  I'^glise  de  la  Catena,  which  recalled  the  loggia 
at  Florence,  was  received  with  much  deference  at  the 
royal  palace,  and  soon  became  "my  good,  my  dear 
Adele"  to  the  Princesse  Am6lie,  who  thus  traces  in 
her  diary  the  portrait  of  her  future  sister-in-law  : 
11  She  is  my  height  and  very  delicate;  has  a  broad 
face,  a  large  mouth,  great  eyes,  and  beautiful  fair  hair  ; 
she  appears  to  me  very  amiable,  has  plenty  of  wit  and 
pleases  me  greatly." 

After  spending  a  few  days  only  in  Sicily,  Made- 
moiselle started  for  Mahon  in  company  with  her 
brother.  There  they  met  the  Duchesse  d'Orle"ans, 
who  had  been  informed  of  their  approaching  arrival. 
"  What  rejoicing  for  so  fond  a  mother!  What  tears 
of  gladness  she  shed  on  seeing  her  only  son  again ! 
The  tenderest  caresses  were  bestowed  upon  her  two 
children,"  wrote  Delille  sanctimoniously,  feigning  to 
ignore  the  fact  that  the  sole  object  of  this  journey  was 


to  briii^  tin-   Duchesse  d'Orleans  to   Palermo,  wl 
her  presence  was  required  by  Marie  Caroline. 

Tin;  Princess,  who  till  then  had  ;  d  her  child- 

ren's entreaties,  allowed  herself  to  be  won  over  on 
condition  that  the  K'mg  consented  to  the  projected 
marriage  of  the  first  prince  of  the  blood.  The  Due 
d  (  Means  acquiesced  in  his  mother's  desire.  He  wrote 
to  Louis  XVIII.,  and  addressed  a  packet  to  the 
Comte  d'Artois  containing  letters  from  the  Duchesse 
d'Orl&ins  to  the  Queen,  Monsieur,  Madame  d'Angou- 
leme  and  the  Comte  de  Provence,  who  sent  his 

Louis-Philippe  hastened  to  share  his  delight  with 
his  friends  and  wrote  to  M.  de  Guilhermy  :  "Follow- 
ing your  advice  I  am  going  to  marry  her  whom  you 
wished  me  to  marry,  and  if  I  were  all  I  am  not,  and 
the  times  were  everything  they  are  not,  it  would  be 
difficult  for  me  to  make  a  better  match  in  every 

>ect.  What  an  advantage  this  marriage  will  be  to 
me  !  and  what  a  blow  to  prejudices!  It  means  that  I 
shall  be  in  closer  touch  with  my  family  as  well  as  with 
the  House  of  Austria!  What  an  excellent  thing  for 
me  to  marry  a  Bourbon,  and  probably  (at  least  I  think 
so)  to  have  children  !  " 

The  Duchesse  d'Orleans  embarked  on  board  the 
Knglish  frigate  Resistance,  and  arrived  at  Palermo, 
October  15.  She  took  up  her  residence  at  the  Palace 
5  mta-Croce  in  the  middle  of  the  town  on  the  way 
to  Montreal.  She  received  the  most  gracious  welcome 
from  Marie  Caroline,  and  begged  the  Queen  to  re- 
member that  in  1776  her  Majesty  had  had  the  kindness 
to  say  to  her  "  that  the  first  daughter  God  should  give 


her  should  be  the  wife  of  her  eldest  son,  the  Due  de 
Valois."  Marie  Caroline  remembered  very  well  having 
formerly  expressed  this  desire,  and  urged  by  "  that 
angel,"  the  Duchesse  d'Orleans,  she  set  to  work  to 
make  the  arrangements  for  the  wedding  ceremony. 

The  contract  was  signed  November  15,  "  the 
letters  from  the  King  of  France,  dated  from  Hartwell, 
being  included."  But  Ferdinand  IV.  having  fallen 
down  the  palace  staircase,  the  marriage  could  not  be 
celebrated  before  November  25.  Mgr.  Monarchia 
united  the  happy  pair  in  the  chamber  of  the  "  august 
invalid,"  where  a  temporary  altar  had  been  placed. 
Then  they  went  down  to  the  Palatine  Chapel,  which 
was  only  twenty-six  metres  in  length,  but  so  arranged 
that  it  looked  like  a  great  church,  and  combined  the 
beauties  of  Moorish,  Byzantine,  and  Roman  art. 

The  King  and  Queen  of  Naples,  "  in  order  to 
avoid  the  bickerings  which  are  never  wanting,  at  court 
as  elsewhere,  between  households  too  closely  asso- 
ciated, assigned  the  Santa  Teresa  Palace  to  their 
daughter  and  son-in-law.  But  this  palace  was  old,  fall- 
ing to  pieces,  uninhabitable.  While  waiting  for  it  to 
be  restored  the  Duke  and  the  new  Duchess  settled  in 
a  separate  apartment  of  the  royal  palace.  Instead  of 
going  to  live  with  her  mother  at  Santa  Croce,  Adelaide 
remained  near  her  brother.  The  relations  between 
the  sisters-in-law  became  every  day  more  affectionate ; 
Mademoiselle's  cult  for  the  Due  d'Orleans  was,  besides, 
not  likely  to  displease  the  young  wife,  who  had  sur- 
rounded herself  by  French  people,  and  taken  the 
Comtesse  de  Verac  as  lady-in-waiting.  Her  long 
sojourn  with  Mme.  de  Genlis  had  embued  Princesse 


Adelaide  with  u  love  of  instructing  others,  and  she 
forthwith  set  to  work  to  teach  Marie  Amclie  French, 
a  language  the  latter  did  not  understand  before  her 
marriage.  The  Due  d'(  )rKans  cultivated  his  garden, 
and  received  a  great  many  people.  Among  these  was 
M.  de  Montron,  an  bnigrt  who  had  been  driven  from 
France  by  the  imperial  police.  He  amused  Palermo 
as  he  had  entertained  Paris,  enlivening  the  long  idle 
evenings  in  the  Colli  Palace  by  the  charm  of  his 

But  the  inhabitants  of  the  palace  itself  did  not 
escape  the  espionage  which  hung  over  everybody  in 
Palermo,  for  Catrone,  the  chief  of  police,  aided  by  the 
"  Queen  Mary  rifle  corps,"  as  the  Queen's  bravoes 
were  styled,  spared  nobody.  The  King  of  Naples, 
Ferdinand  IV.,  was,  however,  a  good  man,  "intelli- 
gent, clever,  good-natured,  but  weak,  inconsiderate, 
and  careless"  ;  he  only  looked  after  the  affairs  of  the 
kingdom  against  his  will,  and  would  have  liked  to 
live  simply  in  the  country.  "  My  wife  knows  every- 
thing," he  was  wont  to  repeat,  and  abandoned  the 
government  to  her.  Marie  Caroline's  chief  supporters 
were  lawless  French  and  Neapolitans,  who  took 
advantage  of  the  Queen's  "innumerable  vices."1 

Tall,  well  educated,  but  haughty  and  proud,  Marie 
Caroline  had  "an  eminently  Austrian  cast  of  counte- 
nance, but  much  less  agreeable  than  that  of  her 
sisters,"  says  Count  Golovkine ;  besides  she  had  aged, 
and  with  her  wrinkled  face  looked  like  a  "  witch "  ; 
"  intoxicated  with  opium,  covered  with  the  blood  of 

1  Gagnidres,  La  Reine  Marie  Caroline  de  Naples.     Quotations  from 

ihc  diary  of  Lord  Anncslcy  (British  Museum,  manuscript  19,246). 


her  subjects,  she  had  fallen  into  all  sorts  of  disorderly 
ways."     "  Her  lovers — Saint  Clair  and  the  stiff  and 
ugly  Afflito ;  her  fanatical  partisans,  the  Chevalier  de 
Bressac,  a  bandit,  Marialese,  a  forger  —  went  about 
covered  with  jewels,  watches,  chains,  and  fandangles." 
The  Government  of   Naples  was    in  great   distress. 
"The  Due  d'Orleans,"  as  the  Duke  of  Kent  wrote, 
"  has  made  a  very  bad  bargain."    And  all  the  members 
of  his  family,  usually  so  little  disinterested,  were  taken 
aback.     They  assailed  the  English  Government  with 
their  petitions,  wrote  to  the  Duke  of  Kent,  the  Duke 
of  Portland,  and  to  all  their  friends  demanding  money 
"again   and   again."      The   fact   was   that   since   the 
beginning  of  the  year  1808  the  French  Government 
had  not  paid  Adelaide's  mother  her  pension,  and  that 
she  herself  had  received  nothing  from  the   English 
Foreign  Office  since  leaving  Malta.     The  position  of 
the  Due  d'Orle"ans  was  no  better  :  he  had  not  received 
his  allowance  since  his  departure  from  England.     So 
he  wrote  daily,  soliciting,  begging,  imploring.     "  My 
Mother  is  ill,"  said  he,  "she  owes  money,  send  her 
her  allowance  in  whatever  part  of  the  Mediterranean 
she  may  be.  ...  Another  object  which  I  have  more  at 
heart  than  my  Mother  is  what  concerns  my  sister.  .  .  ." 
And  he  asked  for  the   Princesse  Adelaide,    "of  the 
goodness  of  the   King  of  England  and  his  Govern- 
ment,"  the   two   hundred    francs   a    month    formerly 
given  to   Beaujolais,    "  that  sum  being  the  same  as 
Lord  Castlereagh  had  ordered  Sir  Alex.  Bell  to  remit 
every  month"  to  his  sister  at  Malta.     In  April  1810, 
he  wrote  to  the  Duke  of  Kent  to  obtain  "  some  sort  of 
help,  and  that  immediate"  for  the  Dowager- Duchess 


and  lor  Madenn  >isclle  ;  and  the  latter  wrote  to  Guil- 
hrrmy,  October  22,  1810:  "I  hear  from  my  brother  my  allowance  is  granted  ;  but  the  order  for  me  to 

receive  it  has  not  yet  come.    This  delay  is  awkward 

You  can  understand  my  anxiety.'*  And  in  her  letters 
the  Due  de  Penthievre's  daughter  complains  of  the 
"  excessive  cost  of  living." 

But  lo !  and  behold,  in  the  midst  of  this  dissolute 
court,  amid  depression  and  monetary  embarrassments, 
threat  news  arrived.  Louis-Philippe's  intrigues  had 
succeeded,  and  the  Spanish  regency  had  just  offered 
him  a  command  in  Catalonia.  He  started  at  once  on 
the  frigate  Vengenza  bound  for  Tarragona,  leaving 
his  poor  wife  "very  sad  and  low,"1  but  glad  to  see 
him  get  out  of  the  "  dormitory  "  at  last.  Mademoiselle 
rejoiced  at  her  brother's  departure :  Spain,  where  the 
French  armies  were  engaged,  was  near  to  France, 
and  a  check  to  Napoleon  might  be  expected  at 
any  moment.  Queen  Marie  Caroline,  who  perhaps 
already  found  her  son-in-law  in  the  way,  was  doubly 
glad.  "  Go  to  glory,"  said  she,  "  you  deserve  it,  save 
and  cure  Europe."  The  Duke  started,  spirits  were 
at  Palermo,  where  they  already  imagined  him 
back  covered  with  laurels.  "His  portrait  in 
the  uniform  of  a  Spanish  general,  wearing  the  Saint- 
Esprit,"  the  old  French  decoration,  had  been  engraved 
in  London  for  propaganda  purposes. 

Louis  -  Philippe    left     Sicily    bearing    with    him 

another   hope.       "  My   wife   has   now    been   enceinte 

for    five    months,"    he  wrote    to    M.    de  Guilhermy. 

.   .  The  greater  number  of  persons  who  pretend 

1  Letter  from  the  Due  d'Orlcans  to  Guilhermy. 


to  understand  these  things  predict  a  boy ;  Cosisia !  I 
will  take  what  comes  willingly.  ...  I  have  the  prin- 
cipal thing,  I  am  married,  my  wife  is  enceinte,  and  the 
child  moves  a  good  deal,  Alleluia !  " 

Yes !  Alleluia !  if  it  were  a  boy  !  for  Marie  AmeUie, 
inspired  by  her  "dear  Adele,"  already  shared  the 
family  ambition,  and  wrote  to  her  husband,  July 
1810:  "Here  everybody  calculates  that  your  son 
will  be  heir-presumptive  to  the  kingdom  of  France." 

What  results  did  they  not  expect  at  Palermo  from 
this  Spanish  campaign  "  amongst  a  foreign  people, 
overwhelmed  with  reverses ! "  The  'Emigre's  were 
disappointed,  especially  the  little  group  gathered  in 
London  under  the  name  of  the  "  Manchester  republic." 
The  sister  and  wife  of  Louis-Philippe  were  exultant. 
There  was  only  one  black  spot — the  fear  lest  the  Due 
d'Angouleme  or  the  Due  de  Berry  should  forestall 
their  cousin.  But  the  intrigues  of  the  elder  branch 
proved  abortive  :  they  breathed  freely  at  Palermo,  the 
Duke  was  "  full  of  hope,  of  well-founded  hope."1 

Every  one  in  Spain,  however,  was  prejudiced 
against  the  Due  d'Orl^ans.  He  was  obliged  to  leave 
Tarragona  without  taking  up  the  promised  command, 
and  the  Cortes  requested  him  to  leave  Cadiz,  whither 
he  had  retired.  He  tried  to  resist,  not  wishing  to 
return  to  Sicily  unless  "absolutely  obliged"  to  do 
so ;  but  they  threatened  him  with  arrest,  and  he 
had  to  embark,  October  5,  1810,  on  the  frigate 
Esmeralda  bound  for  Palermo. 

He  brought  no  laurels  back  with  him,  having 
been  again  foiled  by  a  force  superior  to  his  own.  His 

1  Broval  to  Guilhermy. 

Kl-lUKN    TO    SICILY  139 

.iiul  sisirr  were  broken-hearted.  "'1  uson 

is  return/1  wrote  Adelaide  to  Guilhermy,  "gives 
me  more  pain  than  I  can  expn 

The  time  for  action  had  not  yet  arrived.  How 
many  blows  had  missed  their  aim  already  since  the 
defection  of  Dumouriez  !  No  matter  !  He  must  in- 
trigue again,  intrigue  always,  be  skilful,  manoeuvring, 
Haltering,  compliant,  and  the  Due  d'Orl&ms  was  a 
past-master  in  these  things ;  besides,  had  he  not  a 
valuable  auxiliary  in  Princesse  Adelaide,  who  "loved 
her  brother  more  for  his  own  sake  than  for  hers"  ? 

On  arriving  in  Sicily,1  the  Due  d'Orl&ms  was  at 
first  obliged  by  the  English — at  that  time  all-powerful 
in  the  country — to  live  as  a  private  individual.  He 
could  not  resign  himself  to  this,  and  besought 
Wellington  to  employ  him  "on  the  frontier  of 
B^arn,  in  raising  a  body  of  troops  destined  to 
penetrate  the  fatherland  of  his  ancestor,  the  great 
Henri  IV."  Having  failed  in  this  scheme,  he  put 
himself  at  the  head  of  the  Sicilian  opposition  ;  his 
Villa  Bagheria,  situated  outside  the  walls,  became — 
what  the  Palais  Royal  in  Paris  was  later  on — the 
meeting-place  of  all  those  who  were  discontented  with 
court  politics.  Princesse  Adelaide  and  Marie  Amelie 
elf  seconded  him  unhesitatingly. 

1  He  landed  at  Palermo,  October  21,  1810.  Marie  Amdlie  presented 
him  with  the  Due  de  Chartres,  "who  is  lovely,  very  like  his  father,"  and 
will  one  day,  perhaps,  be  "heir-presumptive  to  the  throne  of  France." 

In  January  181 1,  M.  de  Folmont,  whose  influence  over  the  Dowager- 
Duchess  of  Orldans  was  paramount,  contrived  to  embitter  the  little  dis- 
cussions about  business  matters  which  arose  between  herself  and  her 
children  so  as  to  bring  about  an  open  rupture.  People  were  one  day 
surprised  to  learn  that,  without  informal};  any  one  of  her  intentions, 
without  thanking  or  taking  leave  of  her  hosts,  she  had  taken  ship  to 
return  to  Mahon. 


Laying  aside  all  amour-propre^  the  Duke  sought 
the  support  of  England  and  her  ambassadors — Lord 
Amherst  first,  Lord  William  Bentinck  afterwards. 
Cleverer  at  taking  advantage  of  events  than  at  pro- 
voking them,  he  avoided  engaging  himself  entirely ; 
managed  all  parties,  and  never  neglected  his  personal 
interests.  Marie  Caroline  treated  him  with  suspicion, 
and  did  not  hide,  even  from  her  daughter,  the  aversion 
with  which  her  son-in-law  inspired  her ;  whilst,  by  the 
king's  order,  he  was  retired  from  the  post  of  captain- 
general  of  the  Sicilian  army,  which  he  had  held  since 
his  marriage.  One  day  even,  the  Princes  de  Bel- 
monte  and  de  Villafranca,  Angio,  and  Castelnuovo — 
all  habitue's  of  the  Villa  Bagheria  —  having  been 
arrested,  the  Due  d' Orleans  began  to  fear  for  his 
personal  safety,  indeed  his  wife  tells  us  in  her  journal 
that  he  had  a  horse  ready  saddled  in  order  to  flee 
the  country.  But,  thanks  to  Lord  William  Bentinck, 
Castelnuovo  and  Belmonte  passed  from  prison  to  the 
ministry.  The  passing  reconciliation  between  Murat 
and  Napoleon  ruined  the  plans  of  Marie  Caroline, 
who  was  intriguing  to  deliver  Sicily  to  France  in 
exchange  for  the  kingdom  of  Naples.  "  And  things 
had  even  reached  the  point,"  wrote  Baron  de  Durant, 
French  minister  at  Naples,  "  that  the  English  ambas- 
sador thought  of  dethroning  the  Prince  Royal,"  in 
whose  favour  Ferdinand  IV.  had  abdicated  in  1811, 
and  substituting  a  council  of  regency  at  Palermo 
composed  of  the  Due  d'Orleans  and  the  Prince  de 

At  this  juncture,  the  King  of  the  Two  Sicilies, 
urged  thereto  by  his  wife,  decided  to  make  an  effort 

RI-TURN    TO    SICILY  141 

to  regain  power.  On  March  9,  1813,  amid  the  cheers 
of  the  populace,  he  informed  his  son  that  he  would 
take  the  direction  of  affairs  into  his  own  hands  again. 
The  prompt  and  energetic  intervention  of  Lord  William 
Bentinck,  who  threatened  to  bombard  the  town  from 
the  English  man-of-war,  caused  the  King  to  give  way, 
and  the  latter,  in  order  to  obtain  pardon,  was  forced 
to  exile  the  Queen.  It  was  the  Due  d'Orteans  who 
undertook  to  induce  Ferdinand  IV.  to  consent  to 
this  cruel  measure ;  and  Marie  Caroline,  relegated  to 
Castelvetrano,  waited  there  for  three  months  so  that 
the  conditions  of  her  departure  might  be  arranged, 
and  that  the  season  might  permit  of  her  taking  to  the 


But  the  year  1813  was  drawing  to  a  close;  the 
allied  armies  were  marching  towards  the  capital  of 
France.  The  capitulation  of  Paris  was  about  to  put 
an  end  to  the  Due  d'Orle*ans'  intrigues,  by  throwing 
open  a  theatre  more  worthy  of  his  ambition. 

1  Marie  Caroline  arrived  at  Vienna  where,  after  hearing  of  the 
alliance  between  Austria  and  Murat,  she  died  from  an  attack  of  apoplexy 
in  the  night  of  September  7-8,  1814. 




Fall  of  Napoleon — The  Due  d*  Or  leans  starts  for  France — He 
is  received  by  Louis  XVIII. — He  goes  to  Palermo  for  his 
wife — Arrival  of  Mademoiselle  a*  Or  leans  in  Paris — Paris 
in  1814 — Visit  to  the  Tuileries — Louis  XVIII. 

ON  April  23,  1814,  the  English  man-of-war  Abonkir, 
entered  the  Bay  of  Palermo  bringing  news  from 
France.  The  lazzaroni  of  the  port  had  gone  down  to 
the  harbour  on  the  arrival  of  the  boat,  and  their  noisy 
shouts  of  joy  first  intimated  to  the  Orleans  family 
that  Napoleon  had  fallen.  The  extreme  delight  of 
the  exiles  when  the  news  was  confirmed  may  well 
be  imagined.  The  Duke  rushed  into  his  wife's  room 
exclaiming:  "  Bonaparte  is  done  for!  Louis  XVIII. 
has  been  established  on  the  throne,  and  I  am  off  in 
the  vessel  which  has  just  come  for  me."  Marie 
Amelie  threw  herself  "into  her  husband's  arms," 
Mademoiselle  d'Orle'ans  mingled  her  tears  with  those 
of  her  brother  and  sister-in-law,  then  all  three  hurried 
to  the  Colli  Palace  to  announce  the  happy  event  to 
Ferdinand  IV.,  who  knelt  down  faccia  in  terra  per 
rengraziare  Dio  (  "  with  his  face  to  the  ground  to 
thank  God"). 

This  rejoicing  was  short-lived,  however,  for  neither 
Louis  XVIII.  nor  Monsieur  had  thought  of  sending 
letters  of  recall  to  their  cousins.  And  fearing  that 
this  forgetfulness  might  be  premeditated,  the  Orleans 


family  decided  not  to  make  any  overtures  to  the 
new  king,  and  to  act  without  his  permission.  Lord 
William  Bentinck  placed  the  Aboukir  at  the  Due 
d'Orl^ans'  disposal,  and  the  latter  left  Palermo,  May  i, 
accompanied  only  by  his  valet,  White,  and  the  English 
Captain  Gordon. 

At  Genoa,  after  reading  the  Comte  d'Artois' 
declaration  in  the  Moniteur,  the  Duke  remarked, 
"This  is  absolute  power  again,"  but  he  prudently 
restrained  his  criticism,  and  on  landing  in  France, 
sought  to  resume  the  ancient  prerogatives  of  the  first 
prince  of  the  blood.  At  Marseilles  he  contrived  to 
borrow  the  uniform  of  a  general  of  division,  and, 
having  put  it  on  as  well  as  he  could,  with  the  cordon 
of  Saint  Louis  across  his  breast,  gravely  reviewed 
the  troops  of  the  garrison.  At  Lyons  he  did  the 
same,  and  in  all  the  towns  he  passed  through  he 
insisted  that  honours  should  be  paid  him. 

Arriving  at  Melun,  and  so  near  to  Paris  that  a 
refusal  from  the  King  was  impossible,  he  wrote  to 
Louis  XVIII.  The  latter,  "much  amused  at  having 
forgotten  his  cousin,"  authorised  him  to  continue  his 

In  Paris,  the  Due  d'Orl&ms  alighted  at  the  Hotel 
de  la  Rue  Grange  Bateliere  where  an  apartment  had 
been  taken  for  him  the  day  before  by  Captain  Gordon, 
and  that  very  evening  he  went  to  the  Palais  Royal. 
He  found  it  encumbered  and  devastated.  Declared 
national  property  the  day  of  Philippe-Egalite's  exe- 
cution, the  palace  had  been  occupied  by  the  Tri- 
bunat  till  1807.  After  the  Tribunat  was  dissolved, 
several  portions  of  it  were  let  off,  and  the  apartments 

,     •         ;     , 

nil-    RESTORATION  147 

of  the  Dues  d'Orlcans  utilised  as  a  furniture  ware- 
house ;  indeed,  the  palace  became  so  degraded  and 
discredited  that  "  during  the  last  years  of  the  Empire 
it  was  proposed  to  sell  it  as  a  speculation." 

May  17,  the  day  after  his  arrival  in  Paris,  the 
1  )uc  d'Orteans  went  to  the  Tuileries ;  the  King  received 
him  graciously,  saying:  "Twenty-five  years  ago  you 
were  lieutenant-general,  you  are  so  still."  Louis 
XVIII.  went  further  than  this;  for  by  an  ordinance, 
dated  May  18,  he  restored  the  Palais  Royal  and  the 
Park  of  Mousseaux  to  the  Due  d'Orlcans  and  his 
sister,  and  a  second  ordinance  two  days  later  put 
them  in  possession  "  of  all  property  belonging  to 
them  which  had  not  been  sold,  whether  administered 
by  the  department  of  domains  or  employed  as  public 

On   the   strength   of  these   ordinances,  the    Due 

rteans  set  to  work  to  have  the  palace  restored 
for  the  reception  of  his  family.  During  his  stay  in 
Paris,  and,  in  spite  of  the  unhoped-for  favour  accorded 
him,  he  received  a  certain  number  of  Liberals  and 
Bonapartists ;  then,  after  going  to  London  to  put  his 
affairs  in  order,  he  embarked  for  Sicily  on  the 
Admiral's  ship  Ville  de  Marseille,  with  Baron  Atthalin 
and  the  Comte  de  Sainte-Aldegonde. 

Arriving  at  Palermo,  July  14,  he  left  that  town 
a  few  days  later  accompanied  by  his  sister,  wife,  son 
(the  Due  de  Chartres),  and  his  daughters — Princesse 
Louise  J  and  Princesse  Marie.2  Mademoiselle  and  the 
Duchesse  d'Orleans  gladly  left  an  "island  where  they 
had  experienced  nothing  but  annoyance,  bitterness, 

1   Born  April  3,  1812.  *  Born  April  12,  1813. 


and  anxiety,"  as  the  Duchess's  own  journal  testifies. 
The  travellers  reached  Marseilles,  August  18,  1814, 
then  went  up  the  Rhone  as  far  as  Aries,  after  which 
they  took  coach,  stopping  at  Avignon,  Valence, 
Vienne,  and  arriving  at  Lyons  September  4,  where 
they  were  received  by  General  Augureau.  That 
same  evening  Mademoiselle  had  the  pleasure  of 
taking  her  sister-in-law  to  the  theatre,  where  Mile. 
Mars  (then  on  tour)  was  playing  Araminte  in  Les 
Fausses  Confidences.  The  naturalness,  grace,  admir- 
able voice,  and  superb  eyes  of  Napoleon's  favourite 
actress  captivated  the  two  princesses,  who  occupied 
their  five  remaining  days  at  Lyons  with  less  worldly 

On  the  9th  the  travellers  embarked  on  the  Saone. 
From  Chalon  they  continued  their  journey  by  land. 
At  Dijon  the  Comte  d'Artois  came  to  meet  them. 
This  agreeable,  charming,  French  prince  was  not  in 
very  good  health.  He  seemed  determined  to  look 
upon  Louis-Philippe  merely  as  a  friend  and  relative, 
and  appeared  to  have  forgotten  even  the  name  of 
his  boon  companion,  Philippe-Egalite'.  He  showed 
himself  gallant,  thoughtful,  attentive  as  he  was, 
chivalrous  and  generous  as  he  might  have  remained 
had  he  not  become  a  sort  of  Trappist  monk  as  he 
grew  older.  He  had  fastened  a  large  white  cockade 
in  his  hat  and  distributed  others  amongst  the  travellers. 
White  horse,  white  plume  —  such  was  the  prince's 

They  reached  Paris  on  the  evening  of  September 
22.  Everything  had  changed  in  the  mother-country — 
manners,  institutions,  religious  spirit.  A  new  genera- 


had  sprung  up,  more  excitable  than  the  one 
Mademoiselle  had  known,  and  she  was  forcibly  re- 
minded of  the  noisy  crowds  of  Palermo.  The  aspect 
of  Paris  was  changed  also ;  business  had  progressed, 
the  streets  of  the  capital  were  gay  with  numerous 
shops,  which  had  been  painted  over  with  fresh  colours 
since  the  change  of  rtgime.  The  great  city  had  been 
washed  clean  of  the  outrages  of  the  Revolution. 
Fifteen  years  of  absolute  power  had  sufficed  to 
sweep  away  the  accumulated  ruins.  Numerous  public 
buildings  embellished  Paris,  bridges  had  been  thrown 
over  the  Seine,  new  streets  had  been  made,  the  town 
was  decorated  and  had  a  festive  air,  the  imperial 
attributes  being  hidden  beneath  clusters  of  white 

At  Fontainebleau,  Marie  Amelie  had  heard  of  the 
death  of  her  mother,  the  Queen  of  Naples ;  but  in 
spite  of  this  bereavement  and  of  the  fact  that  the 
Duchess  was  enciente,  all  the  members  of  the  Orleans 
family  went  to  the  chateau  the  day  after  their  arrival 
in  Paris,  to  lay  the  homage  of  their  fidelity  and 
devotion  at  the  feet  of  the  "legitimate  king." 

Louis  XVIII.  had  reorganised  the  military  estab- 
lishment of  former  kings  on  a  luxurious  footing. 
Musketeers,  light  horse,  men-at-arms,  and  body-guards 
in  their  brilliant  uniforms  crowded  together  in  the 
vicinity  of  the  Tuileries.  At  the  Pavilion  de  Marsan 
the  Swiss  Guards  did  the  honours ;  at  the  Pavilion 
de  Flore,  whilst  the  Princes  and  Princesses  of  Orleans 
were  ali^htin^  from  their  carriages,  the  Royal  Guard 
presented  arms,  and,  in  the  vestibule  of  the  stone 
staircase,  the  drums  of  the  Cent-Suisses  beat  a  salute. 


A  majestic  red-coated  groom  of  the  chambers  ushered 
the  visitors  into  the  King's  cabinet.  All  the  members 
of  the  royal  family  were  gathered  round  an  old  man, 
"  seated  in  an  arm-chair  on  wheels,  still  wearing 
powder  and  queue,  boots  and  velvet,  and  showing 
legs  like  posts  or  posts  like  legs,  ..."  as  the  Duchesse 
d'Abrantes  describes  him.  His  hands  rested  upon 
the  knob  of  a  cane,  the  point  of  which  was  thrust 
into  his  shoe.  This  was  Louis  XVIII.  He  had  a 
"handsome,  expressionless  face,"  according  to  Mme. 
de  Boigne ;  his  lips  were  compressed  as  he  smiled, 
and  his  sufferings  caused  him  to  sink  back  immediately 
in  his  arm-chair. 

He  welcomed  the  Due  d'Orleans  and  Mademoiselle 
with  rather  cold  politeness,  offered  his  condolences 
to  Marie  Ame'lie,  praised  the  Queen  of  Naples,  and 
then  indicating  Madame  "  with  an  affected  and 
theatrical  gesture,"  again  reminded  them  that  she 
had  been  his  Antigone.  "  By  her  heightened  colour 
and  the  brilliancy  of  her  eyes,"  the  daughter  of  Louis 
XVI.  belied  the  "words  of  goodwill"  she  was  obliged 
to  address  her  cousins.  She  spoke,  too,  "in  a  dry 
way  and  with  a  hoarse  voice,  while  vengeance  and 
hatred  were  depicted  on  her  countenance."  Monsieur 
was  very  amiable  as  usual.  The  timid  and  awkward 
Due  d'Angouleme  and  the  absent-minded  Due  de 
Berry  stood  apart ;  the  two  Condes  were  also  there. 

Mademoiselle,  the  Due  d'Orleans,  and  especially 
Marie  Amelie  thanked  the  King  for  his  kindness. 
The  son  of  Philippe-Egalite  placed  his  hand  on  his 
heart,  protested  his  devotion,  and  offered  his  services, 
while  Louis  XVI.'s  brother,  the  successor  of  Saint 


Louis,  listened  with  condescension  and  apparent 
impassive  approval.  For  twenty  years — with  order, 
method,  and  sagacity — he  had  been  preparing  himself 
for  his  kingly  mtticr,  and  he  knew  how  to  play  the 
part  admirably.  Past-master  in  the  art  of  pretence, 
"  he  had  succeeded  in  adapting  his  physiognomy  to 
every  emotion  suited  to  circumstances."  He  excelled 
in  assuming  a  noble  and  dignified  attitude,  and  in 
giving  to  his  countenance  an  air  of  haughty  majesty 
combined  with  conciliating  good  nature.  Artful, 
cunning,  and  distrustful,  "a  man  of  philosophical  mind 
but  false  as  a  counterfeit  coin."  (thus  the  old  Prince 
de  Conde  spoke  of  the  King),  he  was  a  clever 
pretender  but  a  mediocre  sovereign.  He  had  a  clear 
judgment,  great  skill  in  managing  parties,  but  took 
narrow  views,  did  not  generalise,  and  was  obstinate 
over  police  arrangements  and  court  ceremonial.  "  Sel- 
fish, infirm,  old  before  his  time,"  afraid  of  work  and 
shrinking  from  all  worry,  he  was  not  interested  in 
the  affairs  of  State.  He  was  impatient  and  complain- 
ing, but  his  sufferings  were  the  cause  ;  his  idleness 
and  selfishness  proceeded  from  his  malady.  Physical 
pain  shrivelled  him  up.  The  way  to  please  him  was 
to  keep  him  in  ignorance  of  bad  news,  to  listen  with 
great  attention  to  his  remarks,  and  to  praise  adroitly 
the  little  notes  he  wrote  to  his  intimates  in  clear, 
precise,  though  slightly  affected  language.  Infatuated 
by  his  own  superiority  and  full  of  pride,  he  expected 
compliments.  Unable  to  be  a  debauchee  in  fact,  he 
was  so  in  imagination  ;  his  conversation  was  licentious 
and  often  gross ;  reading  police  reports  was  his 
delight.  He  brought  an  amiable  and  sceptical  sort 


of  dillettantism  to  bear  upon  business  matters  which 
did  not  detract  from  his  prestige,  and  managed  his 
pendulum  policy  very  well,  but  did  nothing  to  solve 
coming  difficulties';  and  though  he  succeeded  in 
lengthening  his  reign  by  concessions,  he  left  an 
embarrassing  situation  to  his  brother  whom  he  knew 
to  be  incapable.  He  believed,  or  feigned  to  believe, 
that  the  Due  d'Orleans  was  more  envious  of  his  civil 
list  than  of  his  crown  ;  from  lassitude  he  gorged  him 
with  gold,  and  from  fear  kept  him  at  a  distance.  It 
was  a  false  calculation.  The  immense  fortune  of  the 
Due  d'Orleans  and  his  estrangement  from  court  laid 
the  foundations  of  a  popularity  which  very  nearly 
carried  him  to  the  throne  after  the  Hundred  Days, 
and  did  so  in  1830. 


Princess  Adelaide  in  1814  —  Mademoiselles  mother — The 
Duchesse  de  Bourbon — The  Due  de  Bourbon — The  Prince 
de  Condc — Receptions  at  the  chateau — Receptions  at  the 
Palais  Royal — Mademoiselle  a"  Orleans  a  "  business  man" 

AT  the  time  of  her  return  to  France  Mademoiselle 
was  thirty-seven  years  old.  The  Due  d'Orl&ms  had 
tried  to  marry  her  while  she  was  still  at  Palermo, 
but  the  project  was  quickly  abandoned  by  Princess 
Adelaide,  who  would  never  have  consented  to  be 
separated  from  her  brother,  and  whose  independent 
character  would  have  made  it  difficult  for  her  to 
endure  tutelage.  The  Princess's  resemblance  to  her 
mother  had  increased  since  her  face  had  filled  out. 
Il'T  mouth  was  like  that  of  the  Dowager-Duchess; 
she  had  the  same  rather  strong  chin  and  a  similar 
habit  of  holding  her  head  down.  Her  glance  was 
more  direct  and  less  gentle,  however,  and  she  had 
inherited  the  large  forehead  and  also,  unfortunately, 
the  complexion  of  Philippe-Egalite\  Added  to  which 
she  possessed  no  distinction  of  manner,  had  a  per- 
emptory fashion  of  speaking,  a  deliberate  walk, 
vigorous  dislikes,  and  defects  that  were  attributed  to 
a  somewhat  trying  education.  But  her  countenance 
animated  and  mobile,  she  had  fine  eyes,  a  luminous 
intelligence,  vjreat  judgment,  immense  indulgence  for 



the  faults  of  others,  and  a  boundless  devotion  to  her 

Marie  Amelie,  unlike  her  sister-in-law,  was  "tall 
and  thin,"  and  had  a  "very  grand  air."  Madame  de 
Boigne  describes  her  as  carrying  her  clothes  off  well, 
and  as  gracious  and  very  dignified. 

Only  a  month  after  settling  at  the  Palais  Royal 
the  Duchesse  d'Orleans  gave  birth  to  the  Due 
de  Nemours.  "Louis  XVIII.  and  the  Duchesse 
d'  Angouleme  held  the  new  -  born  infant  over  the 
baptismal  font,  in  the  chapel  of  the  Tuileries,  with  all 
the  ceremonial  of  the  old  court." 

When  Marie  Amelie's  health  was  re-established, 
Mademoiselle  took  her  to  see  old  Paris — the  charming 
Paris  of  legend  and  history.  There  was  not  a  church 
or  a  public  building  which  they  did  not  visit. 
Princess  Adelaide,  who  had  preserved  the  recollection 
of  the  instructive  expeditions  she  had  made  with  her 
governess,  took  her  sister-in-law  to  all  the  museums. 
They  visited  the  studios  of  celebrated  painters  also, 
were  sometimes  seen  at  the  Jardin  des  Plantes,  and 
often  at  the  theatre. 

In  the  delight  of  returning  to  France  the  Dowager- 
Duchess  forgot  the  differences  which  separated  her 
from  her  children,  and  welcomed  them  either  at  her 
estate  at  Ivry  or  at  the  Hotel  de  Nivernais1  where, 
not  being  able  to  get  back  the  Hotel  de  la  Vrilliere,2 

1  Rue  de  Tournon.    It  was  the  house  of  Mardchal  d'Ancre  ;  inhabited 
for   some  time  by  Louis  XIII.,  who  wanted  to  be  near  his  mother; 
granted  to  Charles  de  Luynes  ;    the  Due  de  Nivernais  lived  there  in 
1789.     It  was  sequestrated  during  the  Revolution,  and  has  served  as 
barracks  since  1830. 

2  Built  by  Mansart  in   1635  >    inhabited  afterwards  by  the  Due  de 
Penthievre  ;  the  Bank  of  France  since  1812.     (Rochegude.) 

THE    DUCHESSE    DE    BOURBON       155 

she  had  taken  up  her  residence.  The  Comte  de 
I'olmont  lived  with  the  Duchess  and  was  continually 
at  her  side.  According  to  Madame  de  Boigne  he 
was  so  completely  master  of  the  house  that  it  was 
said  that  he  was  her  husband.  The  Dowager- Duchess 
overwhelmed  him  with  absurd  attentions ;  knowing 
what  a  gourmand  he  was,  she  had  all  the  choicest 
dishes  handed  to  him  first  at  table,  in  spite  of  the 
constrained  attitude  of  the  guests.  She  prepared  his 
coffee  with  her  own  hands,  and  no  one  would  have 
dared  to  take  the  place  in  the  drawing-room  reserved 
for  the  "  good  Rouzet."  The  house  was  kept  up  on 
,i  very  bourgeois  footing,  and  the  Duchess  ended  by 
not  receiving  any  but  M.  de  Folmont's  admirers.  It 
can  thus  be  readily  understood  why  Adelaide  pre- 
ferred the  society  of  her  Aunt  Bourbon  to  that  of 
her  mother. 

Philippe-Egalite's  sister  was  bright,  charming, 
witty,  and  very  charitable.  She  was  quite  small  and 
dressed  ridiculously,  wearing  a  cap  in  the  fashion 
of  the  time  of  Louis  XVI.  A  mystical  devotion 
confused  her  brain,  if  we  may  believe  the  Duchesse 
d'Abrantes.  Her  two  brothers,  the  town  abbe"  and 
the  country  abbe*,1  enlivened  her  house. 

The  Due  de  Bourbon  (who  was  still  separated 
from  his  wife)  lived  with  his  father,  the  Prince  de 
Conde\  grand-master  of  the  King's  household  and 
colonel-general  of  the  French  infantry.  Both  lived 
on  their  estates,  but  chiefly  at  Chantilly  or  Saint-Leu. 
The  Prince  de  Cond£,  a  venerable,  sleepy,  old  man, 
with  white  wig  and  queue,  had  retained  the  scruples 

1  Saint-Albin  and  Saint-Farre. 


and  pretentiousness  of  the  army  of  princes.  Chateau- 
briand thus  portrays  him :  "  The  Emigration  was  his 
domestic  god.  ...  He  was  uncertain  as  to  whether 
he  had  had  a  grandson  or  not ;  he  merely  felt 
that  the  glory  of  his  name  had  been  increased  by 
some  Cond6  or  other  whom  he  no  longer  remem- 
bered." He  called  the  king  M.  de  Provence,  and 
blamed  him  for  not  having  been  in  the  first  Emigra- 
tion. The  Due  de  Bourbon  was  rough  and  wild. 
Mme.  de  Reuilly,  his  natural  daughter,  had  great 
ascendency  over  his  mind  ;  but  though  she  had  almost 
succeeded  in  making  him  give  up  his  gross  behaviour, 
she  had  not  been  able  to  vanquish  his  sordid  avarice 
and  timidity.  He  only  cared  for  hunting.  "  His 
days  began  with  the  sound  of  barking  dogs  and  ended 
with  the  blasts  of  a  hunting-horn." 

The  princesses  entertained  a  great  many  people 
at  the  Palais  Royal,  and  Mme.  de  Genlis  had  the 
"  inexpressible"  happiness  of  seeing  her  pupils  again. 
"  Both,"  she  wrote,  "  gave  evidence  in  these  first 
interviews  of  the  emotion,  feeling,  and  joy  I  experi- 
enced myself.  Three  beloved  pupils,  alas !  were 
missing — M.  de  Montpensier  and  his  brother,  the 
Comte  de  Beaujolais,  both  dead  in  exile,  and  also  my 
dear  and  unhappy  nephew,  Cesar  du  Crest.  ..." 

"  This  interview — so  touching  for  me — had  lasted 
a  quarter  of  an  hour,  when  the  Due  d'Orleans  left  us, 
saying  that  he  would  go  and  fetch  the  Duchesse 
d'Orleans.  He  returned  almost  immediately,  leading 
her  by  the  hand.  The  princess  came  forward,  did 
me  the  honour  of  embracing  me,  saying  that  she  had 
long  desired  to  make  my  acquaintance,  and  added  : 

THE   COURT   OF    LOUIS    XVIII.      157 

'  For  there  are  two  things  I  love  passionately — your 
pupils  and  your  works.'  It  was  assuredly  impossible 
to  express  with  more  charm,  wit,  and  grace,  in  a  single 
sentence,  the  sentiments  of  wife  and  sister,  and  to 
show  more  kindness  to  me." 

A  few  tmigrts  only,  faithful  to  their  dislike  to  the 
Orleans  family,  were  disagreeable  to  the  princesses, 
who,  however,  were  favourably  received  at  court. 
The  court  of  Louis  XVIII.  was  austere  and  cold,  the 
King  being  an  invalid,  and  Madame  always  sad  and 
haughty.  The  elegant  Galaor  (Comte  d'Artois)  had 
aged  and  become  devout  as  he  grew  older.  This 
made  him  tiresome,  but  the  charms  and  graces  of  his 
youth  were  those  of  a  rake,  and  would  have  shocked 
his  confessor.  Morally  and  physically  he  had  the 
head  of  a  bird ;  he  was  narrow  -  minded,  always 
surprised  at  something,  and  his  narrow  forehead 
seemed  empty  of  ideas.  But  he  possessed  natural 
distinction,  a  majestic  and  graceful  carriage,  and 
looked  thoroughly  the  grand  seigneur.  He  was  indeed 
the  last  representative  of  that  eighteenth  -  century 
nobility  which  had  the  art  of  combining  amiable 
politeness  with  the  ironical  impertinence  of  the 

The  Due  d'Angouleme  did  not  talk  at  court, 
where  he  was  intimidated  by  his  own  ignorance ;  and 
the  absent-minded  Due  de  Berry  seemed  to  be  always 
thinking  of  Mile.  Virginie,  so  at  least  says  the 
Duchesse  d'Abran 

The  magnificent  drawing-rooms  at  the  Tuileries 
were  filled  with  bishops,  priests,  and  monks ;  an 
ecclesiastical  etiquette,  recalling  masses,  benedictions, 


often  De  Profundis  services,  reigned  there.  The 
imperial  emblems  had  been  covered  by  draperies  of 
carnation  velvet,  all  the  arrangements  had  a  temporary 
look,  in  keeping  with  the  heterogeneous  collection  of 
personages  who  surrounded  the  new  king.  "  Here  an 
officer  who  had  escaped  from  Moscow,  there  another 
who  had  once  more  donned  the  uniform  of  Condi's 
army,  further  on  a  Vende"en  dressed  in  green  .  .  ."* 
"The  uniforms  of  Napoleon's  Guards,"  said  Chateau- 
briand, "  are  to  be  seen  mingling  with  those  of 
the  Royal  Bodyguard,  which  had  been  cut  exactly 
after  the  same  pattern.  The  old  Due  d'Havre\  with 
powdered  wig  and  black  cane,  strolls,  with  shaking 
head,  up  to  Marechal  Victor ;  the  Due  de  Mouchy 
passes  Marechal  Oudinot  at  mass  .  .  .  and  Madame 
Royale  talks  to  the  daughter  of  Philippe-^Egalite !  " 

Etiquette  had  been  re-established  in  its  most  rigor- 
ous and  petty  form.  It  made  even  pretty  women  look 
ugly.  "  No  diamonds,  no  jewels,  no  flowers,  a  few 
feathers,  and  that  was  all,"  laments  the  Duchesse 
d' Abrantes.  A  ridiculous  court  dress 2  had  been  in- 
sisted upon  by  the  Duchesse  d'Angouleme,  the  long 
discarded  model  for  which  was  kept  by  her  dress- 
makers, and  had  to  be  copied  exactly.  The  ceremony 
of  the  grande  table  had  been  revived,  where  the  pre- 
sence of  duchesses  of  the  "  villainous  nobility "  was 
scarcely  tolerated. 

"  The  elder  branch,  on  account  of  this  rigorous, 
old-fashioned  etiquette,  which  it  was  considered  a 

1  Madame  de  Boigne,  Me  moires. 

2  Madame  de  Boigne  :    "  Ridiculous  lappets  were  attached  to  our 
Greek  head-dresses,  and  the  elegant  cherusque  was  replaced  by  a  heavy 
mantilla  and  a  sort  of  kilted  plastron." 

THE   COURT   OF    LOUIS    XVIII.       159 

grave  fault  t<>  neglect,  could  not  infuse  life,  much 

ty.  into  its  royal  receptions;  but  those  of  the  family  were  of  quite  a  different  character,  for 
they  combined  the  dignity  of  a  palace  with  the  amuse- 
ments and  pleasures  of  good  society.  .  .  .  People 
w<  re  shy,  bored  and  ill  at  ease  at  the  Tuileries,  while 
they  were  gay,  amiable,  charmed  at  the  Palais  Royal, 
where  they  enjoyed  themselves."  The  tlite  of  the 
oldest  families  in  the  kingdom  were  to  be  met  there, 
as  well  as  "  marshals,  generals,  and  senators  who  had 
been  created  peers  of  France ;  all  the  prominent  per- 
sonages of  the  Revolution  and  Empire  were  sure  of  a 
consideration  which  they  did  not  always  meet  with  at 
the  Tuileries." 

"  The  condition  in  which  the  Due  d'Orl&ms  had 
found  the  dwelling  of  his  fathers  did  not  permit  of  the 
great  and  splendid  receptions  for  which  the  Palais 
Royal  became  famous  later  on  ;  but  under  the  tasteful 
direction  of  Mademoiselle,  seconded  by  Paer,  the  com- 
poser, excellent  concerts  attracted  a  choice  but  neces- 
sarily restricted  society."  One  evening  Chateaubriand 
read  an  unpublished  story  from  the  Dernier  des 
Abenccrrages,  and  was  accorded  the  applause  "to 
which  he  was  very  sensitive." 

The  Palais  Royal  receptions  took  place  on  the  first 
Wednesday  in  each  month.  Nobody  went  in  court 
dress,  and  they  had  not  invented,  as  at  the  Tuileries, 
those  processions  which  separated  men  from  women, 
which  seemed  so  absurd  to  Madame  de  Boigne.  The 
-r.u -iousness,  simplicity,  and  politeness  of  the  Due 
d'Orl^ans  were  vaunted  by  every  one.  His  sister, 
who  was  very  kind  and  hospitable,  had  a  profound 


horror  of  etiquette.  She  liked  talking  politics  and 
entertaining  in  Marie  Ame'lie's  salon,  for  the  latter, 
though  Talleyrand  held  her  to  be  perhaps  "  the 
greatest  lady  in  Europe,"  was  certainly  not  the  most 

Freed  from  all  anxiety,  they  lived  in  the  heart  of 
their  native  land,  enjoying  to  the  full  those  happy 
days  of  revived  prosperity.  Mademoiselle  and  her 
brother  took  advantage  of  these  favourable  circum- 
stances to  look  after  a  fortune  which  they  had  not  yet 
divided.  Already  a  "  thousand  big  and  little  law- 
suits "  had  been  begun  by  them.  Nothing  was  done 
without  Dupin,  their  confidential  man  of  law.  Brusque 
and  uncultivated,  his  ugliness  was  far  from  being  dis- 
advantageous to  him.  He  had  a  caustic  wit,  quick 
repartee,  was  an  indefatigable  worker,  and  an  im- 
mense help  to  the  Due  d'Orleans  and  his  sister. 
Princess  Adelaide  knew  men  ;  it  was  she  who 
had  singled  him  out,  and  he  was  always  grateful  to 
her  for  it,  never  called  her  anything  but  la  belle 
mademoiselle,  and  in  her  presence  concealed  his 
frankness  under  a  cloak  of  great  servility. 

The  dry  business  of  lawsuits,  thanks  to  Dupin, 
supported  by  the  Due  d'Orleans  and  Princess 
Adelaide,  who  "  possessed  greater  business  capacity 
than  anybody  in  the  world,"  was  despatched  with 
extraordinary  rapidity.  True,  no  sentiment  was  taken 
into  consideration,  and  the  Dowager-Duchess  herself 
was  not  proof  against  the  rapacity  of  her  son  and 
daughter.  In  a  matter  of  auditing  accounts  and  liqui- 
dating common  debts,  the  decision  was  deferred  to  royal 
arbitrage  and  given  in  favour  of  the  Duchess.  For  old 


creditors  the  statute  of  limitation  was  invoked  ;  while 
advantageous  arrangements  were  made  with  regard  to 
more  recent  debts.  The  Prince  and  Princess  thus 
contrived  with  four  millions  and  a  half  of  francs  to 
satisfy  twenty-five  millions  of  debts,  and  enter  into 
possession  of  the  great  fortune  which  their  father  had 
dispersed  in  his  struggle  against  royalty.  And  this 
fortune,  wisely  administered,  increased  every  day, 
allowing  Mme.  de  Genlis'  former  pupils  to  prepare  the 
way  and  realise  at  length  their  governess's  "grand 


Faults  of  the  Restoration  —  Liberals  and  Bonapartists  at  the 
Palais  Royal — Landing  of  Napoleon — The  Due  a"  Orleans 
sends  his  wife  and  children  to  England — He  is  sent  to 
Lyons,  then  to  Lille  —  Mademoiselle  d"  Orleans  remains 
alone  in  Paris — Her  departure  for  Lille,  then  for  London 
— Waterloo  —  Manoeuvres  of  the  Orleans  family  —  Their 
exile  in  England — Orleans  House — Return  to  Paris. 

AT  the  chateau^  and  especially  in  the  Pavilion  de 
Marsan,  the  £tnigr6sy  believing  they  had  conquered 
France,  never  imagined  that  they  could  be  driven 
from  it.  The  Government  of  the  Restoration  had, 
however,  "  made  grave  mistakes."  The  return  to  old 
customs,  to  superannuated  forms  of  language  and 
costume,  the  introduction  of  chaplains  into  regiments 
with  the  rank  of  "  first  captain,"  and  the  obligation  of 
attending  mass  for  Protestants  and  Catholics  alike, 
had  shocked  the  whole  country.  The  abandonment 
of  the  three  colours,  Louis  XVIII.'s  imprudent  letter 
declaring  that  he  owed  his  throne,  "  after  God,  to  the 
Regent  of  England,"  the  putting  old  soldiers  of  the 
Empire  on  half  pay,  their  expulsion  from  Paris,  and 
the  disdain  manifested  by  old  officers  of  Conde's  army 
towards  Napoleon's  lieutenants,  had  wounded  the 
national  pride  ;  and  the  purchasers  of  national  pro- 
perty, "  who  covered  the  length  and  breadth  of  France 
and  exercised  great  influence,  were  in  a  state  of 



peculiar  anxiety."  Discontent  was  general.  A  sort 
of  slow,  latent  conspiracy  threatened  the  Government. 
It  was  made  up  of  small,  isolated  plots,  the  principal 
of  which  were  hatched  in  Paris,  where  some  members 
of  the  imperial  family  still  remained.  Generals,  rich 
bankers,  and  artists  of  talent  gathered  in  the  drawing- 
room  of  the  Duchesse  de  Saint-Leu  (Queen  Hortense), 
and  were  preparing  for  the  return  of  the  Empire.  A 
campaign  was  being  begun  in  the  Press ;  patriotic 
songs  circulated  amongst  officers  ;  pamphlets,  portraits, 
and  caricatures  belonging  to  the  propaganda  had  been 
distributed  everywhere,  and  to  the  spirited  attacks  of 
the  Nain  Jaune,  to  the  close  reasoning  of  the  Censeur 
Europten,  the  royalists  could  only  oppose  tearful 
articles  in  the  Quotidienne  and  the  Journal  Royal. 

Mademoiselle  d'Orle*ans  and  her  brother  were  kept 
au  courant  by  their  friends  with  regard  to  an  agitation 
which  Louis  XVIII.  wanted  to  ignore.  Liberals, 
republicans,  constitutionals,  even  Bonapartists  fre- 
quented the  Palais  Royal.  Mortier,  Valence,  Beur- 
nonville,  Macdonald,  met  the  banker  Laffitte  there 
with  Benjamin  Constant,  Camille  Pe>ier,  Guizot,  and 
the  Due  de  Broglie.  The  Due  de  Bassano  * — the  chief 
leader  of  the  Bonapartist  plot,  with  Mrs.  Hamilton 
and  Regnault  de  Saint  Jean  d'Angely — did  not  fail  to 
call  often  upon  his  former  travelling  companion,  the 
young  exiled  girl,  whom  he  had  brought  back  to  Paris 
with  Mme.  de  Genlis  by  Philippe-Egalite"s  orders. 

Thus,  on  the  evening  of  March  5,  1815,  when  the 
Due  d'Orl&ins  was  hastily  summoned  to  the  Tuileries 

1  Marct.     Some  years  later  a  lawsuit  embroiled  him  with  the  Orleans 


by  Blacas,  who  told  him  in  a  tone  of  careless  banter 
of  the  arrival  of  Napoleon  with  "  some  hundreds  of 
men,"  he  did  not  share  the  King's  optimistic  opinions, 
or  believe  that  a  royal  ordinance  declaring  Buonaparte 
a  traitor  and  a  rebel,  and  enjoining  every  citizen  to 
courir  sus  (fall  upon  him),1  was  sufficient  to  arrest  the 
Emperor's  march.  And  he  set  out  for  Lyons  "  like  a 
man  whom  one  takes  by  the  shoulders."  He  feared 
to  compromise  himself  in  an  adventure  the  issue  of 
which  he  foresaw,  and  would  much  have  preferred 
to  see  the  Due  de  Berry  go  in  his  stead  ;  but  Louis 
XVIII.,  who  wanted  to  keep  his  cousin  away  from 
Paris,  insisted  upon  his  going,  and  the  Due  d'Orle"ans 
was  obliged  to  submit.  He  took  Montmorency, 
Atthalin,  and  Sainte-Aldegonde  with  him,  but  only 
stayed  three  days  at  Lyons  ;  on  March  1 2  he  went 
to  the  King  and  told  him  that  all  resistance  had  been 
impossible.  That  same  evening,  by  means  of  false 
passports,  and  without  the  permission  of  Louis  XVI II., 
he  sent  his  wife  and  children  to  England,2  under 
the  care  of  the  faithful  Comte  de  Grave.  Princess 
Adelaide  remained  at  the  Palais  Royal.  "  It  was  a 
real  consolation,"  wrote  Louis-Philippe  in  his  journal, 
"to  keep  my  sister  near  me  .  .  .  my  sister's  presence 
rendered  the  departure  of  my  wife  less  noticeable, 
and  .  .  .  if  I  were  obliged  to  go  away  suddenly, 

1  Royal  Ordinance,  March  6  (Afoniteur,  March  7).    "  Courir  sus  in 
1815!"  cried  Chateaubriand;  "fall  upon  him!  and  upon  whom?  upon 
a  wolf?  upon  a  brigand  chief?  upon  a  lordly  felon  ?   No  :  upon  Napoleon, 
who  had  trampled  upon  kings,  had  seized  and  marked  them  for  ever  on 
the  shoulder  with  his  ineffaceable  N. !" 

2  The  Duchess  wrote  to  the  King  announcing  her  departure,  but  so 
late  that  Louis  XVIII.  only  received  her  letter  the  day  after  she  left 
Paris.     (Trognon,  Vie  de  Marie  Amelie.} 


my  sister  could  stay  long  after  me  to  settle  up  my 

ff    *          »» 

These  affairs  were  chiefly  of  a  political  nature.  A 
plot  existed  in  fact,  but  "the  return  of  Napoleon  was 
not  its  object."  At  the  head  of  this  conspiracy  were 
General  Drouet  d'Erlon,  Colonel  Lefebvre-Desnou- 
ettes,  and  the  brothers  Lallemand,  all  in  garrison  in 
the  north  of  France.  That  was  why  the  Due  d'Orle"ans 
had  so  cleverly  got  himself  appointed  to  PeVonne,  and 
had  none  the  less  cleverly  left  his  sister  in  Paris.  He 
knew  that  he  could  count  upon  her  more  than  upon 
himself,  and  that  Princess  Adelaide's  hatred  of  the 
members  of  the  elder  Bourbon  branch,  and  "the 
bitter  feelings  she  still  entertained  towards  the  dmigr^s, 
who  had  filled  her  youth  with  mortifications,"  were 
stronger  even  than  the  affection  which  bound  her  to 
her  brother.  The  King,  although  angry  at  being  dis- 
obeyed in  the  matter  of  sending  Marie  Ame'lie  and 
her  children  away,  "  deigned  to  promise  the  Duke  that 
he  would  watch  over  his  sister,  and  see  that  she  was 
duly  informed  in  time  of  anything  that  might  inte- 
rest her." 

It  is  difficult  to  find  out  what  was  exactly  the 
princess's  role  during  the  days  of  fright  and  of  alter- 
nate hopes  and  fears  which  preceded  the  arrival  of 
Napoleon.  She  did  not  appear  at  the  Tuileries  after 
the  departure  of  the  Due  d'Orl^ans,  and  made  many 
inquiries  on  the  quiet  in  Paris,  which  she  only  left 
March  20,  when  convinced  that  nothing  could  pre- 
vent the  entry  of  Napoleon  into  the  French  capital. 
She  set  off  in  a  carriage  with  four  horses  which  her 
brother  had  taken  the  precaution  of  leaving  her.  Some 


hours  earlier,  Blacas  had  been  to  see  and  take  her  an 
order  for  100,000  francs  from  Louis  XVIII.;  but  he 
did  not  see  Mademoiselle,  who  was  either  out  or  had 
not  consented  to  receive  him.  March  21  the  prin- 
cess, with  Mme.  de  Montjoie,  rejoined  her  brother  at 

Towards  noon  next  day,  whilst  the  Due  d'Orleans 
was  holding  a  review,  the  King's  arrival  was  announced, 
accompanied  by  the  Prince  de  Poix,  the  Due  de  Duras, 
and  Comte  de  Blacas.  Louis  XVIII.  was  so  mistrust- 
ful of  his  cousin  that,  at  sight  of  the  troops,  he  feared 
a  conspiracy,  and  thought  of  turning  back.  This 
showed  that  he  knew  the  Due  d'Orle"ans — a  man  of 
half  measures,  not  of  extremes — very  little.  The 
latter  went  up  to  the  king,  made  the  usual  protesta- 
tions of  fidelity,  and  a  few  days  later  persuaded  Louis 
XVIII.  to  go  to  Dunkerque  and  defend  himself  there. 
At  the  last  moment,  however,  all  these  arrangements 
were  changed.  The  King  was  distrustful — and  not 
entirely  without  reason — and  had  decided  to  cross  the 
frontier  instead. 

After  the  departure  of  Louis  XVIII.  Mademoiselle 
left  Lille  with  her  brother  and  Mme.  de  Montjoie, 
March  24,  at  five  o'clock  in  the  morning.  The  Due 
de  TreVise  accompanied  them  to  the  gates  of  the 
town.  They  arrived  at  Tournay  at  dawn,  and  were 
in  London  by  April  3.  "  The  Due  d'Orleans  was 
glad,  on  the  whole,  to  find  himself  out  of  the  fray ; 
the  ambiguity  of  his  conduct  bears  the  impress  of  his 
character,"  was  Chateaubriand's  verdict.  His  journey 
to  London  "made  without  the  consent  of  the  King,  and 
against  the  evident  trend  of  circumstances,"  afflicted 


al!  sincere:  royalists;  and  Louis  XVIII.  never  forgave 
the  first  prince  of  the  blood  for  his  letter  to  the  Due 
de  Tr^vise  (Marshal  Mortier) :  "  I  count  upon  what- 
ever your  pure  patriotism  may  suggest  to  you  in  the 
best  interests  of  France  ; "  or  for  the  order  of  the 
clay  addressed  to  the  troops,  absolving  them  from 
their  oath  to  the  King. 

The  Due  and  Mademoiselle  d'OrMans  joined  Marie 
Amelie  at  Grillon's  Hotel,  London.  A  month  later 
the  whole  family  settled  at  the  Star  and  Garter  Hotel, 
situated  on  the  highest  part  of  the  pretty  town  of 
Richmond,  leaving  soon  afterwards  for  the  mansion 
at  Twickenham,  which  became  henceforth  Orleans 
House.  At  this  epoch  the  Duchesse  d'Angouleme 
was  sent  to  England  by  her  uncle,  the  King,  doubtless 
in  order  to  keep  an  eye  on  the  doings  of  the  Orleans 
family,  but  she  could  not  rake  up  the  smallest  thing 
against  any  of  its  members.  Louis-Philippe  and  his 
sister  were  clever  enough  not  to  plot  in  full  daylight ; 
they  held  themselves  "  apart  and  inactive,"  and  awaited 
the  course  of  events. 

The  defeat  at  Waterloo  disconcerted  them  ;  their 
plans  were  not  ready.  The  Due  d'Orldans  sent 
Valence  to  Paris  with  the  mission  to  back  up  his 
candidature,  which  was  supported  also  by  Pouche", 
Napoleon's  minister,  by  Talleyrand,  minister  of  the 
king  of  France,  and  to  which  the  Tzar  himself  had 
been  won  over  ;  though  the  Regent  of  England  re- 
sisted what  he  called  a  family  usurpation,  and  all  these 
doings  only  served  to  envenom  the  resentment  of 
Louis  XVIII. 

•  Thus  the  Duke,"  wrote  Villele  in  his  Mdmoires, 


"  instead  of  being  called  to  preside  over  an  electoral 
college,  remained  in  London.  .  .  .  This  Prince  had 
hesitated  to  leave  Lille  with  the  King  after  Bonaparte's 
return,  and  had  publicly  made  certain  remarks  which 
came  to  the  ears  of  Louis  XVIII.  He  had  said  that 
he  would  make  no  difficulty  about  adopting  the  tri- 
coloured  cockade,  with  which  he  had  first  served  in 
arms,  and  had  expressed  regret  at  seeing  his  pro- 
spective rights  to  the  crown  inconsiderately  compro- 
mised by  the  mistakes  of  the  elder  branch.  Besides, 
the  King  could  not  ignore  the  fact  that  representatives 
sent  by  Wellington  to  treat  for  the  capitulation  of 
Paris  had  proposed  to  confer  the  crown  of  France 
upon  the  Due  d'Orl^ans.  The  prolonged  sojourn  of 
the  Prince  in  England  was  looked  upon  with  reason 
as  a  temporary  exile  inflicted  by  Louis  XVIII." 

Nevertheless,  in  order  to  have  the  sequestration 
which  the  empire  had  placed  upon  his  property  and 
that  of  his  sister  removed,  Louis  Philippe  went  to 
Paris  in  the  month  of  July  1815.  He  was  "very 
well "  received  by  the  King ;  but  was  only  away  four 
weeks.  Returning  to  England,  the  prince  took  his 
wife  and  sister  to  see  the  university  town  of  Oxford, 
as  well  as  to  the  castles  of  Blenheim,  Stowe,  and 
Hatfield.  When  back  at  Twickenham  the  Orleans 
family  received  a  visit  from  Prince  Leopold  of  Saxe- 
Coburg,1  who  had  just  married  Princess  Charlotte  of 

The  Princess  was  more  than  blonde,  and  her  blue 
eyes — of  a  metallic  brilliancy — had  neither  eyelashes 

1  Became  King  of  the  Belgians,  and  married,  as  his  second  wife, 
Princesse  Louise,  eldest  daughter  of  the  Due  d'Orleans. 

LOUIS-PHILIPPE    IN    LONDON         169 

nor  eyebrows.  She  was  not  ugly,  however,  but 
;ig  heiress  to  three  kingdoms  affected  the  haughty 
riage  of  the  head  and  the  decided  manners  of  the 
great  Elizabeth.  Very  much  in  love  with  her  hus- 
band, she  opposed  the  government  of  her  father,  the 
Regent,  detested  the  Queen,  and  lived  away  from 
London  at  Claremont,  where  she  was  very  popular. 
She  and  Princess  Elizabeth  often  came  to  Twicken- 
ham for  shopping,  and  between  Oatlands,  the  Duchess 
of  York's  residence,  and  Orleans  House  there  was  a 
continual  exchange  of  pleasant  intercourse. 

Unhappily  all  the  members  of  the  Orleans  family 
as  well  as  their  suite — the  Comtesse  de  VeVac  and 
Mme.  de  Montjoie,  Montmorency,  Sainte-Aldegonde, 
and  Atthalin — suffered  from  the  stupid  annoyances 
caused  them  by  M.  de  la  Chatre,  French  Ambassador 
in  London,  who,  in  order  to  curry  favour  with  the  King, 
had  them  watched  by  paid  spies,  and  misinterpreted 
their  most  innocent  actions  in  his  reports  to  Louis 
XVIII.  When  the  Marquis  d'Osmond  succeeded 
La  Chdtre  "  this  espionage  came  to  an  end  of  itself 
...  the  most  loyal  confidence  was  established  .  .  .  and 
though  Mademoiselle  was  the  last  to  be  won  over,  she 
was  so  completely  and  for  ever,"  reports  Madame  de 

On  the  occasion  of  the  christening  of  the  little 
Princesse  d'Orl^ans,1  there  was  a  grand  dejeuner  at 
Twickenham,  at  which  the  Prince  Regent  (who  led 
the  ordinary  life  of  a  man  in  society  and  visited 
private  persons),  was  present  with  his  brothers  the 

1  Mile,  de  Montpensier,  who  died  about  the  same  time  as  the  old 
1'rince  de  Cundd. 


Dukes  of  York,  Kent,  and  Gloucester.  The  Princess 
Charlotte  excused  herself  on  account  of  a  bad  cold, 
but  later  on  she  confessed  to  the  Duchesse  d'Orleans 
that  her  antipathy  for  her  aunts  and  grandmother  had 
alone  prevented  her  from  attending  the  ceremony. 

At  the  end  of  the  summer  of  1816  Mademoiselle, 
who  was  not  very  well,  went  to  Cheltenham  to  take 
the  waters,  while  her  brother  and  sister-in-law  tra- 
velled through  the  western  counties  of  England.  At 
length,  in  February  1817,  the  Due  d'Orleans  set  out 
for  Paris,  and  although  he  had  just  contributed  to  a 
subscription  opened  in  aid  of  French  exiles  who  had 
taken  refuge  in  the  Low  Countries,  and  was,  it  seems, 
not  exempt  from  culpability  in  the  Didier  affair,  he 
obtained  Louis  XVIII.'s  pardon — which  was  what  he 
had  gone  for — and,  at  a  dinner  at  the  Tuileries  to 
which  he  had  been  invited,  was  authorised  by  the 
King  to  go  and  fetch  his  family  from  England. 

The  Duchesse  d'Orleans,  Mademoiselle — whose 
health  retarded  the  date  of  their  departure — the  young 
princes  and  princesses  arrived  at  the  Palais  Royal, 
April  15,  at  half-past  eight  in  the  evening.  The 
journey  had  lasted  eight  days  and  gone  off  well,  but 
the  day  after  her  arrival  Princess  Adelaide,  wishing 
"  to  force  herself  to  pay  a  round  of  visits,"  was  taken 
ill;  her  state  of  weakness  " above  all  nerves"  was 
"  terrible,"  and  prevented  her  from  going  out  for  some 
days.  She  had  been  painfully  impressed  by  the  re- 
ception Louis  XVIII.  had  given  her.  The  visit  had 
been  a  trying  one.  The  daughter  of  Marie  Antoinette 
had  treated  Mademoiselle  with  "  marked  repulsion," 
the  Duchesse  d'Orleans  herself  being  quite  saddened 

RETURN    TO   PARIS  171 

by  it.  "In  the  dining-room,'1  wrote  Mme.  de  Boigne, 
"  the  cloud  hanging  over  their  spirits  was  dissipated 
by  the  entrance  of  a  great  dish  of  smoking  patties. 
'  Ah  !  the  Palais  Royal  patties ! '  they  exclaimed.  And 
love  of  their  native  land,  the  joy  of  being  back  in  the 
mother -country  once  more,  effaced  the  impression 
made  by  their  reception  at  the  Tuileries." 

Notwithstanding  this,  Adelaide  was  with  Louis 
XVIII.  on  April  23,  and  went  nearly  every  day  with 
her  brother  and  Marie  Am^lie  to  see  the  royal  family. 
September  3,  Monsieur  dined  at  Neuilly,  whence  he 
returned  on  the  9th  with  his  two  sons,  the  Duchesse 
d'Angouleme  and  the  young  Duchesse  de  Berry.  On 
Twelfth  Night  the  Orleans  family  dined  at  the  chateau. 
January  13,  1818,  there  was  a  reception  at  the  Palais 
Royal  ;  and  on  the  22nd  the  daughter  of  ligalite'  was 
seated  at  the  left  of  the  catafalque  during  the  fourth 
anniversary  service  of  the  interment  of  Marie  Antoi- 
nette and  Louis  XVI.,  and  May  27  the  Due  d'Orle"ans 
presided  at  the  obsequies  of  the  Prince  de  Cond^,  at 
which  Adelaide  was  present  in  the  tribunes  reserved 
for  the  princesses  of  the  blood. 


Restoration  of  the  Palais  Royal — The  habitues  of  the  Palais 
Royal — Influence  of  Mademoiselle  d*  Orleans  over  her 
brother — His  political  influence — Humiliations  inflicted 
upon  Mademoiselle  dy  Orleans  and  her  brother — The  Due 
de  Chartres  at  the  Henry  IV.  College — Assassination  of 
the  Due  de  Berry — Birth  of  the  Due  de  Bordeaux — Vexa- 
tion of  the  Due  and  Mademoiselle  d*  Orleans — Death  of 
their  mother. 

ON  his  return  from  Elba,  Napoleon  offered  the  Palais 
Royal  to  his  brother  Joseph,  who  would  not  have  it. 
Lucien,  once  more  in  favour,  was  careful  not  to  vex 
the  Emperor  by  refusing  such  a  fine  residence.  He 
occupied  it  during  the  Cent- Jours,  but  refrained  from 
making  any  alterations  during  that  time.  On  July  7 
the  allies  rushed  upon  the  palace,  which  "again  ex- 
perienced the  joy  and  insolence  of  conquerors."  But 
in  1817  the  Due  d'Orle"ans  came  back  to  France 
and  continued  the  restorations  begun  in  1814.  The 
architect  Fontaine  was  entrusted  with  the  direction 
of  the  work,  which  lasted  for  more  than  eighteen 
years,  and  cost  no  less  than  eleven  millions  of  francs. 
The  entrance  court  was  not  altered  in  any  way,  but 
the  Chartres  and  Proues  galleries,  ornamented  with 
portals  and  columns  and  surmounted  by  terraces,  were 
constructed,  as  well  as  the  Orleans  gallery,  which 
took  the  place  of  the  horrible  wooden  galleries  "  with 



muddy  earthen  flooring,  occupied  entirely  by  modistes' 
shops  and — it  was  said — thousands  of  rats."  After  the 
fire  in  1827  the  Montpensier  wing  and  pavilion  were 
built,  and  "  passages  and  corridors "  were,  besides, 
constructed  on  each  floor,  "  giving  easy  access  ...  to 
drawing-rooms,  galleries,  libraries,  archives,  and 
chapel,"  &c. 

Mademoiselle  d'Orl^ans  lived  in  the  wing  to  the 
right  of  the  palace  entrance,  Rue  Saint  Honore*. 
The  reception  rooms  were  next  to  those  of  the  Duke 
in  the  centre.  In  the  principal  part  of  the  building 
was  the  family  drawing-room — a  sort  of  large  gallery, 
where  the  young  princes  were  allowed  to  play  on  holi- 
days— and  this  communicated  with  the  first  floor  of 
the  Valois  pavilion,  which  was  the  wing  occupied  by 
the  Duchess. 

44  The  children's  games  did  not  prevent  the  coming 
and  going  of  visitors  and  friends.  Among  these  were 
the  Due  de  la  Rochefoucauld — the  good  duke  as  he 
was  called — much  dreaded  by  the  children  because 
he  was  always  kissing  them  and  smelt  of  tobacco, 
M.  de  Lally-Tollendal,  Marshal  Gerard,  Raoul  de 
Montmorency,  Mme.  de  Boigne,  the  Princesse  de 
Poix,  the  Princesse  de  Vaud^mont "  ; l  peers  such  as 
the  Due  de  Broglie,  Comte  Mole* ;  deputies  like 
Camille  Jordan,  Dupin,  Stanislas  de  Girardin,  Casimir 
Pe>ier,  "who  were  with  the  prince  either  on  grounds 
of  friendship  or  in  simple  community  of  political 
opinions."  There  were  literary  men,  artists,  finan- 
ciers, manufacturers ;  Cousin,  Laffitte,  Manuel,  Chau- 
vclin,  de  Salvandy,  Casimir  Delavigne,  "  Francois 

1  Prince  de  Joinville,  Souvenirs, 


Arago,  the  astronomer,  with  his  inexhaustible  wit  and 
spirit.  .  .  .  And  then  there  were  Macdonald,  Mar- 
mont,  Molitor,  and  Mortier — the  four  marshal  M's — 
heroes  of  a  hundred  fights,"  as  the  Prince  de  Join- 
ville  calls  them,  while  Villemain,  bent  and  slightly 
deformed,  brushed  against  the  author  of  the  Martyrs, 
whose  fiery  eyes,  energetic  physiognomy,  and  regular 
features  made  him  look  young  in  spite  of  his  baldness. 

Quite  unlike  the  Duchess,  who  wrote  in  her 
diary  :  "  I  listen  to  what  is  said  to  me,  keep  silence 
and  reflect,"  the  Due  d'Orle"ans  liked  to  mingle  in 
the  conversation,  and  sometimes  even  preferred  to 
direct  it.  Besides,  he  possessed  an  easy  flow  of  lan- 
guage, strong  good  sense,  the  faculty  of  giving  to  his 
thoughts  an  expression  at  times  graceful,  at  times 
trivial,  but  always  striking. 

The  Abbe"  Dupanloup  and  Horace  Vernet,  the 
painter  of  the  Epopee  Orttaniste,  often  met  at  the 
Palais  Royal.  Talleyrand,  "  who  looked  like  a  dead 
lion,"  had  become  the  friend  and  adviser  of  Princess 
Adelaide,  perhaps  on  account  of  their  mutual  taste 
for  intrigue,  or  rather  because  the  former  Bishop  of 
Autun,  the  Grand  Constable  of  France,  was  secretly 
working  against  a  government  which  no  longer  de- 
sired his  services.  Then  Mademoiselle  liked  people 
of  worth  ;  she  sought  the  society  of  men,  and  especially 
of  serious  men,  and  took  her  share  in  their  discussions 
on  religion,  history,  philosophy,  music,  and  painting, 
speaking  "  naturally  and  good-humouredly  "  upon  all 
subjects.  When  quite  sure  of  those  who  were  listen- 
ing to  her,  she  would  give  her  own  views  with  vehem- 
ence, and  express  her  liberal  opinions  loudly,  turning 


the  courtiers  who  disliked  her  into  ridicule,  and 
scarcely  sparing  the  King,  by  whom  she  was  detested. 
She  was,  besides,  often  incapable  of  disguising  her 
feelings,  and  this  excess  of  frankness  created  im- 
placable enemies  for  her,  while  at  the  same  time 
lu T  lack  of  openness,  combined  with  the  fear  of  con- 
fiding mal  &  propos,  caused  her  to  be  accused  of 

The  opposition  deputies  came  under  the  Princesse 
Adelaide's  influence  ;  this  flattered  at  once  her  woman's 
pride  and  her  passion  for  politics,  but,  "as  she  was 
experienced  in  men  and  things,"  "she  did  not  allow 
herself  to  be  carried  away  by  appearances,"  avoided 
useless  discussions,  and,  as  Mme.  de  Boigne  puts  it, 
"  brought  her  interlocutor  neatly  to  the  point."  She 
exercised  great  ascendancy  over  her  brother,  who 
undertook  nothing  without  consulting  her ;  being 
more  enthusiastic  than  the  Due  d'Orteans,  less  clever 
perhaps,  but  franker  and  especially  more  decided, 
it  was  she  who  arrived  at  important  decisions.  She 
presided  over  a  sort  of  "little  coterie  which  Talley- 
rand frequented,  and  where  Mar^chal  Gerard,  M. 
Dupin,  Flahaut,  a  General  de  Lawaestine,  and  some 
other  faithful  friends"  met.1  Her  knowledge  was 
superior,  she  was  fond  of  the  arts,  and  protected 
artists,  especially  all  those  who  had  incurred  disgrace 
at  court,  "  where  she  only  appeared  when  etiquette 
obliged  her  to  do  so." 

She  was  often  to  be  seen  engaged  apart  in  revolu- 
tionary converse  with  Benjamin  Constant  (so  poor  that 
it  had  been  easy  to  buy  him),  with  General  Foy,  the 

1  Prince  dc  Joinville. 


eloquent  orator  of  the  opposition,  and  Se"bastiani,  the 
most  brilliant  of  drawing-room  talkers. 

One  of  the  young  princes'  tutors,  M.  Cuvillier- 
Fleury,  has  left  the  following  description:  "When 
there  was  a  grand  cercle  at  the  Palais  Royal,  one 
met  the  dlite^  the  cream,  the  flower  of  the  court  and 
courtiers  there ;  dukes  led  the  conversation,  and 
Ministers  were  the  humblest  persons  amongst  the 
numerous  guests.  .  .  .  Towards  eight  o'clock  they 
adjourned  to  the  magnificent  gallery  of  the  Theatre 
Fran$ais.  .  .  .  There  was  plenty  of  room  for 
everybody  on  the  tiers  of  handsome  benches,  but 
half  the  seats  were  vacant,  for  the  entire  crowd 
gathered  round  the  princes'  arm-chairs  in  a  part  of 
the  gallery  where  they  alone  could  be  seen." 

"  Sometimes  when  they  remained  in  the  drawing- 
room,  a  bell  would  be  heard  half-way  through  the 
evening.  ...  It  was  the  signal  announcing  a  visit 
from  the  Dauphine,  or  the  Duchesse  de  Berry.  The 
Duke  then  '  went  out  with  an  elastic  step  to  receive 
the  visitor  on  the  staircase."'  The  relations  of  the 
Orleans  family  with  the  "left"  were,  in  fact,  so 
adroitly  managed  that  they  in  no  wise  interfered  with 
their  intercourse  with  the  chateau.  After  the  Due  de 
Berry  had  espoused  Marie  Amelie's  niece — although 
the  marriage  "  provoked  many  a  bitter  feeling,"  writes 
the  Duchess — the  family  dinners,  to  which  all  the 
princes  without  distinction  of  royal  or  serene  high- 
nesses were  invited,  became  more  frequent.  We  hear 
that  on  January  6,  1819,  when  the  Twelfth  Night 
Cake  was  cut,  and  Mademoiselle  got  the  'king,'  she 
chose  Louis  XVIII.  for  her  partner.  They  met  at 

KING    AND    DUK1  177 

the  play  also,  at  the  Champs  de  Mars  races,  and  the 
Longchamps  promenade.  Unhappily,  the  elder  and 
younger  branch  were  separated  by  the  etiquette  upon 
which  Louis  XVIII.  insisted.  Alone  among  the 
members  of  the  family,  the  Duchesse  d'Orl^ans,  as 
a  king's  daughter,  and  a  descendant  of  Philip  V.  of 
Spain,  son  of  Louis  XIV.,  had  the  title  of  royal 
highness.  This  in  itself  was  slightly  ridiculous. 
When  the  Due  d'Orl^ans  went  to  the  Tuileries  with 
his  wife  and  sister,  the  Duchess  was  announced  first, 
the  double  doors  being  opened  wide  for  her;  one 
half  only  remained  open  to  allow  her  husband,  the 
Dowager-Duchess,  and  Mademoiselle  to  enter. 

The  King  would  not  grant  his  niece,  the  Duchesse 
d'Angouleme,  Monsieur,  the  Duchesse  de  Berry  even, 
the  title  of  royal  highness  which  they  asked  for  the 
Due  d'Orl£ans.  "  He  is  quite  near  enough  to  the 
throne.  I  shall  take  care  not  to  bring  him  nearer," 
he  used  to  repeat,  and  when  an  opportunity  arose  of 
doing  so,  he  made  these  needless  vexations  public. 
After  the  congress  at  Aix-la-Chapelle  the  King  of 
Prussia  came  to  spend  some  time  in  Paris.  Louis 
XVIII.  gave  a  good  many  dinners  in  his  honour. 
People  were  astonished  that  the  Orleans  family  was 
not  invited.  On  the  other  hand,  the  Duke  was  present 
at  a  play  at  the  Tuileries  with  his  wife  and  sister,  and 
instead  of  their  being  shown  into  the  royal  box,  where 
Louis  XVIII.  had  given  seats  to  foreign  princes  as 
well  as  to  his  own  family,  the  first  gentleman  of  the 
chamber  showed  them  into  another  box,  where  they 
were  mixed  up  with  ambassadors  and  officers. 

Thus,  when  the   Duke  of  Gloucester  arrived    in 



Paris,  a  concert  was  given  in  his  honour  at  the 
Tuileries,  but  no  members  of  the  Orleans  family  were 
present,  although  the  King  had  invited  them  all. 

December  13,  1819,  at  the  baptism  of  Made- 
moiselle, the  affront  was  still  more  patent.  The  car- 
dinal-chaplain, who  officiated,  presented  the  pen  to 
the  Due  d'Orleans,  when  the  King  cried  out  in  the 
imperious  tone  of  voice  which  was  customary  with 
him  :  "  Leave  the  pen  and  let  it  be  presented  by  the 
clerk  of  the  chapel." 

The  Due  d'Orleans  revenged  himself  for  these 
humiliations  by  going  in  for  what  Louis  XVIII.  called 
populacerie.  He  bought  pictures  recalling  the  vic- 
tories of  the  Republican  armies,  "  associated  his  name 
with  a  number  of  philanthropic  societies  and  good 
works,"  founded  schools,  and  protected  liberal  publi- 
cations.1 He  wanted  to  go  even  farther  and  strike 
a  great  blow.  On  the  morning  of  October  15,  1819, 
the  papers  published  the  following  brief  announce- 
ment :  "  It  is  said  that  the  young  Due  de  Chartres, 
eldest  son  of  the  Due  d'Orleans,  is  to  attend  the  sixth 
class  at  the  Henri  IV.  College."  The  King,  who  could 
not  believe  in  this  audacity,  at  once  sent  Decazes  to 
Neuilly,  where  the  news  was  confirmed.  Summoned 
by  Louis  XVIII.,  the  Due  d'Orldans  hastened  to  the 
chateau.  A  lively  discussion  ensued.  The  Duke  re- 
mained firm,  quoted  the  example  of  Henri  IV.  and 
the  Prince  de  Conde,  the  one  sent  to  the  public  schools 
of  Be"arn,  the  other  to  those  in  Paris.  He  added  that 
his  decision  on  a  family  matter  was  irrevocable.  The 

1  Biographic  des  contemporains^  which  Joury  and  Arnault  published 
in  order  to  vie  with  the  Biographic  universelle  of  Michaud. 


King,  at  «i  loss  for  arguments,  ordered  his  cousin  at 
least  to  take  the  advice  of  the  Duchess ;  that  same 
evening  the  latter  wrote  to  Louis  XVIII.  that  she 
deferred  to  "  the  desire  of  her  husband,  as  much  from 
duty  as  from  sentiment  .  .  .  for,"  she  added,  "  my 
convictions  make  me  desire  that  my  son  should  par- 
ticipate for  a  time  in  public  education."  The  King  did 
not  insist,  and  the  Due  d'Orldans  knowing  how  much 
he  would  gain  in  popularity  in  the  country,  was  not 
deterred  by  the  calumnious  abuse  of  the  salons  and 
ultra-royalist  Press  .  .  .  and  his  son,  the  Due  de 
Chartres,  began,  November  9,  the  course  of  study  he 
was  to  follow  for  six  years  at  the  Henri  IV.  College, 
and  which  his  brothers  were  to  follow  after  him. 

February  i3th,  1820,  the  last  Sunday  of  the  car- 
nival, all  the  Orleans  family  went  to  the  opera.  The 
children  left  after  the  "Carnaval  de  Venise"  ballet. 
At  ten  o'clock  the  Due  and  Duchesse  de  Berry  arrived 
at  the  theatre.  At  the  beginning  of  the  second  act 
the  Due  de  Berry  "escorted  the  Duchess,  who  was 
fatigued,  to  her  carriage."  *  .  .  .  A  few  minutes  later, 
cries  of  "  Help,  robber,  assassin !  "  were  heard  in  the 
street.  The  Due  d'Orl^ans  went  out,  and  "  recog- 
nising the  Prince's  livery  in  the  passages,"  went  down 
to  the  royal  box,  where  he  found  the  Due  de  Berry 
lying  back  in  an  arm-chair  before  the  fire-place 
mortally  wounded.  His  clothes  and  those  of  the 
I  hichess  were  covered  with  blood. 

The  Due  d'Orle"ans,  who  had  forbidden  his  wife 
and  sister  to  follow  him,  went  back  to  tell  them  of  the 

1  Account  given  by  Roullet,  "  the  husband"  of  the  woman  who  waited 
on  the  King's  box,  quoted  by  Dr.  Cabanes,  Les  Indiscretions  de  PHistoire. 


crime  which  had  just  been  committee!.  Marie  Ame'lie 
and  Mademoiselle  hurried  to  the  manager's  office, 
where  the  wounded  man  had  been  conveyed  on  a 
folding  bed.  When  the  princesses  arrived  "they 
were  bleeding  the  Prince  for  the  second  time,"  and 
Roullet  was  preparing  an  improvised  altar  for  the 
last  sacraments.  Mademoiselle  d'Orl^ans  could  not 
long  bear  "  so  harrowing  a  spectacle."  She  fell  down 
fainting  and  had  to  be  carried  away.  Some  instants 
later  the  Due  de  Berry  breathed  his  last  surrounded 
by  the  royal  family. 

The  assassination  of  the  Due  de  Berry,  which  was, 
as  Capefigue  said,  "the  isolated  frenzied  action  of  one 
man,"  might  have  been  imputed  to  the  d'Orleans ; 
indeed  people  accused  them  under  their  breaths;  the 
interest  they  had  in  the  Due  de  Berry's  death  made 
them  objects  of  suspicion.  Accordingly,  as  early  as 
February  17  they  were  all  with  the  King;  the  day 
before  Mademoiselle  had  already  gone  to  Saint  Cloud 
"to  share  that  day  with  the  Duchesse  d'Orldans  the 
devoted  care  which  H.R.H.  had  lavished  upon  her 
august  niece."  The  Duchesse  d'Orleans  had  spent 
the  night  with  the  "  unfortunate  widow  and  would  only 
leave  her  when  her  sorrow  was  calmer  and  more 

"Together,"  wrote  the  Duchesse  d'Orl^ans  in  her 
diary,  "  we  received  the  ashes  from  the  Bishop  of 
Amiens'  hand,  a  ceremony  in  accordance  with  the  sad 
spectacle  of  which  we  had  been  the  witnesses." 

The  Due  d'Orleans  presided  over  the  obsequies  of 
his  cousin ;  the  Duchesse  de  Berry  continued  to  go 
to  the  Palais  Royal,  and  even  consented,  two  months 


after  her  husband's  death,  to  be  godmother  to  the  Due 
de  Penthievre,  the  Due  d'Orle*ans'  fourth  son,  who, 
born  in  Paris  January  i,  1820,  died  1828. 

At  the  time  of  the  assassination  of  the  Due  de 
Berry  it  became  known  that  the  Duchess  was  enceinte! 
She  was  confined  in  the  night  of  the  i8th-2Oth  Sep- 
tember, the  Due  d'Albufera  and  the  soldiers  of  the 
Royal  Guard  being  called  as  witnesses.  The  birth  of 
the  Due  de  Bordeaux  "did  not  give  rise  to  the  same 
transports  of  delight  at  the  Palais  Royal  as  at  the 
Tuileries,"  remarked  Trognon.  It  might  even  be 
said  that  the  disappointment  was  great,  and  perhaps 
the  Due  d'Orle*ans  (seeing  that  he  would  never  be 
"  anything  in  France  ")  was  really  the  instigator  of  the 
odious  protest  which  appeared  in  the  Morning  Chron- 
icle* His  friends  called  the  new-born  infant  "the 
child  of  miracle,"  and  the  Duke  himself  put  the  finish- 
ing touch  to  his  misdeeds  by  an  inconsiderate  step. 
He  went  to  Marshal  Suchet,  who  had  been  com- 
manded by  the  King  to  be  present  at  the  birth  of  the 
royal  child,  and  said  to  him  :  "  Monsieur  le  Mare*chal, 
your  loyalty  is  known  to  me,  you  were  a  witness  of  the 
accouchement  of  the  Duchesse  de  Berry,  is  she  really 
the  mother  of  a  prince  ?  "  — "  As  truly  as  Monseigneur 
is  the  father  of  the  Due  de  Chartres,"  replied  Suchet. 

Mademoiselle  d'Orle*ans  was  frankly  grieved  by 
the  birth  of  the  Due  de  Bordeaux.  She  said  to  Mme. 

1  When  the  Duchesse  de  Berry  threw  herself  on  her  husband's  body 
(Princess  Adelaide  told  Mme.  de  Boigne),  the  King  cried  out:  "Due 
d'Orl&ns,  take  care  of  her,  she  is  pregnant ! "  (Mme.  de  Boigne, 

lade  with  the  view  of  proving  that  the  Due  de  Bordeaux  was  not 
the  ion  of  the  Due  de  Berry. 


de  Gontaut :  "You  also  are  angry  with  my  brother, 
Josephine,  but  one  must  pardon  a  very  natural 
first  impulse :  one  does  not  lose  a  crown  without 

To  avoid  scandal  Louis  XVIII.  abstained  from 
taking  any  rigorous  measures  against  his  cousin. 
Some  days  after  the  birth,  a  Te  Deum  was  sung  at 
Notre  Dame,  when  the  entire  Orleans  family  was 
present.  The  Duke  was  in  full  uniform,  booted,  with 
the  blue  cordon  across  his  breast.  The  Duchesse 
d'Angouleme  had  taken  the  princesses  in  her  carriage 
and,  May  i,  1821  (the  day  of  the  christening),  their 
serene  highnesses,  the  Due,  the  Duchesse  and  Made- 
moiselle d'Orle"ans  were  conducted  by  the  Marquis  de 
Dreux-Bre'ze'  to  the  seats  reserved  for  them,  "  round 
the  King's  throne,  which  had  been  placed  in  the  centre 
of  the  crossing  in  the  church  and  surmounted  by  a 
magnificent  canopy." 

The  Dowager-Duchess  of  Orleans  had  not  been 
able  to  be  present  at  the  ceremony  of  the  baptism  of 
the  Due  de  Bordeaux.  She  had  been  seriously  ill  for 
a  long  time.  The  death  of  her  faithful  friend,  the 
Comte  de  Folmont,  saddened  her  last  days  and 
occasioned  a  fresh  breach  with  her  children.  In  spite 
of  them  she  had  had  him  buried  at  Dreux,  beside  the 
place  she  had  reserved  for  herself  in  the  crypt.1 

i  "  When  Louis  Philippe  caused  the  present  sumptuous  monument  to 
be  erected  round  the  humble  chapel,  he  had  the  tombs  which  were  in  the 
crypt  brought  up.  The  only  one  left  below  was  that  of  de  Folmont.  Even 
the  marble  slab  which  covered  his  body  was  carried  away,  and  replaced 
by  a  mural  tablet  bearing  these  words  : — 

"  Jacques  Marie  Rosay,  comte  de  Folmon, 
decede  a  Paris  le  20  mars  1820. 


"  The  Dowager-Duchess  passed  through  nearly 
six  months  of  continual  suffering,  which  she  bore  with 
much  counige.  This  long  and  hopeless  illness  was  a 

;  trending  spectacle.  She  died  of  several  incurable 
maladies :  cancer,  paralysis,  and  dropsy.  .  .  .  She 
ended  her  career  on  a  Saturday.  .  .  .  The  Duke  and 
Mademoiselle  d'Orl&ins  watched  over  her  during  the 
last  three  days  of  her  life,  and  she  gave  them  her 
solemn  blessing,"  according  to  Mme.  de  Genlis. 

The  Due  d'Orl£ans  consulted  Mme.  de  Genlis 
"about  the  sad  ceremonial."  "  Everything  was  done 
in  the  way  which  could  best  honour  the  Princess's 
memory."  On  the  morning  of  July  2  the  Dowager- 
Duchess's  body  was  conveyed  from  Ivry  to  Dreux. 
The  coffin  was  placed  upon  a  hearse  drawn  by  six 
horses  and  followed  by  several  mourning  carriages. 
The  Due  d'Orldans,  accompanied  by  his  aides-de-camp, 
followed  his  mother's  body.  The  cortege  was  escorted 
by  the  Lancers  of  the  Guard  and  the  Gendarmerie  of 
the  Department. 

August  7,  at  eleven  o'clock  in  the  morning,  a 
solemn  service  took  place  in  the  •  Metropolitan  cathe- 
dral. The  Coadjuteur  officiated.  "H.S.H.  the  Due 
d'Orleans  was  placed  in  the  stall  next  to  the  arch- 
bishop's throne;  the  Duchess,  Mademoiselle  d'Orleans, 
and  the  Duchesse  de  Bourbon  were  seated  in  the 
tribune  above  the  chief  altar.  Mass  was  said  accom- 
panied by  music  ;  the  middle  of  the  choir  was  filled 
with  ladies ;  the  numerous  servitors  of  the  house  of 

The  name  was  doubtless  purposely  misspelt   .   .   ."  (Lenotre,   Vtcilles 
Maisons,  Vicux  Papiers.) 

Rouzet   was   married.      Unpublished   letters  are   still   in  existence 
addressed  by  the  Comtesse  de  Folmont  to  the  Duchesse  d'Orldans. 


Orleans  surrounded  the  catafalque,  After  the  Gospel, 
the  Abbe"  Feutrier  pronounced  a  funeral  oration 
enlarging  upon  this  double  truth  —  the  Dowager- 
Duchess  of  Orleans  showed  herself  superior  alike 
to  the  dangers  of  greatness  and  the  rigours  of 

June  6,  M.  Chodron,  notary,  had  received  H.S.H.'s 
testament :  "  I  give  and  bequeath  to  my  dear  son, 
as  participant  and  without  division,  the  third  of  all 
the  property  which  comprises  my  estate.  According 
to  this  disposition,  my  son  will  inherit  two-thirds  of 
my  estate,  and  my  dear  daughter  the  other  third. 
My  son  having  a  great  number  of  children,  I  am 
intimately  persuaded  that  my  daughter  will  approve  of 
the  disposition  which  I  make  in  favour  of  her  brother, 
for  whom  she  has  a  quite  peculiar  friendship,  and 
that  she  would  have  been  the  first  to  advise  me  to 
do  this.  They  know  that  my  dearest  wishes  have 
been  to  satisfy  them  both. 

"  I  give  and  bequeath  to  the  Princesse  Amelie, 
my  daughter-in-law,  the  use  and  enjoyment  of  my 
duchy  of  Aumale  during  her  life,  and  after  the  death 
of  my  daughter-in-law,  who  will  have  enjoyed  it 
unrestrictedly,  my  said  duchy  shall  return  to  my 

"  I  give  and  bequeath  to  my  grandson,  the  Due  de 
Penthievre,  who  bears  the  name  of  my  beloved  father, 
the  duchy  of  that  name ;  but,  in  consideration  of  the 
fact  that  the  revenue  of  that  duchy  is  almost  nil,  I 
give  and  bequeath  to  him  the  marquisate  of  Albert, 
such  as  it  is  actually  administered  by  M.  Danicourt, 
notary  at  Peronne,  for  my  said  grandson,  the  Due  de 


IVmhirvre,  to  be  proprietor  of  the  said  duchy  of 
Penthievre  and  of  the  said  marquisate  of  Albert, 
dating  from  the  day  of  my  decease,  but  not  to  enter 
into  the  enjoyment  of  them  until  the  day  of  his 
majority,  my  will  being  to  reserve  the  enjoyment  of 
them  to  my  son  until  that  epoch." 


The  Chateau  d'Eu — Last  moments  of  Louis  XVIII. — His 
death — The  Due  d" Orleans  and  Mile.  Adelaide  "  Royal 
Highnesses  " — Coronation  of  Charles  X. — Increase  of  the 
d*  Orleans  fortune — The  Chateau  de  Neuilly — Randan. 

KEPT  at  a  distance  from  affairs  by  Louis  XVIII., 
who  mistrusted  him,  the  Due  d'Orleans  appeared  to 
be  entirely  absorbed  in  the  desire  to  make  his  appanage 
profitable.  His  sister  and  he  managed  intelligently 
a  fortune  which  they  saw  increasing  each  day.  A 
bourgeois  intimacy  bound  the  members  of  the  Orleans 
family  together  amongst  themselves ;  the  greatest 
pleasure  to  all  of  them  was  to  get  away  from  the 
Palais  Royal  and  live  peaceably  in  the  country. 

In  1824,  the  day  after  the  christening  of  the  Due 
de  Montpensier,  Princess  Adelaide  not  being  very 
well  and  Marie  Ame"lie  still  weak,  they  started 
for  Eu. 

"  The  old  castle  of  the  Guises  was  at  that  time 
a  mere  barrack  with  corridors  undulating  like  waves." 
In  storms  the  whole  house  rocked ;  but  the  antique 
manor  had  nothing  banal  about  it.  It  overlooked 
the  pretty  valley  of  Bresle  and  was  surrounded  by 
a  magnificent  park  of  venerable  beech  trees.  The 
facade  of  red  brick  with  stone  pilasters  was  90  metres 
long.  The  sea  was  close  by  at  Treport,  and  they 


THE   CHATEAU    D'EU  187 

often  \vrnt  as  far  as  Dieppe,  which  the  Duchess  of 
y  made  her  summer  residence. 

The  ComM  d*  Eu  seized  in  1658,  was  sold  August 
20,  1660,  to  Mile,  de  Montpensier  for  the  sum  of 
2,550,000  francs.  Given  to  the  Due  de  Maine, 
February  6,  1681,  the  comtt  passed  into  the  hands 
of  his  son,  Louis  Auguste  de  Bourbon  (1700-1755), 
then  to  his  grandson,  Louis  Charles  de  Bourbon 
(1701-1775),  on  whose  death  it  reverted  to  his  heir 
and  cousin-german,  the  Due  de  Penthievre. 

Mile,  de  Montpensier  had  reconstructed  the  castle 
and  enlarged  the  park.  The  Due  de  Penthievre,  as 
soon  as  he  became  Comte  d'Eu  (1775),  took  up  his 
residence  there.  He  had  a  canal  dug  from  Eu 
to  T  report,  constructed  a  sluice,  and  improved  the 
port  and  piers  at  T  report ;  he  visited  the  castle 
every  year,  and  was  at  Eu  when  the  Revolution 
broke  out. 

Under  the  Empire  the  castle  and  senatorial  rights 
of  Rouen  were  given  to  General  Rampan.  Napoleon 
stopped  there  twice,  and  thought  towards  1813  of 
making  it  one  of  the  Imperial  palaces. 

In  1821  Louis-Philippe,  who  had  often  been  to 
Eu  in  his  grandfather's  time,  when  he  was  only 
Due  de  Chartres,  settled  there  with  his  family.  He 
occupied  himself  at  once  with  restoring  the  castle, 
forming  the  picture-gallery,  embellishing  the  park, 
restoring  the  church  and  mausoleums,  &c. 

Louis-Philippe  entrusted  the  architect  Fontaine 
with  the  work  of  restoring  the  castle  to  the  state  in 
which  we  see  it  to-day.  It  was  he  who  furnished  it, 
for  though  the  Due  de  Penthievre  had,  since  1776 


(the  date  of  his  first  visit),  accumulated  furniture  and 
pictures  there,  the  castle  had  been  sequestered  by 
decree,  October  4,  1793,  and  all  it  contained  sold  by 
auction  or  burnt,  and  the  castle  converted  into  a 
military  hospital. 

The  Due  d'Orl&ms,  the  Duchess,  and  Mademoiselle 
had  not  left  Paris  without  anxiety.  Louis  XVIII.'s 
health  declined  each  day ;  his  legs  were  now  one 
open  sore,  horrible  sufferings  chained  him  to  his  arm- 
chair, "his  head  hung  down  upon  his  breast  and 
could  only  be  raised  with  the  greatest  difficulty."  The 
King's  end  was  far  from  edifying.  The  covetous  and 
ambitious  Mme.  du  Cayla  continued  to  excite  the 
imagination  of  the  more  than  ever  helpless  old  man. 
Louis  XVIII.'s  excesses  shortened  his  days.1  The 
Due  d'Orleans  had  scarcely  settled  down  at  Eu  when 
he  received  a  letter  (August  n,  1824)  from  the 
Comte  d'Artois,  who  wrote :  "  The  King's  weakness 
has  increased  so  much  since  yesterday,  my  dear 
cousin,  that  I  find  myself  under  the  painful  necessity 
...  of  inviting  you  to  return  here  as  soon  as  you 
possibly  can." 

August  14,  Adelaide,  her  brother,  and  sister-in-law 
were  with  Louis  XVIII.,  who  was  no  longer  able  to 
recognise  them.  They  stayed  at  the  Tuileries  from 
midday  till  four  o'clock.  On  the  i6th  "  the  King 
being  at  the  worst,"2  they  went  again  to  the  chateau. 
"  Everybody  was  ranged  round  the  chamber  of  the 
august  invalid." 3  The  Abbe"  Rocher  repeated  the 

1  Wednesday  after  the  favourite's  departure  Dr.  Portal  found  the 
King  with  "  feeble,  very  feeble  pulse  ! " 

2  Journal  de  Marie  Am'elie,  quoted  by  Trognon. 

3  Ibid. 

DEATH    OF    LOUIS    XVIII.  iS0 

vcrs  for  the  dying;  but  the  king  was  no  longer 
able  to  hear  anything.  "  At  four  o'clock  in  the 
morning,  they  held  alkali  under  his  nose," 1  he  made 
ii"  movement,  then  the  Due  d'Angoul£me  went  up  to 
Monsieur :  4<  Father,  everything  is  over,"  said  he. 
11  Sire,  the  King  is  dead,"  added  Comte  de  Damas. 
The  new  King  embraced  everybody,  sobbing ;  they 
kissed  the  icy  hand  of  "the  defunct  monarch," 2  and 
as  Charles  X.  went  out  of  his  brother's  room  much 
overcome,  M.  de  Damas  opened  both  sides  of  the 
door  into  the  Gallery  de  Diane,  and  in  a  solemn 
voice  cried  out :  "  Gentlemen,  the  King." 

An  hour  afterwards,  Charles  X.  set  out  for  Saint 
Cloud,  surrounded  by  his  whole  family.  This  was 
the  chateau  ceremonial. 

An  immense  crowd  gathered  on  the  Tuileries 
quays  on  September  19.  At  a  quarter-past  two  the 
Duchess  and  Mademoiselle  d'Orle*ans  arrived  at  the 
Pavilion  de  1'Horloge  in  a  carriage  draped  with 
black  and  drawn  by  the  eight  horses  to  which  the 
duchess,  as  a  Royal  Highness,  was  entitled.  The 
Due  de  Bourbon  came  next.  At  three  o'clock, 
the  cheering  of  the  people  announced  the  arrival 
of  the  sovereign;  then  the  funeral  of  Louis  XVI 1 1., 
to  which  more  than  twelve  thousand  persons  had 
been  invited,  took  place. 

Charles  X.  was  received  at  the  foot  of  the  grand 
staircase  by  the  Due  d'Orl^ans,  the  Due  de  Bourbon, 
the  Duchess  and  Mile.  d'Orle"ans,  the  marshals  of 
France  and  the  great  officers  of  the  household.  He 
wore  a  violet  coat  and  silver  epaulettes.  The  state  bed 

1  Journal  de  Marie  Amtlie.  *  Ibid. 


of  the  late  King  had  been  prepared  in  the  throne-room. 
After  the  Miserere,  holy  water  was  sprinkled,  and, 
for  the  first  time,  the  sprinkler  was  presented  to  the 
princes  of  the  blood  by  the  chief  chaplain  himself. 
The  Due  d'Orleans  hastened  to  thank  the  King  for 
his  kindness.  He  had  been  "  particularly  sensible 
of  the  attention  he  had  had  for  him  on  the  occasion 
of  the  sprinkling."  * 

"  Yes,"  said  the  King,  "  I  desired  it  to  be  so,  and 
I  wish  to  tell  you  that  I  grant  you  the  title  of  Royal 
Highness."  "  The  King  grants  it  to  all  of  us?" 
inquired  the  Duke  hesitatingly.  "  Yes,  to  all,"  replied 
Charles  X.  amiably,  "to  Princess  Adelaide,  and  the 
Due  de  Bourbon."  At  last  the  Due  d'Orleans  saw 
the  object  of  all  his  desires  realised.  It  was  even 
said  that  the  Duchesse  de  Berry  had  a  plan  for  the 
future  of  her  daughter  whom  she  wished  to  marry  to 
the  Due  de  Chartres,  who  had  been  appointed  colonel 
of  the  ist  Hussars  by  the  King. 

It  was  in  the  uniform  of  this  regiment,  and  with 
the  cordon  of  the  Saint  Esprit,  that  the  young  colonel 
was  present,  May  29,  1825,  with  his  father  and  all  the 
members  of  his  family  at  the  coronation  of  Charles  X. 
{<  The  Due  d'Orleans,  like  the  Ambassador  of  England, 
displayed  a  truly  royal  luxury,"  is  the  remark  of  a 
spectator  (Appert).  The  equipages  of  the  first  prince 
of  the  blood  surpassed  all  the  others  in  elegance,  and 
it  seems  that  he  wore  the  ducal  crown  and  the  ermine 
and  gold  robe  of  Pharamond  without  looking  too 
ridiculous,  if  we  may  trust  the  Prince  de  Joinville. 
After  the  diplomatic  corps,  whose  brilliant  costumes 

1  Letter  from  the  Due  d'Orleans  to  the  Due  de  Bourbon. 

CORONATION    OF    CHARU-S    X.     191 

glinted  in  the  sunshine,  came  M.  Rothschild,  described 
by  an  eye-witness  as  wearing  a  "  red  uniform  with  two 
little  epaulettes,  which  reminded  one  of  those  vendors 
of  Swiss  vulnerary  waters  who  hang  about  the  cross- 
roads in  Paris."  The  Dauphine  had  a  robe  em- 
broidered with  silver  on  a  gold  ground.  Madame 
wore  her  hair  dressed  under  a  crown  of  flowers 
mingled  with  diamonds,  and  her  toilette  of  rose  silk 
was  flecked  with  silver.  Mademoiselle  and  the 
Duchess  of  Orleans  were  garbed  in  white  robes 
relieved  with  embroideries. 

After  the  Veni Creator,  the  Archbishop  of  Rheims, 
Monseigneur  Latil,  advanced  towards  the  King  and 
crowned  him.  The  princes  then  approached  the 
monarch  crying,  "  Vivat  Rex  in  aeternum!"  The 
cries  of  "  Vive  le  Roi!"  lasted  uninterruptedly  for  a 
quarter  of  an  hour,  filling  the  nave  of  the  ancient 
cathedral.  .  .  .  On  June  6  the  crowned  King  made 
his  state  entry  into  Paris,  preceded  by  the  Due 
d'Orle"ans  and  the  Due  de  Bourbon. 

To  the  title  of  royal  highness,  Charles  X.  was 
to  add  a  more  important  favour.  In  the  projected 
law  respecting  the  civil  list  which  the  Minister  of 
Finances  (Villele)  deposited  on  the  bureau  of  the 
Chambre  des  Dfyutds,  Article  IV.  ran:  "The  pro- 
perty restored  to  the  Orleans  branch  .  .  .  and 
accruing  from  the  appanage  provided  for  Monsieur, 
brother  of  King  Louis  XIV.,  for  him  and  his  heirs 
male,  shall  continue  to  be  possessed  on  the  same  titles 
and  conditions  by  the  head  of  the  House  of  Orleans." 
The  eloquence  of  General  Foy,  as  M.  Dupin  ac- 
knowledges, "covered  the  appanage,"  which,  thanks 


to  the  King's  intervention,  was  voted  by  the  Chamber. 
Thereupon  the  law  of  the  thousand  millions  voted  as 
indemnity  to  former  proprietors  of  landed  property 
despoiled  by  the  Revolution,  although  opposed  by 
General  Foy  with  the  approval  of  the  Prince,  gave 
the  Due  d'Orleans  and  his  sister  seventeen  millions 
more,  thanks  to  the  favourable  opinion  of  the  Conseil 
d'£tat?  The  death  of  the  Duchesse  de  Bourbon, 
which  had  taken  place  two  years  previously,  had 
further  augmented  their  fortune. 

Philippe-Egalite"s  sister,  who  since  her  return  to 
France  had  lived  on  good  terms  with  her  vicar,  had 
made  a  devout  end.  She  expired  suddenly  while 
attending  vespers,  January  10,  1822,  at  the  ancient 
and  formerly  pagan  Pantheon,  which  had  been  conse- 
crated some  days  previously  by  Monseigneur  de  Paris. 
Her  nephew  and  niece  became  her  heirs ;  the  fine 
house  in  which  she  had  lived  in  the  Rue  de  Varenne 
(now  the  Austrian  Embassy),  was  left  to  Princess 
Adelaide,  who  never  occupied  it,  as  she  always  pre- 
ferred to  live  near  her  brother  when  not  at  the  estate 
in  Auvergne,  which  she  had  purchased  from  the  Due 
de  Praslin  in  1821. 

Mademoiselle  loved  country  life,  and  retired  to  it 
willingly.  "  Always  eager  to  start  for  Randan,  she 
was  never  so  to  come  back,"  wrote  her  brother  in  a 
letter  to  M.  de  Rumigny,  and  would  leave  the  woods, 
orchards,  fields,  and  isles  of  the  Chateau  de  Neuilly 
regretfully  in  order  to  return  to  the  Palais  Royal. 

1  Of  this  milliard  of  indemnities,  one  hundred  millions  still  remained 
to  be  distributed  in  1830,  when  Louis  Philippe  coolly  ordered  that  they 
should  be  returned  to  the  Treasury. 


On  leaving,  Louis-Philippe  had  looked 
about  for  a  country  house.  Raincy  and  Mousseaux 
were  divided  up  and  had  no  suitable  residence ; 
Villers-Cotterets  was  without  park  or  garden  ;  so  he 
exchanged  the  Chartres  stables,  Rue  Saint-Thomas 
du  Louvre,  with  the  Crown1  for  the  mansions  of 
Neuilly  and  Villiers.2 

The  Chateau  de  Neuilly  had  been  embellished 
and  enlarged  by  its  different  possessors.  Of  the 
pretty  Pavilion  which  Cartaud  had  constructed  for 
Voyer  d'Argenson  in  1741,*  there  only  remained  the 
principal  building  in  "  Roman  style,"  the  Ionic 
columns  of  which  were  decorated  with  figures  repre- 
senting the  attributes  of  the  chase  and  fishing.  After 
the  Revolution  4  Neuilly  was  let  to  Talleyrand,  who 
furnished  the  pavilions  overlooking  the  water  magnifi- 
cently. Then  Murat,  who  had  acquired  the  Chateau 
de  Villiers  from  Madame  de  Bullion  in  the  year  IX., 
bought  Neuilly  three  years  afterwards.  He  spent  a 
portion  of  the  millions  brought  from  Italy  upon  it. 
The  left  wing  and  the  vast  dining-room  in  mahogany, 

'  The  Act  was  passed  March  28,  1820,  after  the  law  of  July  16,  1819 ; 
in  reality  Louis-Philippe  had  already  occupied  the  Chateau  de  Neuilly 
for  three  years,  as  Clementine  was  born  there  May  3,  1817,  and  Joinvillc 
August  14,  1818. 

8  They  were  valued  at  1,184,353  and  Neuilly  at  1,034,187  francs. 

1  Marc  Re*ne"  de  Voyer  de  Saulmy  d'Argenson  sold  it  through  Guyet, 
a  bourgeois  of  Paris,  to  Radix  de  Sainte-Foix  ;  d'Argenson  had  it  from 
Marie-Ade'laide  de  Gramont,  Comtesse  de  Gontaut-Biron,  who  had 
acquired  it  from  the  administrator  of  the  vacant  property  of  Sieur 
Desassenage.  The  sale  took  place  in  1766. 

4  April  5,  1792,  Claude  Pierre  Maximilien  Radix  de  Sainte-Foix, 
former  Minister  Plenipotentiary  in  Germany,  had  sold  the  Chateau  de 
Neuilly  to  Jeanne  Charlotte  Hcraud  de  la  Haye  de  Riou  (Mme.  de 
Montesson)  for  the  sum  of  370,000  francs. 



decorated  with  truly  royal  magnificence  "  with  hang- 
ings representing  birds  and  flowers,"  had  been  erected 
by  his  care.  He  also  built  the  right  wing  in  which 
the  grand  ballroom  was  situated  :  "  it  was  in  perfect 
harmony  with  the  dining-room,  and  there,  in  1810, 
the  fetes  took  place  at  which  Napoleon  was  present." 

It  was  thus,  except  for  the  damage  done  by  the 
allies  in  1815,  that  Louis-Philippe  found  the  castle. 
Pauline  Borghese,  indeed,  to  whom  Napoleon  had  given 
it  when  Murat  became  King  of  the  Two  Sicilies,1  had 
done  nothing  to  it,  save  that,  loving  flowers,  and 
afraid  neither  of  ostentation  nor  of  expense,  she  had 
arranged  the  garden  with  great  taste.2 

Louis-Philippe  made  numerous  purchases.  As 
far  back  as  1817  he  had  bought  several  little  islands 
in  the  Seine  and  the  isle  of  La  Grande  Jatte.  In 
1819  he  enlarged  the  park;  in  1820  the  right  wing 
was  pulled  down,  and  in  its  place  were  erected  the 
apartments  of  the  Due  d'Orleans  and  his  sister.3  It 
was  there  that  the  Duke's  cabinet  was  situated.  "  This 
room  was  one  of  the  most  modest  in  the  castle,  and 

1  Murat  became  owner  of  Neuilly,  Ventose  12,  year  XII.     He  had 
bought  it  for  230,000  francs  from  Marc  Antoine  Joseph   Delannoy,   a 
Paris  merchant,  and  from   Barbe   Rosalie    Lemaire,   wife    of    Ignace 
Vanlerberghe,  a  merchant  of  Amsterdam,  who  had  acquired  it  from 
Mme.  de  Montesson. 

2  Letter  from  Pauline  to  M.  Michelet,  her  gardener,  from  whom  she 
ordered  6000  feet  of  rose-trees,  1000  seringas,  500  oleanders.     Quoted  in 
documents  about  the  park  of  Neuilly,  communicated  by  Dr.  Marmottan 
to  the  Commission  municipale  de  Neuilly. 

3  Part  of  the  pavilion  occupied  by  Mme.  Adelaide  still  remains  at  the 
angle  of  the  Boulevard  d'Argenson  and  the  Boulevard  de  la  Saussaye. 
The  architecture  is  rather  heavy.     Nothing  has  been  preserved  in  the 
interior.     They  still  show  the  old  nettle-tree  in  the  garden,  under  the 
shade  of  which  the  Princess  played  piquet  with  her  brother. 


only  differed  from  the  others  by  the  great  number  of 
family  souvenirs  collected  in  it."  In  1821  he  erected 
the  chapel,  which  came  next  to  the  dining-room  con- 
structed by  Murat ;  and  the  principal  facade  and  gate 
of  honour  were  renovated  in  1823. 

In  spite  of  all  these  restorations,  however,  Neuilly 
was  never  more  than  a  large  unpretentious  country 
house,  with  "  no  claim  to  any  particular  style  of 
architecture,  consisting  almost  entirely  of  ground- 
floor  buildings  added  one  after  the  other,  and  having 
lovely  gardens,"  records  the  Prince  de  Joinville.  The 
immense  park  extended  from  the  fortifications  to  the 
Seine,  an  arm  of  which  it  enclosed,  and  was  bright 
with  fields  of  roses  and  flowers  everywhere. 

The  interior  of  the  castle  was  ornamented  with 
numerous  works  of  art ;  the  antechambers  in  the 
Louis  XIV.  style,  the  magnificent  strangers'  draw- 
ing-room, with  the  remarkable  ceiling  painted  for 
d'Argenson  by  Doublet  and  representing  the  rising 
sun  ;  the  vast  reception-saloon  had  a  very  grand  air, 
but  the  family  preferred  to  gather  in  the  billiard- 
room.  "  I  can  see  that  billiard-room  now,"  wrote 
Joinville,  "with  the  pictures  which  decorated  it:  the 
Improvisateur  of  Leopold  Robert ;  the  Femme  du 
Brigand  by  Schnetz  ;  Faust  and  Marguerite  au  rouet 
by  Ary  Scheffer  ;  Venice  by  Zeigler — all  master- 
pieces. I  see  the  habitue's  also ;  first  two  abbe's 
with  significant  names — the  Abbe*  de  Saint  Phar 
and  the  Abbe*  de  Saint  Albin,  legacies  of  the  frailty 
of  great-grandparents  long  before  the  Revolution ; 
then,  asjain,  an  abbe*  with  a  bushy  periwig,  the 
Abbe*  de  Labordere,  former  grand  vicar  of  Frcjus, 


become,  I  know  not  how,  mayor  of  Neuilly.  Then 
Marshal  Gouvion  Saint-Cyr,  our  near  neighbour, 
around  whom  there  was  always  a  circle  ;  next  the 
admirals — Comte  de  Sercey,  a  veteran  of  the  Indian 
wars,  with  his  queue,  and  Admiral  Villaumetz  ;  and 
lastly  generals  and  officers  who  made  us  wild  with 
the  stories  of  their  campaigns." 

But  Princess  Adelaide  preferred  the  Chateau 
de  Randan  to  Neuilly.1  This  was  the  only  one  of 
her  private  residences  which  pleased  her.  Curiously 
enough  it  was  the  destiny  of  this  manor  to  serve 
constantly  as  the  dwelling  of  a  woman.  The  mother 
of  the  learned  Pic  de  la  Mirandole  undertook  the 
first  buildings,  Marie  de  Beauffremont  raised  the 
estate  of  Randan  into  a  peerage-duchy,  Genevieve 
de  Durfort  de  Lorge  bequeathed  to  it  the  remem- 
brance of  her  grace,  and  the  Comtesse  de  Grollier 
parted  with  it  reluctantly.  Mademoiselle  d'Orl^ans 
desired,  like  her  predecessors,  to  enlarge  her  domain 
and  increase  the  out-buildings.  "  She  spent  more 
than  50,000  francs  a  month  in  purchases,  construc- 
tions, and  repairs,"  says  Appert.  But  instead  of 
improving  it  she  made  it  ugly.  She  pulled  down 

1  By  a  decree  of  August  18,  1806,  the  division  of  the  property  of  the 
Due  and  Duchesse  de  Praslin  was  ordered.  It  was  necessary  to  sell  the 
estate  of  Randan  ;  the  new  Due  de  Praslin  and  his  aunt,  the  Comtesse 
de  Grollier,  made  themselves  adjudicators.  In  1819  Comtesse  de 
Grollier  sold  her  share  to  Comte  Lavallette  and  to  the  latter's  son-in-law 
Baron  de  Forget. 

September  18,  1821,  the  Due  d'Orleans  and  Mademoiselle  went  to 
Puy-de-D6me  (Constitutional))  and  Adelaide  bought  from  the  Comte  de 
Praslin  the  other  share,  which  comprised  the  castle.  In  1826  Princess 
Adelaide  acquired  the  part  sold  by  Messrs,  de  Lavallette  and  de  Forget 
at  the  same  time  as  the  ancient  domain  of  Pragoulin  which  Comte  de 
Lavallette  had  had  from  the  house  of  Pons. 

RANDAN  197 

th<  ancient  donjon  which  seemed  to  protect  the 
country,  and  replaced  it  by  a  vast  building  erected 
without  any  art  and  destitute  of  elegance.  The 
scenery  on  the  contrary  was  magnificent ;  from  the 
castle  terrace,  the  view  stretched  in  turn  over  fertile 
Limagne  and  the  nearer  mountains. 

Randan  is  situated  a  hundred  leagues  from  Paris, 
not  far  from  Riom.  Mademoiselle  often  took  her 
nieces  and  nephews  there,  and  their  parents  nearly 
always  accompanied  them.  They  went  in  the  Due 
d'Orleans'  great  carriage,  a  sort  of  "  English  chest 
of  drawers,"  which  resembled  a  "travelling  men- 
agerie" if  we  may  trust  the  Prince  de  Joinville. 
They  slept  on  the  way,  at  Nogent-sur-Vernisson 
and  at  Moulins,  where  the  authorities  came  out  to 
greet  the  Princess.  At  Aigueperse,  they  left  the 
highroad.  The  justice  of  the  peace,  the  mayor, 
and  the  vicar  made  eloquent  speeches  ;  a  naive  and 
enthusiastic  population  cheered  Mademoiselle.  The 
carriage  was  drawn  by  six  or  seven  oxen  ;  "  Auver- 
gnats  in  big  hats  and  costumes  (there  were  costumes 
still)  armed  with  poles  directed  the  team  ;  the  car- 

e  oscillated  in  the  muddy  roads  intersecting  the 
mountains  and  valleys  ;  progress  was  difficult,  but 
we  reached  the  castle  at  length."1 

At  Randan  the  princes  rose  very  early  and  went 
in  the  morning  to  see  Mademoiselle  d'Orleans'  new 
purchases.  At  ten  o'clock  the  bell  rang  for  dejeuner. 
Those  cttjcuners  at  the  Chateau  de  Randan  have 
remained  famous.  Kitchens  had  been  arranged 
with  an  extraordinary  quantity  of  saucepans,  frying- 

1  Prince  de  Joinville. 


pans,  stock-pots  in  which  to  stew,  fry,  and  boil  all 
the  fruits  and  vegetables,  all  the  flesh  and  fowl  in 

During  the  day  everybody  did  as  they  liked. 
Some  walked  in  the  forest  of  Montpensier,  others 
settled  down  to  read  in  the  magnificent  library. 
Mademoiselle  more  often  than  not  went  round  her 

In  the  evening  there  were  a  great  many  people 
to  dinner.  The  Princess  exercised  a  pleasant,  easy, 
country  hospitality.  After  dinner  the  Due  d'Orleans 
read  the  papers  or  played  billiards  with  the  princes, 
whilst  the  princesses  busied  themselves  with  needle- 
work. Atthalin  showed  the  rough  sketches  he  had 
made  during  the  day,  Montlosier  told  mountain 
romances,  and  Pae'r  improvised,  "jesting  freely,"  or 
else  sang  the  Marseillaise,  which  did  not  prevent  the 
inhabitants  of  Randan  from  going  next  day  as  far 
as  Vichy  to  pay  a  call  upon  the  Dauphine. 

The  peasants  held  "the  good  Mademoiselle"  in 
profound  veneration.  The  Princess  loved  and  helped 
them,  she  was  their  support  and  adviser ;  in  less 
than  thirty  years  she  spent  several  millions  in  the 
country.  Under  her  direction  schools  were  opened 
for  young  girls  and  workshops  for  men ;  she  had 
houses  built  for  the  poor,  gave  clothing  to  children, 
and  her  sojourn  was  marked  each  year  by  "  fresh 


Entertainments  at  the  TuiUries  and  Palais  Royal — The  Due 
(f  Orleans  and  the  members  of  the  elder  branch — Attitude 
of  Princess  Adelaide — Charles  X. — Intrigues  of  the  Due 
and  Mademoiselle  d 'Orleans — Polignac  Ministry — Dis- 
solution of  the  Chambre  des  Deputes — The  King  and 
Queen  of  Naples  in  Paris — Charles  X.  at  the  Palais 

THE  favours  Charles  X.  had  accorded  the  Due 
d'Orle*ans,  the  old  King's  graciousness,  the  affection 
which  the  btwna  Delfina,  as  Marie  Ame'lie  called 
her,  showed  to  the  latter  had  rendered  intercourse 
between  the  two  branches  of  the  royal  family  more 
amicable.  The  receptions  at  the  Palais  Royal  be- 
came more  numerous  and  brilliant  each  year.  The 
Due  and  Duchesse  d'Angouleme  were  often  present, 
the  ministers  were  invited,  and  the  Duchesse  de 
Berry  retired  the  last  when  there  was  dancing. 
She,  also,  gave  superb  entertainments,  at  which 
the  Princesse  Louise  and  the  Princesse  Marie  were 
much  noticed,  the  one  on  account  of  her  beauty 
and  distinction,  the  other  for  her  high  spirits  and 
love  of  pleasure.1  Their  sister,  the  little  Princesse 
Clementine  received  the  congratulations  of  Charles  X. 

1  January  14,  1829,  at  a  masked  ball  at  the  Duchesse  de  Berry's 
"they  were  dressed  as  Tartar  women,  with  the  addition  of  diamonds 
ami  precious  stones  with  the  finest  effect."  (Cuvillier-Fleury.) 



at  a  children's  ball  at  the  Tuileries,  in  January 
1829.  She  represented  a  great  lady  of  the  court  of 
Louis  XV.  The  King  was  delighted :  "  It  is  as 
though  I  saw  my  wife  again,"  said  he,  while 
Mademoiselle  de  Beaujolais,  with  grave  solemnity, 
was  dancing  a  minuet  of  the  good  old  times.  The 
Due  de  Chartres  also  had  a  great  measure  of 
success.  He  spoke  little,  and  was  not  expansive, 
but  danced  wonderfully.  With  his  great  height 
he  had  the  bearing  of  a  soldier,  but  his  clear  eyes 
and  slightly  effeminate  features  had  preserved  the 
grace  of  childhood.  "  He  was  a  charmer — a  charmer 
of  soldiers,  a  charmer  of  artists,  a  charmer  of 
women  also,"  is  his  brother's  verdict.  All  the 
papers  on  Shrove  Tuesday,  1829,  spoke  of  the  easy 
elegance  with  which  the  evening  before,  at  Mme. 
de  Gontaut's,  he  had  worn  the  doublet  and  ruff 
of  Fran9ois  II.;  whilst  the  Duchesse  de  Berry, 
dressed  as  Mary  Stuart  with  her  hair  in  disorder, 
her  attitude  ungraceful,  "was  painful  to  look  at."1 

Concerts,  balls,  soirees,  plays,  succeeded  one 
another  at  the  Palais  Royal.  Mile.  Sontag  tried 
to  surpass  her  rival  Mme.  Malibran.  Mademoiselle 
d'Orleans  directed  the  music.  Mme.  de  Bignon 
sang  a  ballad  by  Isolina,  and  Nourrit  Casimir 
Delavigne's  Ballade  Napolitaine.  Tulou  played 
the  flute  and  Pae'r  improvised. 

Thus  Madame  (the  Duchesse  de  Berry)  deserted 
the  Tuileries  where  her  rigid  sister-in-law  would 
like  to  have  kept  her  cloistered  during  her  widow- 
hood. In  the  month  of  August  1829,  nevertheless, 

1  Cuvillier-Fleury. 


the  Dauphine  followed  the  Duchesse  de  Berry, 
and  they  both  stayed  for  several  days  at  the 
Chateau  d'Eu  with  the  Due  d'Orldins. 

Adelaide — the  contrary  of  Marie  Ame*lie — was 
never  a  friend  of  the  princesses  of  the  elder  branch, 
and  knowing  "that  they  did  not  like  her,  she  recipro- 
cated the  feeling,"  says  Appert.  She  never  mingled 
in  court  festivities  except  when  forced  to  do  so  and 
lived  apart,  in  a  sort  of  censorious  sulkiness.  If  she 
organised  concerts  at  the  Tuileries,  it  was  in  obedience 
to  a  courteous  request  from  Charles  X.,  and  also  at 
the  express  desire  of  the  Due  d'Orl^ans,  who  did  not 
wish  to  give  offence. 

The  Duke,  in  fact,  differed  from  his  sister  in 
character  and  by  calculation,  not  in  sentiments — for 
he  thought  as  she  did — but  in  the  manner  of  express- 
ing them.  He  was  waiting  ;  it  was  his  policy  to  wait. 
He  appeared  inactive,  but  all  the  while  was  acting 
with  prudence,  wisdom,  tact,  and  consummate  clever- 
ness. He  watched  the  Bourbons  growing  more  and 
more  unpopular,  and  counted  upon  time,  which  is  a 
great  master.  Mademoiselle,  not  knowing  how  to 
temporise,  might  easily  have  compromised  a  policy 
of  which  she  later  on  assured  the  success.  Too  great 
boldness  would  have  lost  everything ;  the  true  tactics 
were  to  keep  in  the  background. 

Charles  X.,  indeed,  was  working  for  the  Due 
d'Orlcans,  for  he  daily  involved  himself  more  deeply 
in  an  absurd  and  fatal  policy  ;  and,  like  all  persons 
destitute  of  the  capacity  for  desiring  the  right  thing, 
he  was  extremely  obstinate.  Not  that  he  sought 
complete  power,  he  had  neither  the  taste  for,  nor 


the  means  of  exercising  it ;  but  he  believed  it  to  be 
advisable  for  France  and  honourable  for  himself  to 
re-establish  the  old  regime  and  absolute  power  of 
Louis  XIV.  It  was  an  inopportune  attempt,  in  which 
even  the  cleverest  would  probably  have  failed. 

The  stubbornness  of  Charles  X.  was  only  equalled 
by  his  want  of  tact.  "  Plus gentilhomme  que  roi"  he 
protected  the  nobles — those  incapable  and  unpopular 
nobles  who  had  returned  from  exile  "  without  having 
forgotten  anything  or  learned  anything" — and  his 
tardy  devoutness  caused  him  to  support  the  Jesuits 
in  a  country  where,  even  before  the  time  of  Voltaire, 
the  people,  although  much  attached  to  religion,  were 
by  no  means  so  to  its  ministers.  In  this  way  he 
alienated  the  middle  classes,  who  had  always  supported 
the  monarch  against  the  nobility  and  clergy.  The 
last  King  of  France  not  only  did  not  understand  the 
great  changes  which  had  come  over  French  society, 
and  that  the  bourgeoisie  having  grown  rich  had  in- 
creased in  power,  but  he  ignored  the  history  of  his 
country  as  well. 

Thus  Louis-Philippe  saw  "  the  royal  destinies  of 
the  members  of  his  family  improve  in  proportion  as 
his  elders  compromised  theirs  by  their  conduct."1  He 
seemed  to  stand  aside,  allowing  others  to  intrigue 
for  him,  and  while  very  meek  at  court  had,  by  the 
apparent  sincerity  of  his  protestations  of  loyalty,  gained 
the  confidence  of  Charles  X. 

On  the  death  of  Louis  XVIII.  the  new  King  had 
had  a  memorandum  on  the  state  of  public  opinion 
drawn  up  for  him  by  M.  de  Lalot.  The  chiefs  of  the 

1  Appert. 


(  Mr.mist  party  were  mentioned  therein  :  Dupin, 
Camille  PeVier,  Laffitte,  S^bastiani,  "but,"  it  was 
added,  "the  King  need  not  distrust  H.R.H.  the 
Due  d'Orteans  ;  that  good  relative  is  always  devoted 
to  him." 

Charles  X.  did  not  distrust  him.  He  was  con- 
fident, credulous,  and,  "  like  all  beings  destined  to 
perish,  was  at  heart  with  his  enemies."  The  police 
report  was  significant,  however ;  Camille  Perier  and 
Laffitte,  Dupin  and  Se'bastiani,  were  they  not  the 
protdgts  of  the  first  Prince  of  the  blood?  And 
Marshals  Macdonald,  Molitor,  Mortier,  Gouvion  Saint- 
Cyr,  who  had  been  pointed  out  to  the  King  as  being 
in  opposition  to  the  Government,  did  they  not  find 
an  eager  welcome  and  flattering  attentions  at  the 
Palais  Royal,  whilst  at  the  chateau  they  ranked  after 
the  sub-lieutenants  of  a  nobility  more  ancient  than 
theirs  ? 

"  The  Protestants  rally  under  the  Orleanist  banner," 
said  the  police  report,  "  and  the  Republicans,  whose 
role  is  to  be  the  dupe  of  Bonapartists  and  Orleanists, 
would,  in  case  of  a  crisis,  have  as  ostensible  chiefs, 
the  Marquis  de  Lafayette,1  and  Marshal  Jourdan.  .  ." 
But  the  Due  de  Broglie,  Guizot,  Cuvier,  and  Lafayette, 
also,  had  long  ago  been  won  over  by  the  Orleans 

Still,  it  was  not  only  the  guests,  but  even  more 

1  Visit  of  Appcrt  to  Lafayette  (1823).  Lafayette  replied  to  Appert, 
\\lid  had  asked  him  whether  the  Due  d'Orleans  might  not  become  Kin# 
of  KraiK  <  :  "1  c  btct  in  the  Due  d'Orleans  greatly  .  .  .  but  in  a  revolution 
one  can  answer  for  nothing.  However,  this  Prince  would  have  many 
chances  in  his  favour  and,  for  my  part,  if  I  were  consulted  on  a  choice 
in  such  a  case,  he  would  certainly  have  my  vote." 


the  hosts  at  the  Palais  Royal  who  should  have  been 
suspected  by  the  police.  The  Duke  had  secret  rela- 
tions with  the  Spanish  Ambassador  and  the  Foreign 
Office.  He  subsidised  a  Sieur  Muller,  a  conspirator 
by  profession,  and  went  alone  in  the  evening  to  the 
Due  de  Dalmatie,  where  he  met  General  Foy,  Manuel, 
and  Benjamin  Constant.  He  patronised  a  Voltairian 
museum  established  at  Bossange's,  the  bookseller's, 
sent  important  subsidies  to  the  Greek  committee,  and 
made  use  of  his  fortune  for  increasing  his  popularity. 

His  sister,  Princess  Adelaide,  was  still  less  in- 
active. She  received  as  many  people  as  possible, 
computed  men's  opinions,  and  obliged  them  to  take 
sides  at  a  time  when  they  would  have  preferred  "  not 
to  explain  their  views  or  involve  themselves  fully," 
says  Madame  de  Boigne ;  seeking  to  "  know  from 
people  what  she  wanted  to  learn,"  and  organising 
around  her  the  nucleus  of  an  opposition  which  criti- 
cised the  actions  of  the  Government  boldly.  She  was 
not  displeased  at  being  called  the  Jacobin  Highness, 
and  encouraged  with  money  and  words  the  zeal  and 
liberalism  of  her  faithful  followers. 

At  court  still  less  regard  was  paid  to  the  influence 
exercised  by  Mademoiselle  d'Orle"ans  than  to  that  of 
her  brother ;  she  therefore  used  it  more  openly  than 
he  did.  She  went  to  Colonel  Chaillot,  General 
Barton's  friend,  and  received  with  kindness  the  sons 
of  David,  a  proscribed  regicide,  sent  6000,  then  3000, 
then  2000  francs  to  the  Greek  committee,  took  an 
interest  in  all  subscription  lists,  and  distributed  money 
in  charity.  L? enseignement  mutuel,  which  the  Liberal 
Party  encouraged  in  opposition  to  the  Brothers  of  the 

THE    POLIGNAC    MINISTRY          205 

Christian  schools,  was  supported  and  patronised  by 
her  ;  she  welcomed  political  men  whose  names  united 
the  suffrages  of  electors  and  independent  populations, 
and  was  bold  enough  to  support  Jewish  charities. 

In  the  month  of  August  1829,  the  Martignac 
Ministry,  the  opinions  of  which  were  sincerely  con- 
stitutional and  rather  tolerated  than  accepted  by  the 
court,  fell  under  the  coalition  of  the  left  and  right. 
Charles  X.,  freed  then  from  all  constraint,  chose  as 
first  Minister  the  Prince  de  Polignac,  the  favourite 
and  confidant  of  his  youth.  The  news  of  the  compo- 
sition of  this  Ministry  was  like  the  tolling  of  an  alarm 
bell  throughout  France.  The  Orleans  family  was  at 
that  epoch  gathered  at  the  Chateau  d'Eu,  where  they 
were  preparing  to  receive  the  Dauphine.  "On 
going  into  the  drawing-room,"  wrote  Cuvillier-Fleury, 
"  I  perceived  a  general  air  of  pre-occupation.  Mme. 
de  Montjoie  gave  me  the  Moniteur.  .  .  .  Polignac, 
Minister!  Courvoisier,  Minister!  Du  Montbel,  Minis- 
ter !  Bourmont  .  .  .  had  I  read  aright  ?  Bourmont 
of  1815,  Bourmont  of  Waterloo — Minister!  .  .  . 
The  drawing-room  was  full  of  rumours ;  Mme.  de 
Montjoie  groaned,  Mademoiselle,  who  was  not  very 
well,  appeared  overwhelmed.  ..." 

After  the  Journal  des  Ddbats  had  been  convicted, 
2Oth  August,  the  Royalist  Quotidienne  attacked  the 
Due  de  Chartres,  whom  Charles  X.  had  reprimanded 
for  going  into  court  to  enter  a  protest  against  the  trial. 
Some  time  afterwards  the  opposition  Globe,  in  which 
Trognon  and  Cuvillier-Fleury  collaborated,1  was  seized 

1  The  one  tutor  to   the    Due  de  Joinville,  the  other  to  the   Due 


on  account  of  the  article  by  Dubois  on  the  France  of 
the  Bourbons,  and  the  eldest  son  of  Louis-Philippe 
received  an  admonition  from  the  King  for  having 
gone  to  see  General  Drouot. 

Still  the  relations  between  the  Tuileries  and  the 
Palais  Royal  always  appeared  cordial.  November 
15,  1829,  the  Due  de  Nemours  had  received  the 
Cordon  Bleu;  January  i,  1830,  the  Dauphine  gave 
presents  "of  great  magnificence  and  exquisite  taste" 
to  the  children  of  the  Orleans  family,  and  the  recep- 
tions recommenced  as  in  the  preceding  winter. 

The  opening  of  the  Chambers  took  place  2nd 
March.  The  Dauphine,  the  Duchesse  de  Berry,  and 
Mademoiselle  d'Orle"ans  went  to  the  hall  of  stances 
through  the  Louvre.  The  diplomatic  tribune,  where 
the  absence  of  two  or  three  Ambassadors  had  been 
very  marked  on  the  previous  year,  was  an  imposing 
sight ;  all  the  members  of  foreign  legations  were 
gathered  there.  Towards  half-past  twelve  (noon)  an 
usher  announced  in  a  loud  voice  the  Chamber  of 
Peers.  Thereupon,  the  Peers  of  France  entered, 
having  the  Chancellor  at  their  head  (in  a  violet  gown) 
and  the  Keeper  of  the  Seals.  State  messengers  and 
ushers  with  gold  chains  accompanied  the  cortege. 
The  Peers  were  in  full  dress,  their  mantles  trimmed 
with  ermine  and  their  Henry  IV.  hats  shaded  with 
white  plumes.  Nearly  all  the  deputies  were  present, 
and  many  of  them  were  obliged  to  place  themselves 
in  the  corridors  and  embrasures  of  the  windows. 

At  one  o'clock  a  salvo  of  artillery  from  the  Inva- 
lides  announced  his  Majesty's  departure  from  the 
Tuileries.  The  King  traversed  the  grand  gallery  of 

THE    POLIGNAC    MINISTRY          207 

the  Louvre,  and  passed  through  the  grand  gallery 
d'Apollon  to  a  first  salon,  where  he  received  deputa- 
tions from  the  twelve  Peers  and  twenty-five  deputies, 
headed  by  the  Grand  Master  of  the  Ceremonies. 

The  corttge  soon  started  ;  the  Heralds-at- Arms,  the 
Guards  of  la-Manche,  dressed  in  their  tunics  of  gold 
and  silver,  and  armed  with  halberds,  were  arranged 
along  the  platform  of  the  throne.  The  heartiest 
cheering  greeted  the  entrance  of  the  King  and  Princes, 
behind  whom  were  placed  the  officers  of  the  Royal 

In  his  speech  Charles  X.  spoke  of  "  perfidious 
insinuations,"  of  "culpable  manoeuvres,"  and  "  his 
rights." *  The  Assembly  replied  by  the  famous 
address  of  the  221,  which  Royer-Collard  (though 
loyally  devoted  to  the  reigning  family)  had  inspired ; 
it  was  to  the  effect  that  "  the  permanent  concurrence 
of  the  political  views  of  the  King's  Government  with 
the  desires  of  his  people  did  not  exist." 

The  Chamber  was  thereupon  prorogued,  then  dis- 
solved This  was  a  provocation.  It  was  greeted  in 
the  country  by  a  formidable  outburst  of  opinion.  The 
crown  openly  entered  into  a  struggle  with  the  nation  ; 
it  was  necessary  to  take  sides  and  to  pronounce,  not 
for  or  against  such  or  such  Ministers,  but  for,  or 
against,  the  King.  The  Due  d'Orl^ans  could  not 
hesitate  this  time.  The  Due  de  Chartres  had  given 

1  At  this  threatening  sentence  the  King's  hat  fell  at  the  feet  of  the 
Due  d'Orlcans,  who  picked  it  up  and  held  it  till  the  end  of  the  speech. 
ny  people  noticed  this  circumstance."  Mile.  d'Orldans  said  to  the 
Comtesse  de  Boigne  in  the  evening  :  "  It  is  to  be  hoped  that  the  Gazettes 
will  not  take  up  that  incident,  and  make  their  silly  commentaries 
upon  it ! " 


his  opinion  in  public  and  Princess  Adelaide,  who 
entirely  agreed  with  her  nephew,  had  had  the  opposi- 
tion programme  promulgated  by  General  Atthalin  at 
Colmar.  Charles  Dupin  was  a  candidate  for  Paris, 
and  the  221  voters  of  the  address  were  for  the  most 
part  friends  of  the  Prince. 

Besides,  it  was  known  at  court  that  the  Due 
d'Orleans  subsidised  a  newly-founded  journal  Le 
National,  the  policy  of  which  was  characterised  by 
Thiers  as  "  monarchical  and  anti-dynastic,"  and  that 
the  Prince  also  patronised  the  "  Help  yourself  and 
Heaven  will  help  you"  society. 

The  result  was  a  coolness  in  the  intercourse 
between  the  branches  of  the  royal  family.  The 
invitation  to  le  jeu  du  Roi  (join  the  King  at  cards) 
reached  the  Palais  Royal  rather  late,  and  when  his 
cousin  arrived  in  time  for  the  Dauphine's  "  game " 
Charles  X.  greeted  him  coldly,  saying :  "  I  have  not 
seen  you  for  a  century."  One  day  even,  as  Marie 
Amelie  and  Mademoiselle  were  taking  leave  of  the 
King  at  the  Tuileries,  he  said  to  them :  "  There  is 
nothing  so  easy  as  to  oppose  my  Government  at 
random,  but  it  is  not  so  easy  to  justify  this  opposi- 
tion." "  There  was  sharpness  both  in  his  words  and 


The  arrival  of  the  King  of  Naples  caused  a  truce 
to  these  hostilities.  He  dined  at  the  Palais  Royal  on 
May  1 8.  "  Madame  la  Duchesse  d'Orleans,"  wrote 
Cuvillier-Fleury  in  his  "Journal,"  "  presented  us  to 
the  Queen,  who  grinned  at  us.  She  and  her  grimace 
are  very  ugly.  The  King  is  a  septuagenarian  at  fifty  ; 
he  is  bent,  and  his  face  covered  with  a  forest  of  white 

THE    POLIGNAC    MINISTRY          209 

hairs,  which  made  him  look  like  a  white  bear  from  the 

The  Orleans  family  wanted  to  entertain  the  King 
and  Queen  of  Naples  officially  at  the  Palais  Royal ; 
but,  as  these  sovereigns  were  the  guests  of  Charles  X., 
it  was  necessary  for  that  purpose  that  the  King  of 
France  should  consent  to  grant  his  mere  cousin  the 
"  immense  favour"  of  attending  a  ball  at  the  house  of 
a  royal  highness.  Charles  X.  hesitated,  but  the 
Duchesse  d'Angouleme  made  it  clear  that  Marie 
Amelie  was  a  very  near  relation  of  hers,  aunt  to  the 
Duchesse  de  Berry,  and  sister  to  the  King  of  Naples. 
In  order  to  get  her  uncle  to  make  up  his  mind  she 
even  added  :  "  This  dear  Princess,  who  belongs  to  our 
race  and  family,  is  really  so  very  kind."  The  King 
gave  way  and  named  his  day. 

At  seven  in  the  evening  of  May  31,  a  company  of 
Guards  in  their  magnificent  uniforms  arrived  at  the 
Palais  Royal.  The  illuminations  began  at  nine  o'clock. 
All  the  lines  of  the  palace  were  traced  with  lamps  ; 
strings  of  coloured  glasses  gleamed  between  the  trees, 
and  pyramids  of  fire  had  been  placed  on  the  terraces. 
The  Due  d'Orl£ans  had  issued  numerous  invitations 
without  distinction  of  political  opinions.  The  Due  de 
Choiseul,  Laffitte,  Benjamin  Constant,  Jouy,  Arnault, 
Gilbert  de  Voisin.  General  Thiers,  Ternaux,  and  the 
elder  Dupin  .  .  .  all  in  opposition  had  been  invited. 
Towards  eleven  o'clock  couriers,  grooms,  Guards  on 
horseback  and  the  beating  of  drums,  announced  the 
arrival  of  Charles  X.  He  entered  the  palace  draw- 
rooms  preceded  by  all  his  attendants,  then  gave 
his  arm  to  the  Duchesse  d'Orl^ans,  the  Dauphin  did 



the  same  to  Mademoiselle  Adelaide  and  the  Due 
d'Orl^ans  to  the  Dauphine.  There  was  "  an  excel- 
lent band,  selected  by  Paer  with  the  assistance  of 
Mademoiselle.  The  King's  handsome  Body  Guards 
were  at  their  posts  to  do  honour  to  the  sovereigns. 
The  dresses  and  diamonds,  the  luxury,  of  the  apart- 
ments, the  hangings,  gilding,  pictures,  and  bronzes 
were  reflected  a  thousand  thousand  times  by  the 
great  mirrors  which  gave  a  fairy-like  aspect  to  this 
entertainment."  * 

"  After  the  introductory  quadrilles  in  costume," 
wrote  the  Prince  de  Joinville,  "  the  King  sauntered 
out  upon  the  terrace  which  extends  above  the  gallery 
d' Orleans.  Women  moved  about  ddcollettes,  so  fine 
and  warm  was  the  night,  lighted  as  though  it  were 
midday  by  dazzling  illuminations.  ...  I  slipped  in 
front  of  Charles  X.  while  he  was  taking  his  pro- 
menade, and  saw  him  advancing  with  his  straight 
figure  and  truly  royal  air  towards  the  parapet  of  the 
terrace  on  the  garden  side.  He  waved  his  hand 
several  times  to  salute  the  crowd.  .  .  .  There  was  no 
shout  of  Vive  le  Roi,  nor  were  there  any  hostile  cries. 
A  last  wave  of  the  hand,  accompanied  by  a  '  Good- 
day,  my  people ! '  which  the  King  uttered  half-seri- 
ously,  half-laughingly,  and  Charles  X.  went  away.  I 
was  never  to  see  him  again.  Almost  immediately 
afterwards  the  crowd  took  possession  of  the  chairs  in 
the  garden,  piled  them  up  in  the  parterre  where  the 
midday  cannon  was,  and  set  fire  to  them.  The  troops 
had  to  be  called  in  to  clear  the  garden." 

Charles  X.  had  gone,  followed  by  the  Dauphin  and 

1  Appert. 


Dauphine,  with  the  same  ceremonial  as  on  his  arrival. 
It  w  is  the  last  time  that  a  Due  d'Orldans  received  the 
King  of  France  at  his  house. 

Some  days  later  the  Dauphin  and  Dauphine  came 
to  pay  a  call  at  the  Palais  Royal.  Mademoiselle 
<!'<  Means  being  ill,  did  not  leave  her  apartment,  but 
the  Due  and  Duchesse  d'Angoul£me  had  themselves 
conducted  to  her.  "  This  visit  (a  very  rare  favour 
for  H.R.H.  on  the  part  of  the  august  couple)  lasted 
about  twenty  minutes,  and  when  Mme.  la  Duchesse 
d'Orl&ins  had  replaced,  according  to  etiquette,  the 
mantle  on  the  shoulders  of  the  Dauphine,  the  Tuile- 
ries  Princes  were  conducted  by  the  Duchess  and  the 
Due  d'Orl&ins  to  the  first  step  of  the  grand  staircase. 
Then  the  Dauphin,  instead  of  saying  Adieu,  absent- 
mindedly  pronounced  the  words,  '  Parole  d honneur ! 
parole  cChonneur!1  several  times.  The  Dauphine 
took  hold  of  his  arm  and  they  went  to  their  car- 
riage. .  .  . 

"...  I  described  the  Dauphin's  absent-minded- 
ness at  the  moment  of  leaving  Mme.  la  Duchesse 
and  Monseigneur  to  H.R. H.,"  says  Appert.  "I  am 
not  surprised,  man  cher"  replied  the  Princess,  "  after 
what  he  said  to  me  himself;  really  the  poor  Prince 
is  going  down  hill  sadly.  I  do  not  know  what  this 
intellectual  failure  will  lead  to,  his  wife  is  evidently 
conscious  of  it  and  suffers  accordingly.  God  grant 
that  it  may  not  cause  greater  incongruity  of  be- 




Signature  of  the  ordinances — Indignation  of  Mademoiselle 
cT  Orleans — Visit  of  the  Comtesse  de  Boigne  to  Princess 
Adelaide — The  evening  of  July  27  at  the  Chateau  de 
Neuilly — The  anxieties  of  its  denizens  on  the  day  of  the 
28/// — Victory  of  the  insurgents — The  Due  d' Or  leans  at 
Raincy — Mademoiselle's  tricoloured  cockades — Affluence  of 
itors  at  Neuilly — Dupin,  Thiers,  Casimir  Delavigne — 
Decided  attitude  of  Princess  Adelaide — Marie  A  me  lie's 
sadness — The  Comtesse  de  Boigne' s  negotiations — De- 
parture of  the  Orleans  family  for  Paris  on  tlie  evening  of 
July  I. 

ON  the  morning  of  July  26,  1830$  Paris  read  in  the 
Moniteur  of  the  ordinances  which  dissolved  the  newly- 
elected  Chamber,  re-established  the  censorship  of  the 
Press,  abridged  the  existing  electoral  law,  and  replaced 
it  by  "a  mode  of  election  which  restricted  political 
rights — already  so  limited — and  rendered  representa- 
tive government  illusory." 

The  Orleans  family  had  been  settled  for  some 
days  at  Neuilly,  where  there  was  "  general  conster- 
nation "  when  they  learned  of  the  coup  d'ttat  of  Charles 
and  his  Ministers  ;  "  from  that  moment  all  the  peace- 
ful regular  habits  of  the  house  were  changed,  and 
the  drawing-room  became  a  political  rendcz-vous" 1 

1  With   a   desire  for  impartiality   we  have  quoted  largely   in   this 
chapter  from  the  writings  of  persons  who  were  continually  with  the 

Orleans  family  during  the  July  days— Cuvillier-Fleury,  Trognon,  &c 



The  Due  d'Orleans  sat  on  the  great  divan,  listening 
sadly  but  saying  little,  while  the  others  gave  their 
opinions.  The  Princes'  tutors  (I? Education,  as  they 
were  called)  were  present.  Trognon  remarked  that 
France  had  not  been  taken  unawares,  but  was  pre- 
pared to  resist  taxation.  The  Prince  interrupted  him 
very  sharply  :  "  No,  no,  do  not  imagine  that  things 
will  pass  in  that  way.  ...  A  box  on  the  ear  has  been 
given  and  will  be  returned." 

"They  are  mad,"  he  kept  repeating  ;  "they  want 
to  have  us  exiled  again  !  Oh  !  as  for  me,  I  have  been 
exiled  twice  ;  I  will  not  stand  it  again  ;  I  shall  stay  in 
France ! " 1 

Mademoiselle  faced  the  situation  firmly ;  she  had 
already  made  up  her  mind,  and  only  sought  to  van- 
quish Marie  Ame'lie's  family  scruples  and  to  break 
down  the  last  hesitations  of  Louis-Philippe.  She  ex- 
pressed herself  with  vehemence,  with  indignation, 
"commanded  every  one  to  be  reserved/'  but  spoke 
rather  bitterly  of  the  King  and  his  Ministers. 

They  heard  of  the  journalists'  protests  that  same 
evening,  and  "deep  sympathy  was  expressed  for  them 
by  the  whole  family."  Thiers,  Mignet,  Carrel,  editors 
of  the  National,  de  Remusat  and  Guizard,  editors  of 
the  Globe,  Cauchois-Lemaire,  editor  of  the  Con- 
stitutionel,  Alexis  de  Jussieu,  editor,  and  de  Lape- 
louse,  manager  of  the  Courrier  Fran$ais,  Leon 
Pillet,  manager  of  the  Journal  de  Paris,  were  political 
friends  of  the  Due  d'Orleans.  Thus,  when  Comte 
Mole",  who  dined  at  Neuilly,  spoke  of  the  legal  resist- 
ance which  must  be  opposed  to  the  ordinances,  his 

1  Prince  de  Joinville,  Vieux  Sottvenirs. 


THE    RKYOI.rriON    OF    JULY         217 

mn.irks  were  badly  received.  Princess  Marie  fore- 
saw insurrection  ;  her  aunt,  Mademoiselle  d'Orl^ans, 
adjured  her  brother  to  go  to  Paris  and  put  himself  at 
the  head  of  the  opposition.  Mme.  de  Montjoie  sup- 
ported this  idea  with  great  energy,  and  Princess 
Louise  attacked  her  governess,1  Madame  de  Malet, 
who,  alone  with  the  Duchesse  d'Orle"ans,  seemed  to 
approve  of  Comte  Mole\ 

On  Tuesday  27th,  details  of  the  previous  day's 
disturbances  were  made  known  at  Neuilly ;  there  had 
been  a  mere  skirmish  and  nothing  more.  The  Prince 
had  promised  to  show  the  park  to  an  old  English  lady, 
his  neighbour  at  Twickenham,  and  did  so.  At  four 
o'clock  the  Comtesse  de  Boigne  arrived,  and  was  re- 
ceived by  Mademoiselle,  whom  she  found  "  distressed 
by  the  ordinances,  very  uneasy  respecting  the  popular 
effervescence  .  .  .  and  especially  impatient  because 
she  dreaded  lest  her  brother's  name  should  be  com- 

"  We  talked  for  a  long  time,"  wrote  Mme.  de 
Boigne,  "bat  there  was  no  question  of  the  remedy 
that  Neuilly  might  eventually  furnish  in  a  state  of 
affairs  which  had  become  so  critical."  "  Had  it  not 
been  for  two  ceremonies — the  mass  of  the  Saint  Esprit 
and  the  opening  of  the  Chambers — which  we  were 
obliged  to  attend,"  said  Princess  Adelaide,  "and  the 
miserable  trap  set  for  us,  we  should  have  started  for 
Eu  on  Saturday  and  been  away  from  all  this  rioting. 
When  I  think  of  it,  I  am  ready  to  tear  my  hair  out." 

The  daughter  of  Philippe-Iigalite',  as  we  see,  did 
ii' >t  confide  even  in  the  most  devoted  friends  of  her 

1  Cuvillier-Fleury. 


family  :  "  If  the  Princess's  intention  was  to  mystify 
me,  she  succeeded  perfectly,"  remarked  the  malicious 
Comtesse  de  Boigne,  on  quitting  Neuilly,  where  she 
had  met  neither  the  Duchesse  d'Orle"ans,  who  was 
walking  in  the  garden,  nor  the  Duke,  who  was  hiding, 
nor  the  children,  who  had  gone  to  the  swimming 

Before  leaving  she  went  to  see  Mme.  de  Montjoie. 
Princess  Adelaide's  lady-in-waiting  employed  almost 
the  same  language  as  her  mistress,  and  seemed 
"  in  despair  also  that  they  were  not  at  Eu." 
"  That  appeared  to  me  to  be  the  impression  of 
the  house." 

On  returning  in  the  evening  the  young  Princes 
related  what  they  had  seen  in  Paris.  The  Place 
Louis  XV.  was  occupied  by  troops  ;  there  was  a  regi- 
ment of  Guards  and  the  artillery  from  the  Ecole 
Militaire  " mdche  allumte"  Near  to  the  Porte  Maillot 
they  had  met  the  Duchesse  de  Berry  on  horseback, 
surrounded  by  a  great  number  of  equerries,  and  had 
bowed  to  her  amicably. 

After  dinner  there  was  not  a  single  visitor  at 
Neuilly.  Reaume  and  Vatout  came  and  went  bringing 
news.  The  billiard-room,  panelled  with  costly  stucco, 
the  arches  and  ceiling  of  which  were  ornamented  with 
paintings  and  gilded  sculpture,  had  not  its  customary 
air  of  quiet  family  cheerfulness.  The  doors  on  to  the 
terrace  were  only  slightly  ajar.  "  Everybody  was 
seated  on  the  settees."  Nobody  dared  to  speak.  The 
Duke  sighed.  Sometimes  he  turned  towards  Princess 
Adelaide  and  said  a  few  words  to  her  in  a  low  tone. 
The  Duchess,  sad  and  depressed,  "  wrapped  up  in  her 

THE    REVOLUTION    OF  JULY         219 

grief,"  avoided  looking  at  any  one,  "and  was  doubtless 
engaged  in  prayer.1' 

Wednesday  morning  (July  28)  Cuvillier-Fleury 
set  off  for  Paris,  where  his  family  had  remained. 
He  had  great  difficulty  in  getting  back  to  Neuilly. 
Paris  was  in  a  ferment,  he  recounted ;  carriages 
were  stopped  and  broken  up  to  make  barricades. 
It  was  stiflingly  hot.  At  "all  the  cross  roads 
stone  dikes "  had  been  constructed  by  bare-armed 
and  coatless  people ;  they  were  preparing  for  battle 

At  Neuilly  the  day  passed  in  the  anguish  of  un- 
certainty. Nothing  but  contradictory  news  and 
rumours  were  to  be  had.  During  dinner  they  began 
to  hear  the  cannon  thundering.  In  the  afternoon  the 
family  gathered  in  the  Prince  de  Joinville's  study  ; 
Larnac  was  "  beside  himself,"  Trognon  indignant  and 
loud-voiced,  while  Cuvillier-Fleury  was  "  ferocious  and 
talked  of  nothing  but  massacring  the  enemy."  Then, 
hearing  the  great  bell  of  Notre  Dame  sounding  the 
tocsin,  every  one  anathematised  Mgr.  de  Qu£len,  who, 
they  said,  having  suggested  the  ordinances  to  the  King 
was  responsible  for  the  disturbances  in  Paris.  '*  The 
indignation  of  the  Prince  and  Madame  Adelaide  was 
expressed  much  more  strongly  than  that  of  the  others," 
says  Cuvillier-Fleury. 

In  the  evening  they  gathered  on  the  terrace  in 
front  of  the  drawing-room.  It  was  a  magnificent 
ni^ht,  but  over  Paris  the  cannon  boomed  uninter- 
ruptedly. News  arrived :  it  was  terrible.  "  The 
Prince,  with  his  wife  and  sister,  walked  up  and  down 
apart,  in  a  narrow  space,  stopping  continually  and 


retracing  their  steps."  Towards  ten  o'clock  the 
cannon  was  heard  no  more.  At  midnight  Tuthill,  the 
Englishman,  who  had  been  sent  to  Paris,  arrived 
breathless  and  covered  with  perspiration.  The  people 
had  not  lost  all  hope,  but  it  was  feared  that  they  would 
be  obliged  to  give  way  from  want  of  ammunition. 
They  went  to  bed  with  this  news,  which  was  confirmed 
by  Ary  Scheffer,  the  painter,  on  the  morrow  :  "  The 
royalists  are  victorious,"  said  he  ;  "  the  Parisians  are 
discouraged,  their  defeat  is  certain.  Thiers  and 
Mignet  have  fled."  l 

"  These  accounts  made  us  feel  very  much  troubled," 
wrote  Cuvillier-Fleury.  They  were  distressed,  and 
already  thought  of  leaving  Neuilly  to  escape  reprisals, 
but,  an  hour  afterwards,  when  the  family  had  taken 
refuge  in  the  little  castle,  Princess  Marie  came  running  : 
"  Victory !  victory!"  she  cried,  "the  Royal  Guard 
has  surrendered  and  is  disarmed  ;  come  back  to  the 
drawing-room ! " 

In  the  drawing-room  M.  Badouix  gave  the  details 
of  the  great  event.  He  had  seen  a  battalion  of  the 
5th  line  fraternising  with  the  people  in  the  Rue  de 
la  Pepiniere,  and  changing  their  uniforms  for  civil 

After  Badouix,  other  messengers  came  to  announce 
the  victory  of  the  insurgents  and  the  occupation  of  the 
Louvre  and  the  Tuileries ;  indeed  they  heard  the 
battle  coming  nearer ;  the  royal  troops  retired  in 
the  direction  of  Saint  Cloud  and  Boulogne  ;  a  cannon 

1  It  has  been  said  that  Thiers  started  for  Montmorency,  but  Mile. 
Dosne  often  related  (as  one  of  her  friends  has  assured  us)  how  her 
brother-in-law  took  refuge  at  the  house  of  a  friend  at  Bessancourt. 

THK    UK  VOLUTION    OF    JULY         221 

ball  fell  hissing  near  the  mansion,1  just  as  the  routed 
soldiers  knocked  at  the  park  gates.  "  They  opened 
thr  gates  and  admitted  them,  gave  them  food,  caps 
and  blouses  .  .  .  and  passed  them  over  to  the  other 
side  of  the  Seine  in  boats." 

In  the  night  between  Tuesday  and  Wednesday, 
the  Due  d'Orle"ans,  warned  by  Mme.  de  Bondy, 
and  fearing  an  attack  upon  his  person,  left  the 
Chdteau  de  Neuilly  and  hid  himself  in  an  isolated 

iiion  in  the  park.  Only  the  Duchesse  d'Orl^ans 
and  Mademoiselle  Adelaide  knew  his  retreat,  and 
secretly  transmitted  news  of  Paris  to  him.  But 
thinking  that  in  the  excess  of  their  displeasure  the 
royalists  might  come  and  take  possession  of  the 
Due  d'Orl£ans  by  main  force,  Mademoiselle  made 
him  start  for  Raincy  on  Friday  morning,  accom- 
panied only  by  the  faithful  Oudart. 

The  Duke  was  very  simply  dressed,  and  wore  a 
grey  hat  with  a  tricoloured  cockade,  which  his  sister 
had  given  him.  Princess  Adelaide  indeed,  after  the 
cannon  shot  fired  from  Courbevoie,  had  said  to  the 
Duchesse  d'Orl^ans,  "Ma  chtre  amie,  from  this 
m<  >ment  we  can  no  longer  take  the  others'  part ;  they 
massacre  the  people  and  fire  upon  us  ...  we  must 
sides."  And  she  tore  up  red,  white,  and  blue 
silk  materials  from  her  wardrobe,  and,  with  the  help  of 
her  little  nephews  and  nieces,  manufactured  national 

1  Prince  de  Joinville.  After  1830,  Mile.  d'Orle'ans  had  an  allegorical 
fountain  erected  on  the  spot  where  the  cannon  ball  had  fallen,  on  which 
were  insciibed  the  words  :  "Thursday,  July  29,  1830. — The  cannon  ball, 
which  is  the  principal  motif  of  this  bas  relief,  was  shot  into  the  park  of 
the  C  li.arau  of  Neuilly,  by  troops  of  the  Royal  Guard  who,  repulsed  from 
Paris,  had  retired  to  the  wood  of  Boulogne." 


cockades,  which  she  distributed  herself  to  all  the 
servants  in  the  palace. 

After  the  Duke's  departure,  the  Duchess  and  Made- 
moiselle remained  alone  in  the  castle,  as  the  night 
before  they  had  sent  the  Princes  and  Princesses  in 
haste  to  Villiers.  That  day  a  crowd  of  importunate 
or  zealous  persons  streamed  through  Neuilly.  Thiers 
arrived  on  horseback  towards  noon  with  Ary  Scheffer, 
the  painter.  Dupin  and  Persil  had  preceded  him. 
"  I  was  ushered  alone  into  the  presence  of  Madame  la 
Duchesse  d'Orleans,"  wrote  Dupin.  "  When  I  an- 
nounced that  people  were  turning  their  attention  to 
the  Duke,  in  order  to  confide  the  government  of  the 
affairs  of  State  to  him,  she  was  much  overcome  .  .  . 
and  said,  *  But  the  Due  d'Orleans  is  an  honest  man  ; 
he  will  not  undertake  anything  against  the  King.' 
The  Duchess  shed  tears.  ...  I  told  her  I  had  only 
wished  to  inform  the  Due  d'Orleans  of  what  had 
passed,  and  expressed  a  desire  to  see  Madame 
Adelaide.  .  .  .  She  was  much  more  decided.  '  I  do 
not  know,'  she  said,  '  what  my  brother  will  do  ;  but  I 
know  his  love  for  his  country,  and  think  he  will  do 
everything  that  depends  upon  him  to  save  it  from 
anarchy.  .  .  ." 

A  few  minutes  afterwards  Thiers  and  Scheffer 
received  the  most  gracious  welcome.  But  at  the  first 
words  they  began  to  utter,  "  Monsieur,"  cried  the 
Duchess,  addressing  Scheffer,  "  how  could  you  under- 
take such  a  mission  ?  That  monsieur  has  dared  to  do 
so,  I  can  conceive  :  he  knows  us  little ;  but  you  who 
have  been  admitted  into  our  circle,  who  have  had 
opportunities  of  understanding  us  ...  ah  !  we  will 

THE    REVOLUTION    OF  JULY         223 

•r-ive  this!"  Whereupon,  whilst  the  two  nego- 
tiators remained  speechless,  Mademoiselle  Adelaul'- 

aimed  :  "  Let  them  make  my  brother  a  President, 
a  National  Guard,  anything  they  will,  provided  that 
do  not  make  him  an  exile!"  It  was  an  accept- 
ance. Thiers  was  careful,  for  fear  of  displeasing 
Marie  Am^lie,  not  to  ask  anything  further,  and 
on  taking  leave  turned  towards  Princess  Adelaide  : 
"  Madame,"  said  he,  "  you  are  placing  the  crown  in 
your  house ! " 

Messengers  succeeded  each  other  in  the  drawing- 
room.  "  Amongst  the  real  friends  of  the  family  the 
two  Delavignes  distinguished  themselves.  Casimir's 
devotion  was  admirable,  his  earnest  entreaties  noble 
and  pathetic,  his  prayers  eloquent.  The  Duchess  took 
his  hands  with  emotion.  "  My  husband  feels  the 
scruples  of  an  honest  man,"  said  she  ;  but  the  more 
decided  Mademoiselle  remarked :  "It  is  necessary 
that  the  Chamber  of  Deputies  should  come  to  a  deci- 
sion ;  that  done  my  brother  cannot  hesitate,  and  if  he 

s,  I  will  go  to  Paris  myself  and  promise  in  his 
name  on  the  Place  Palais  Royal  in  the  midst  of  the 
people  and  the  barricades."  She  would  have  kept  her 
word.  She  was  ambitious,  of  an  adventurous  disposi- 
tion, and  endowed  with,  great  resolution.  Her  hatred 
for  the  elder  branch  was  active  ;  indeed  she  did  not 
hide  it  that  day,  and  spoke  of  the  Bourbons  with  such 
violence  that  she  even  astonished  her  hearers. 

It  was  settled,  therefore,  that  the  Duke  should  be 
informed  by  M.  de  Montesquiou  of  what  had  trans- 
pired ;  besides,  it  seems  that  secret  communication 
had  been  kept  up  between  Neuilly  and  Kaincy ;  and 


it  has  been  said  also  that  the  proclamation 1  issued  that 
morning  from  the  house  of  Laffitte  the  banker  had 
been  inspired  by  Princess  Adelaide.  But  every- 
thing that  occurred  that  day  remains  shrouded  in 

The  announcement  of  the  result  of  the  sitting  of 
the  Chamber  of  Deputies  reached  Neuilly  at  five  in  the 
evening,  and  there  the  Due  d'Orle"ans  appeared  some 
hours  later.  As  it  was  necessary  that  his  coming 
should  be  kept  secret,  he  did  not  return  to  the  castle. 
His  wife  and  sister  joined  him  "  in  a  retired  spot  in 
the  park,"  called  the  poteaux  ronds.  There  they  said 
good-bye,  for  the  Prince,  whose  courage  had  been 
braced  up  by  Mademoiselle,  "  soon  started  on  foot  for 
Paris,  although  worn  out  with  fatigue." 

The  following  day,  at  all  the  cross-roads  in  the 
town,  men  were  to  be  seen  standing  and  read- 
ing aloud  the  proclamation2  of  the  Due  d'Orleans, 
Lieutenant-General  of  the  Kingdom. 

They  learned  at  the  same  time  of  the  formation  of 
the  provisional  Government.  General  Sebastiani,  it 
was  said,  formed  part  of  the  new  Ministry.  The 
Comtesse  de  Boigne,  who  knew  the  hereditary  aver- 
sion of  Pozzo  di  Borgo 3  for  Sebastiani,  decided,  on  the 
advice  of  Pasquier,  to  make  an  attempt  to  see 
Princess  Adelaide  and  prevent  the  General's  appoint- 

1  It  was  the  one  beginning  :  "  Charles  X.  cannot  return  to  Paris  ;  he 
has  caused  the  blood  of  the  people  to  flow."     "  A  republic  would  expose 
us  to  frightful  dissensions ;  it  would  embroil  us  with  Europe.     The  Due 
d'Orleans  is  a  devoted  prince,  £c.  .  .  ." 

2  The  one  ending  with  the  words  :  "  The  Charter  will  henceforth  be  a 

3  Russian  Ambassador  to  France,  and,  like  Sebastiani,  of  Corsican 

THE    REVOLUTION    OF    JULY         225 

ment  if  possible.  She  warned  Mme.  de  Montjoie  of 
\  NV.IS  passing,  and  on  receipt  of  a  note  from  the 

-in-waiting  summoning  her  to  Neuilly,  set  off  on 
foot,  in  spite  of  the  intolerable  heat  and  the  difficulties 
of  the  road.  She  was  received  by  Mme.  de  Dolomieu 
and  immediately  ushered  into  Mademoiselle's  study  by 
Mme.  de  Montjoie. 

The  Princess  thanked  Mme.  de  Boigne  for  her  de- 
votion, and  showed  her,  besides,  a  word  from  the  Due 
d'Orl£ans  which  said  :  "There is  no  hesitating.  Pozzo 
must  not  be  alienated.  S^bastiani  shall  not  be  ap- 
pointed. Try  to  make  this  known."  The  Comtesse 
de  Boigne  undertook  the  commission.  Afterwards 
she  reported  to  Mademoiselle  the  terms  of  the  pro- 
clamation published  that  same  morning  in  Paris. 
Adelaide  appeared  satisfied.  Indeed  she  no  longer 
dissimulated.  "  Her  brother's  intervention  was  neces- 
sary," said  she  ;  "he  ought  to  throw  himself  into  the 
midst  of  the  combatants  to  avert  civil  war,  and  take 
possession  of  power  under  the  most  modest  title,  so  as 
to  alarm  nobody." 

Whilst  she  was  speaking  Mme.  de  Dolomieu 
entered.  "Go  quickly  to  my  sister,"  then  said 
Mademoiselle  to  the  Comtesse  de  Boigne,  "  and 
try  to  raise  her  spirits ;  she  is  in  a  terrible  state 
of  mind." 

The  Duchesse  d'Orldans  was  in  her  bedroom. 
"Oh!  what  a  catastrophe,  what  a  catastrophe!"  she 
sobbed  out  ;  "and  we  might  have  been  at  Eu.  .  .  ." 
And  as  Mme.  de  Boigne,  in  order  to  "calm  her  a 
little,"  tried  to  compare  the  Due  d'Orl^ans  to 
William  III.  of  England.  "God  forbid,  God  forbid, 



ma  chere ;  they  called  him  the  Usurper!"  responded 
Marie  Amelie,  weeping. 

The  Countess  then  begged  her  "  not  to  be  so  cast 
down,"  and  even  dared  to  advise  her  to  go  to  Paris,  with 
all  her  children  in  gala  carriages  with  grand  liveries. 
At  this  idea  the  Duchesse  d'Orle"ans  revolted.  "  That 
would-be  very  repugnant  to  me,"  said  she  ;  "it  would 
look  like  a  kind  of  flaunting  triumph  .  .  .  you  under- 
stand ...  to  the  others.  I  had  much  rather  arrive 
at  the  Palais  Royal  without  making  any  fuss." 

This  was  eventually  what  was  decided  upon,  and 
that  same  evening  at  nightfall  Marie  Ame"lie,  Made- 
moiselle, and  all  the  children,  Princesses  Louise, 
Marie,  and  Clementine,  the  Dues  de  Nemour, 
d'Aumale,  de  Montpensier,  and  the  Prince  de  Join- 
ville,  went  off  to  Paris  to  join  the  new  Lieutenant- 
General  of  the  kingdom.  They  went  out  of  the  park 
of  Neuilly  by  the  little  gate  leading  to  the  Ternes 
road,  and  seeing  a  Caroline  pass  they  got  into  it, 
with  Messieurs  de  Montesquiou,  de  Canonville,  and 
Oudart,  without  being  recognised.  The  omnibus 
could  not  get  past  the  Place  Louis  XV.  on  account  of 
the  barricades,  so  they  had  to  alight ;  one  man  even, 
while  M.  de  Montesquiou  parleyed  with  the  insur- 
gents, aimed  at  the  travellers.  They  decided,  there- 
fore, "  after  giving  a  gold  napoleon  to  the  astonished 
conductor,"  to  divide  into  three  parties  ;  the  Duchesse 
d'Orle"ans  took  Oudart's  arm,  Mademoiselle  took  the 
princesses  with  her,  M.  de  Montesquiou  carried  the 
princes  off  with  him. 

"  Paris  was  very  strange  that  evening,"  wrote  the 
Prince  de  Joinville  in  his  Souvenirs,  "  illuminated 

THI-:    REVOLUTION    OF   JULY         227 

entirely  by  lanterns  and  with  tricoloured  flags  at  every 
window.  .  .  .  The  streets  were  completely  torn  up, 
and  all  the  paving  stones  were  piled  up  as  barricades, 
with  a  mixture  of  overturned  carriages,  barrels,  and 
ttibris  of  all  sorts  ;  behind  these  barriers  were  impro- 
vised guards,  passers-by,  and  pedestrians  armed  and 
shooting  guns  at  every  instant ;  everybody — men  and 
women  alike — wore  gigantic  tri-coloured  cockades  in 
their  hats,  caps,  hoods,  or  in  their  hair.  .  .  .  Although 
it  was  late  when  we  arrived  the  Palais  Royal  was  all 
lighted  up,  and  all  the  doors  were  open  ;  any  one 
could  enter  who  liked,  and  when  we  mounted  the 
staircase  many  people  were  already  settled  on  the 
stairs,  preparing  to  spend  the  night  there.  .  .  ." 

The  family  entered  by  the  stables.  The  Duke  was 
waiting  in  great  impatience.  The  drawing-rooms  of 
his  suite  were  filled  with  all  sorts  of  persons,  and  he 
had  taken  refuge  in  his  study  with  Dupin  and  General 
Se*bastiani.  He  was  wearing  the  uniform  of  a  general  of 
the  National  Guard  and  the  g rand  cordon  rouge  of  the 

ion  cC Honneur,  which,  henceforth,  took  the  place 
of  that  of  Saint  Louis.  Some  hours  previously  he 
had  received  consecration  at  the  hands  of  the  people 
at  the  H6tel  de  Ville.  In  fact  the  revolution  was 
over  and  Princess  Adelaide  might  rejoice,  for  at 
length  all  her  dreams  of  fraternal  ambition  were 


Mademoiselle  d*  Orleans  on  the  morning  of  August  i,  1830 
—  Appearance  and  sentiments  of  the  crowd — Princess 
Adelaide  at  the  Comtesse  de  Boignes — Interview  with 
Pozzo  di  Borgo  and  Pasquier  —  Popular  enthusiasm 
around  the  Palais  Royal — Mademoiselle  visits  the  hospitals 
— She  induces  her  brother  to  take  the  title  of  King  of  the 
French — Enthronement  of  Louis- Philippe  I. — His  portrait 
— Open  house  at  the  Palais  Royal — Charles  X.  starts  for 
exile — Death  of  the  Due  de  Bourbon — The  July  Revolution 
merely  ended  in  a  change  in  the  person  of  the  chief  of  the 

ON  the  morning  of  August  i,  Mademoiselle  had  risen 
very  early.  Established  in  the  little  gallery  next  to 
her  study,  the  mirrors  of  which  had  been  shattered 
and  the  wood-work  riddled  with  bullets,  she  received 
friends  of  the  house  and  partisans  of  her  brother  who, 
came  to  seek  advice  or  ask  for  orders.  The  Princess 
appeared  very  calm  and  resolute,  and  her  firmness 
contrasted  with  the  state  of  excitement  of  those 
around  her.  The  Duchesse  d'Orleans  was  particu- 
larly upset,  her  face  worn,  her  eyes  reddened  by 
tears  and  want  of  sleep.  She  hesitated  over  the 
smallest  obstacles,  and  went  to  consult  her  sister-in- 
law  every  instant  about  the  attitude  she  ought  to 
assume.  A  groom  of  the  chambers  from  the  Duchesse 

de  Berry  having  come  for  news,  Marie  Amelie  rushed 



sobbing   to    Princess    Adelaide    to    ask    her    advice. 

iy  something  polite  and  insignificant,  but  do  not 
writr,"  Mademoiselle  advised  coldly;  and  as  Louis- 
Philippe's  wife  went  away  discomfited  and  saddened, 
Adelaide  rose  hastily  and  reiterated:  "Above  all 
things,  sister,  do  not  write." 

The  Duchess  returned  almost  immediately :  "  Sister, 
sister,"  said  she  quite  frightened,  "  here  is  Se'bastiani ; 
he  is  furious,  you  know."  "  I  will  undertake  to  speak 
to  him,"1  replied  Mademoiselle  d'Orl^ans,  and  she 
had  the  General  and  his  wife  brought  to  her  in  the 
little  gallery.  They  stayed  a  long  while,  but  the 
Princess  managed  to  calm  her  old  friend's  resentment. 
She  chose  the  right  words  with  which  to  soothe  the 
cruel  wounds  of  amour-propre,  and  succeeded  in 
making  General  Se'bastiani  still  more  attached  to  her. 
The  latter  quitted  her  presence,  "looking  very  cross" 
certainly,  but  resolved  from  devotion  and  without 
making  a  fuss  to  give  up  a  post  he  had  been  formally 
promised,  and  which  he  thoroughly  deserved. 

Since  seven  o'clock  that  morning,  Princess 
Adelaide  had  been  trying  to  arrange  an  interview 
with  the  Russian  Ambassador ;  but  Pozzo  di  Borgo 
thought  it  more  prudent  not  to  go  to  the  Palais 
Royal,  so  Mademoiselle  decided  to  make  an  appoint- 
ment with  him  at  the  Comtesse  de  Boigne's  house  in 
the  Rue  d'Anjou  Saint  Honore*.  The  Countess,  who 
had  been  entrusted  with  all  these  negotiations,  accom- 
panied the  Princesse  d'Orl&ins.  The  two  women  left 
the  palace  by  the  little  turret  staircase,  attended  by  a 
butler,  without  being  recognised. 

1  See  for  all  this  part  Mine,  de  Boigne. 


It  was  a  splendid  summer  day  with  a  cloudless 
sky,  but  the  heat  was  intolerably  heavy.  The  fusillade 
had  ceased,  and  Paris  only  thought  of  rejoicing  at  her 
victory.  The  whole  town  had  turned  out,  the  people 
were  gaily  and  noisily  promenading  the  streets,  boule- 
vards, and  public  places.  "The  crowd  was  like  an 
immense  flock  of  sheep  whose  shepherds  had  been 
driven  away.  .  .  .  There  was  no  ill-feeling  whatever, 
though  at  times  a  panic  seized  the  people,  who  took  to 
their  heels  without  knowing  why,  then  paused  and 
began  to  laugh.1  Of  course  there  was  a  good  deal  of 
drinking,  indeed  the  pavements,  barricades,  and  road- 
way looked  like  one  immense  wine-shop  where  they 
danced  and  sang  and  got  drunk.  The  crowds 
laughed,  and  their  laughter  was  sincere,  for  they  had 
forgotten  the  massacres  of  the  previous  day,  and  were 
amused  at  sight  of  the  felled  trees,  overturned  lamp- 
posts, and  houses  riddled  with  bullets.  The  patrols 
which  passed  were  composed  of  improvised  soldiers 
dressed  merely  in  shirt  and  trousers,  who  had  appro- 
priated some  of  the  helmets  and  cuirasses  which  were 
"  piled  up  everywhere,  in  the  artillery  museum  amongst 
other  places." 

Draping  the  houses,  serving  as  ensigns  to  shops 
(where  the  word  "  royal "  had  been  effaced),  crowning 
the  piles  of  paving  stones  which  barred  the  streets, 
dominating  all  edifices — flags,  streamers,  oriflammes 
floated  in  the  wind,  flaming  in  the  sun.  The  three 
colours  brightened  up  women's  bodices,  encircled 
their  waists,  tied  their  hair  ;  ribbons  in  buttonholes, 
cockades  in  hats,  they  became  standards  again  in  the 

1  Prince  de  Joinville,  Vieux  Souvenirs. 


hands  of  men  and  children  who  carried  them  like  a 
toy — long  desired  and  obtained  at  length. 

The  gates  in  the  Tuileries  garden  on  the  Place 
Louis  XV.  side  being  shut,  Mademoiselle  d'Orteans 
and  the  Comtesse  de  Boigne  were  obliged  to  retrace 
their  steps  and  go  along  the  Rue  de  Rivoli.  They 
discussed  the  political  situation  as  they  walked,  and 
the  Princess  promised  her  support  to  Chateaubriand 
and  Glandeves,  whom  her  friend  recommended  to  her. 
When  passing  Talleyrand's  house,  Rue  Saint  Flor- 
entin,  Adelaide  shrank  back  trying  to  hide  herself, 
saying :  "  I  do  not  want  the  lame  old  man  to  see 
me."  They  crossed  the  Place  Louis  XV.  without 
difficulty.  At  the  Rue  des  Champs  Elyse*es  the 
Countess  stopped  at  the  porter's  lodge  at  the  Russian 
Embassy,  while  Mademoiselle  pursued  her  way  to  the 
Rue  d'Anjou.  She  had  scarcely  got  there  when  Pozzo 
arrived  and  was  ushered  into  the  drawing-room,  where 
she  was.  The  interview  lasted  a  very  long  time,  and, 
when  it  was  over,  Baron  Pasquier  being  informed  that 
the  Princess  would  see  him,  came  into  her  presence. 

On  the  way  back  to  the  Palais  Royal  —  in  a 
wretched  cab  that  they  had  had  much  trouble  in 
finding — Mademoiselle  communicated  her  impressions 
to  the  Comtesse  de  Boigne.  She  seemed  very  pleased 
to  have  met  Pasquier.  "  One  can  see,"  said  she,  "  that 
he  is  a  man  accustomed  to  look  at  questions  from  all 
points  of  view  .  .  .  but  one  can  also  see  that  he  is  not 
in  a  hurry  to  commit  himself.  He  has  evidently  been 
in  many  revolutions  and  distrusts  them.  .  .  . 

41  But  with  our  good  Pozzo  I  am  delighted.  He 
is  perfect,  my  dear  Madame  de  Boigne,  perfect,  he  is 


quite  one  of  us.  ...  I  am  in  a  hurry  for  him  to  see 
my  brother,  and  hope  to  arrange  a  meeting  for  next 

The  carriage  stopped  in  the  Rue  de  Valois.  The 
Palais  Royal  had  a  devastated  look,  as  advantage  had 
been  taken  of  the  sojourn  at  Neuilly  to  do  some 
repairs,  and  the  parqueterie,  furniture,  and  hangings 
had  been  removed.  "  All  kinds  of  people  "  were  to  be 
met  with  picnicing  in  all  the  rooms ;  delegations  kept 
coming  from  the  Hotel  de  Ville  to  salute  the  Lieu- 
tenant-G^neral,  and  tramped  coolly  through  the  draw- 
ing-rooms where  "  people  embraced  each  other  with 
fervour."  l  A  sudden  clamour  would  arise  from  the 
Place.  People  called  for  the  Due  d'Orleans,  who 
appeared  at  a  window  surrounded  by  his  family. 
They  cried  :  "  Vive  le  Due,  vive  le  Lieutenant-General, 
vive  la  Duchesse ! "  and  Princess  Adelaide,  on  her 
brother's  left,  bowed  proudly  and  happily,  for  was  it 
not  her  work  that  they  were  applauding?  The 
Duchess,  on  the  contrary,  forced  herself  to  smile  at 
these  people  who  mingled  their  cries  of  joy  with 
outrages  and  blasphemy. 

Then  a  voice  intoned  the  Marseillaise,  the  re- 
volutionary hymn,  which  was  listened  to  bare- 
headed in  silence  till  everybody  in  chorus  took  up 
the  inspiriting  refrain.  Then  louder  shouts  were 
heard ;  a  delegation  passed  which  every  one  wanted 
to  accompany  inside  the  Palais  Royal ;  and  often  to 
please  the  multitude  the  Due  d'Orleans,  Marie  Ame"lie, 

1  Prince  de  Joinville.  A  virago  in  tight  trousers  was  presented  by 
the  pupils  of  the  Ecole  Polytechnique  to  Marie  Amelie  and  Madame 
Adelaide,  who  were  obliged  to  receive  her  kindly. 


Mademoiselle  Adelaide,  the  princes  and  princesses 
stood  on  the  balcony  before  everybody  embracing 
the  men,  women,  and  children  who  came  to  see  the 
master  they  had  just  given  themselves  in  his  own 
home.  Whereupon  a  frantic  enthusiasm  would  take 
possession  of  all  the  people,  who  shouted,  cheered, 
clapped  their  hands,  and  stamped  their  feet.  Intense 
joy  filled  the  place  whence  a  thousand  arms  were 
raised  towards  the  Palais  Royal.  Hats  flew  about  in 
the  air,  handkerchiefs  were  waved,  and  the  Lieutenant- 
G£n£ral  threw  copies  of  the  proclamation  (posted  up 
that  same  day  in  the  streets  of  Paris)  to  the  delirious 
crowd.  People  pushed  and  scrambled  round  the 
palace  so  as  to  reach  those  little  squares  of  paper, 
just  as  in  villages,  on  fair  days,  simple  peasants  gather 
round  the  gilded  carriage  of  the  mountebank  who 
distributes  magic  prospectuses,  promising  to  cure  all 

In  the  evening  Paris  was  illuminated  with  tri- 
coloured  lamps  and  lanterns,  and  thousands  of  voices 
in  the  streets  sang  La  Parisienne — 

"  Soldat  du  drapeau  tricolore, 
&  Or  Hans,  toi  qui  Fas  portc  .  .  ."  l 

and  were  only  silenced  by  a  tremendous  storm  which 
burst  over  the  town  that  night. 

But  they  could  not  rejoice  for  ever.  There  had 
been  numerous  victims  of  the  "  three  glorious  "  days. 
The  dead  had  been  buried  in  silence,  now  the  wounded 
must  be  looked  after.  The  hospitals  were  crowded 

1  The  words  of  L<i  1'iirisicnnc  were  by  Casimir  Delavigne  : — 

ildier  of  the  tricoloured  flag, 
D'Orlcans,  you  who  have  carried  it.  .  .  ." 


with  them — there  were  500  at  the  Hotel  Dieu,  100 
at  the  Charite",  200  at  the  Gros-Caillou,  80  at  the 
Beaujon  Hospital,  50  at  Val  -  de  -  Grace.  It  was 
resolved  at  the  Palais  Royal  to  pay  them  a  solemn 
visit.  The  Duchesse  d'Orle*ans,  Mademoiselle  Ade"- 
laide,  the  Princesses  Marie  and  Clementine  went  to 
the  Hotel  Dieu.  Marie  Ame"lie,  who  was  uncalcu- 
latingly  sympathetic,  stopped  beside  the  first  wounded 
men  chance  placed  in  her  way.  They  were  Royal 
Guards.  "  Is  it  to  console  our  enemies  that  these 
ladies  come?"  asked  a  July  combatant,  whose  bed 
was  decorated  with  tricoloured  flags.  Mademoiselle 
d'Orteans  overheard  the  question,  and  went  up  to  this 
sick  man  who  was  so  much  more  interesting  than  the 
others.  "  Where  are  you  from  ?  "  she  asked.  "  From 
Randan."  "Ah!  so  much  the  better.  My  country 
house  is  there ;  you  will  spend  your  convalescence 
in  it,  will  you  not  ? " 

The  misery  was  great  in  Paris  ;  the  revolution 
having  brought  about  an  exodus  of  capital,  com- 
mercial relations  were  interrupted,  and  workshops 
had  for  the  most  part  closed  their  doors.  "  Each 
day  added  to  the  distress  of  the  people  "  ;  bread  was 
already  lacking,  immediate  help  was  necessary.  The 
Duchesse  d'Orl^ans  sold  scrip  which  came  from  her 
dowry,  and  Princess  Adelaide,  more  generous  still, 
borrowed  money  to  help  the  unfortunates,  but  either 
from  characteristic  meanness,  from  prudence,  or  an 
exaggerated  sense  of  order,  she  required  a  receipt 
from  all  persons  who  were  assisted  by  her.1 

1  Appert.     It  was  he  whom  the  Princess  commanded  to  demand  a 
receipt  from  the  persons  helped. 

ABDICATION    OF   CHARLES   X.      235 

On  the  morning  of  August  4,  General  cle  Latour- 

:isac  came  to  the  Palais  Royal,  bringing  the  act  of 
abdication  of  Charles  X.  and  the  Due  d'Angoul^me. 
An  inflexible  order  prevented  the  King's  envoy  from 
being  received  by  the  Lieutenant-General.  But,  as 
M.  de  Latour- Fronsac  was  entrusted  with  two 
letters — one  from  Mme.  de  Gontaut,  the  other  from 
Mademoiselle  d'Artois,  addressed  to  the  Duchesse 
d'Orle*ans — he  succeeded  after  earnest  entreaties  in 
seeing  Marie  Ame'lie,  who  still  repeated  that  her 
husband  was  an  honest  man  and  would  remain 
faithful  to  his  oath. 

He  was  nothing  of  the  kind.  Long  ago,  from 
the  very  beginning,  the  Due  d'Orldans  had  "brushed 
aside  all  scruples."  He  no  longer  hesitated  to  accept 
the  crown ;  but  he  was  harassed  by  the  difficulty  of 
stipulating  the  conditions  upon  which  the  new  Govern- 
ment should  be  based. 

The  Due  de  Broglie  and  Comte  Mole*,  partisans  of 
a  "quasi-legitimacy,"  proposed  that  Philippe  d'Orle"ans 
should  be  called  to  the  throne  because  he  was  a 
Bourbon  ;  Odillon  Barrot,  Laffitte,  and  in  particular, 
Dupin  (who  was  supported  by  Princess  Adelaide), 
wanted  to  break  down  all  bonds  between  the  old 
and  new  regimes,  so  that  Louis-Philippe,  although 
a  Bourbon,  became — not  King  of  France  by  the  grace 
of  God — but  King  of  the  French  by  the  will  of  the 
nation.  This  was  mere  quibbling,  still,  beneath  these 
w«>r<Js  the  Liberals  fancied  they  would  find  guarantees  ; 
and  in  spite  of  the  Due  d'Orleans'  secret  desire  to 
"  re-forge  the  chain  of  time  "  broken  by  a  Revolution 
effected  with  shouts  of  "  Down  with  the  Bourbons ! " 


it  was  no  longer  possible  to  do  otherwise.  Besides, 
Louis-Philippe  had  allowed  it  to  be  posted  on  the 
walls  of  Paris  that  he  was  a  Valois,  and  all  the  papers 
had  freely  published,  coupled  with  loathsome  outrages 
against  the  Duchesse  de  Berry,  the  article  which  had 
appeared  in  the  Morning  Chronicle  in  1820,  protesting 
against  the  birth  of  the  Due  de  Bordeaux.1 

Mile.  d'Orleans'  opinion  prevailed  without  difficulty. 
It  was  the  only  reasonable  one,  and  was  besides 
supported  by  the  young  Due  de  Chartres,  who 
arrived  in  Paris  at  the  head  of  his  regiment  with 
the  tricoloured  flag  unfurled,  on  the  morning  of 
August  3. 

The  future  monarchy  had  thus  conciliated  the 
advanced  parties ;  it  tried  to  attract  all  the  men 
whom  Louis  XVIII.,  or  Charles  X.  had  disgusted. 
Mademoiselle  was  entrusted  by  her  brother  with  a 
mission  to  Chateaubriand.  The  old  writer  refused 
all  the  posts  that  were  offered  to  him.  "  Pity  me, 
Madame,  pity  me,"  said  he  to  the  Duchesse  d'Orleans, 
who  was  present  at  the  interview.  "  I  do  not  pity 
you,  Monsieur  de  Chateaubriand,  I  do  not  pity 
you,"  responded  Princess  Adelaide  acrimoniously, 
for  she  did  not  understand  that  there  could  be 
scruples  of  conscience  and  the  feeling  of  sanctity 
for  an  oath. 

On  August  7,  the  Chamber  adjourned  in  a  body 
to  the  Palais  Royal.  The  Due  d'Orleans  was  waiting 
surrounded  by  his  family.  "  I  receive  with  deep 

1  The  Constitution^^  a  journal  absolutely  devoted  to  the  Due 
d'Orleans,  said  that  the  origin  of  the  Due  de  Bordeaux  was  "more  than 


emotion  the  declaration  with  which  you  present  me," 
the  Duke  replied  to  M.  Laffttte,  President  of  the 
Chamber,  who  had  just  read  "  the  bill  of  rights  of 
I  regard  it  as  an  expression  of  the  National 
will,  and  it  seems  to  me  in  conformity  with  the  political 
principles  I  have  professed  all  my  life.  .  .  ."  Cries  of 
"Vive  le  rot!"  made  the  vaults  of  the  palace  which 
the  Regent  had  inhabited  ring  again,  and  two  days 
later  these  same  cries  welcomed  the  Lieutenant- 
General  at  the  Chambre  des  De'pute's. 

In  the  hall  of  stances,  they  had  raised  a  throne, 
draped  with  tri-coloured  flags  and  surmounted  by  a 
red  velvet  canopy.  The  princesses  were  in  the 
tribunes.  The  Deputies  and  Peers  rose  when  Louis- 
Philippe  entered  with  the  Due  de  Chartres  on  his 
right  and  the  Due  de  Nemours  on  his  left.  The 
cannon  boomed.  The  three  princes  seated  themselves 
on  folding  chairs  which  had  been  placed  below  the 
velvet  canopy.  Casimir  PeVier  read  the  declaration 
of  the  Chambre  des  De'pute's  in  a  firm  voice,  Pasquier 
that  of  the  Chambre  des  Pairs.  Thereupon,  Louis- 
Philippe  signed  the  two  declarations  and  mounted 
the  throne. 

The  new  King  was  fifty-six  years  old.  Tall  and 
robust,  in  spite  of  his  massive  exterior  he  still  appeared 
young  on  account  of  the  agility  of  his  movements  and 
his  easy  carriage.  His  face  was  broad  and  fat ;  thick 
whiskers  framed  his  cheeks,  and  his  great  prominent 
eyes  were  lacking  in  expression. 

He  affected  a  slightly  vulgar  laisser-aller,  and 
his  attire  was  neglected  ;  he  preferred  civilian  dress 
to  brilliant  uniforms.  Nankin  trousers  strapped  under 


the  boot,  a  blue  coat  with  gold  buttons,  a  large  white 
waistcoat,  a  grey  hat  and — but  only  in  the  beginning 
of  his  reign — an  umbrella  which  has  become  legendary. 
He  had  the  appearance  of  a  peaceable  National  Guard 
and  the  qualities  of  a  shopkeeper  in  the  Marais.  He 
was  a  bourgeois  without  greatness  or  nobility  of  soul, 
who  regulated  his  expenditure  if  not  with  avarice  at  least 
with  parsimony.  His  love  of  money,  his  excessive 
fondness  for  lawsuits,  his  habits  of  work  and  order 
made  his  fortune ;  and  he  gained  the  throne  by  his 
duplicity,  the  cleverness  of  his  manoeuvres,  and  the 
hollowness  of  his  flatteries.  He  took  advantage  of 
subterfuges,  knew  how  to  feign  sentiments  he  did 
not  possess,  and  never  shrank  from  the  pettiness  of 
any  expedient  whereby  he  might  achieve  his  end. 
The  confidence  he  had  in  himself  made  him  con- 
temptuous of  other  men.  He  had  great  courage,  but 
no  firmness  of  character,  and  more  finesse  than  large- 
ness of  mind.  He  was  domineering  and  authoritative, 
yet  wished  to  appear  conciliating  and  liberal ;  his 
religious  scepticism  and  the  recollections  of  his  youth 
had  never  effaced  in  him  the  prejudices  of  birth  and 
the  vanities  of  caste.  With  sound  sense  and  clearness 
of  view  he  lacked  resolution,  hesitated,  temporised, 
eluded,  held  aloof  and  avoided  committing  himself 
completely  ;  and  but  for  Princess  Adelaide,  who  liked 
to  come  forward  whilst  her  brother  thought  it  clever 
to  hold  back,  whose  conduct  was  valiant  and  her 
ambition  restless,  he  would  never  have  decided  to 
accept  the  crown  after  having  intrigued  for  fifteen 
years  to  try  and  obtain  it. 

Every  evening   for    more  than  a   month    crowds 


•  red  under  tin-  windows  of  th<-  P.ilais  Royal 
and  called  for  the  royal  family,  which  showed  itself 
on  the  balcony  each  time.  Delegations  from  all  the 
departments  in  the  State  succeeded  one  another  at 
the  palace.  To  the  speech  made  by  Dupin  (President 
of  the  order  of  advocates)  on  August  10,  who  came 
at  the  head  of  the  bar,  the  King  responded  that  he 
loved  liberty  and  respected  the  laws  ;  and  as  Dupin 
taking  leave,  Princess  Adelaide  took  his  hand 
and  said :  "  Ah !  yes,  Monsieur  Dupin,  you  know 
our  sentiments ! " 

There  was  open  house  at  the  Palais  Royal ;  two 
or  three  times  a  week  sixty  or  eighty  persons  of  all 
ranks  sat  down  at  the  "  King's  table."  The  society 
was  very  mixed.  The  table  was  at  all  times  perfectly 
served,  "the  wines  old,  delicious,  and  of  excellent 
quality,"  wrote  Appert  greedily;  "the  King/'  he 
added,  "  looks  after  his  guests  in  a  very  bourgeois 
way."  At  one  of  these  dinners,  August  20,  the 
commissioners  who  had  been  deputed  to  accompany 
the  retreating  Charles  X.  were  present.  They  de- 
scribed that  lugubrious  journey.  The  deposed  King 
travelled  slowly,  surrounded  by  his  civil  and  military 
household.  He  had  preserved  all  his  serenity  and 
preceded  the  cortege  on  horseback,  often  in  spite  of 
pouring  rain.  The  princesses  were  sad,  especially 
the  hard  and  haughty  Dauphine  who,  shut  up  within 
herself,  remained  unapproachable.  In  most  of  the 
villages  they  passed  through,  the  exiles  met  with 
silent  pity  and  consideration,  and  when  the  young 
Due  de  Bordeaux  and  Mademoiselle  put  their  fair 

Is  out  of  the  carriage  window,  and   kissed  their 


hands  to  the  crowd  as  they  had  been  taught  to  do, 
they  were  greeted  with  bravos.1 

This  solemn  journey,  which  Charles  X.  was  obliged 
to  hasten  in  obedience  to  his  cousin's  impatience,  came 
to  an  end  at  Cherbourg.  At  the  moment  of  em- 
barking, the  sobbing  princesses  embraced  several  of 
the  officers ;  the  old  King  saluted  the  standards,  then, 
when  the  anchor  had  been  raised,  he  went  on  to  the 
bridge,  and  with  a  grand  gesture,  at  once  noble  and 
beautiful,  made  his  adieu  to  France. 

While  Charles  X.  was  solemnly  journeying  towards 
exile,  the  new  King,  the  Queen,  and  Mile.  d'Orl&ms— 
Mme.  Adelaide2  henceforth — rejoiced  in  their  victory. 
The  royal  family  walked  about  Paris  seeking  ovations 
from  the  populace,  and  went  to  the  theatre  where  the 
Marseillaise  and  the  Parisienne  were  sung  every 
evening  by  an  actor.  The  desire  to  be  popular 
"  severed  the  bonds  of  relationship  "  and  made  them 
forgetful  of  seemliness.  Thus  in  spite  of  the  death 
of  the  Due  de  Bourbon,  August  27,  the  princesses 
were  present  on  the  2Qth — in  mourning  but  with  great 
pomp — at  the  review  of  the  Parisian  Guards  on  the 
Champs  de  Mars,  and  the  presentation  of  the  tri- 
coloured  flags  to  the  troops  by  the  King.  They 
remained  for  six  hours  on  the  balcony  at  the  Ecole 
Militaire,  continually  bowing  their  acknowledgments 
to  the  crowd  which  cheered  them. 

The  tragic  end  of  the   Due  de   Bourbon,  last  of 

1  Odilon  Barrot,  Memoires.    With  Marechal  Maison,  de  Schonen,  and 
La  Pommeraie,  he  was  deputed  by  Louis-Philippe  to  accompany  Charles 
X.  as  far  as  Cherbourg. 

2  An  ordinance  of  August   14  made  Princesse  Adelaide  Madame^ 
and  the  Due  de  Chartres  Due  d Orleans. 

THE    DUG    PI-     BOURBON  241 

the  Cond£s — crime  or  suicide,  will  it  ever  be  known 
which  :>— brought  an  immense  fortune  into  the  hands 
of  his  heir,  the  Due  d'Ainn.ilr.1  By  what  equivocal 
solicitude,  what  devious  ways,  what  disloyal  practices, 
what  perfidious  machinations,  had  the  prejudices  of 
the  chief  of  the  emigration  towards  the  man  who 
prided  himself  upon  having  fought  at  Jemmapes,  and 
of  being  the  son  of  Philippe- Iigalite',  been  overcome? 
The  basest  flatteries  were  lavished  upon  the  old  Duke's 
mistress.  They  fawned  upon  the  prottgde  to  please 
the  protector.  Louis- Philippe,  Marie  Amelie,  and 
Adelaide  surpassed  themselves  in  their  assiduous 
attentions  to  a  prostitute,  whom  the  allurements  of 
gain  rendered  dear  to  them.2 

Mme.  de  Feucheres,  when  she  went  to  Neuilly 
or  to  the  Palais  Royal,  saw  the  place  of  honour  re- 
served for  her;  she  had  succeeded  even,  thanks  to 
the  reiterated  entreaties  of  the  Due  d'Orle"ans,  his  wife, 
and  sister,  in  getting  herself  received  at  the  court  of 
King  Charles  X.,3  and  the  princesses  of  Orleans  did 
not  spare  their  visits  to  her. 

1  It  was  at  the  christening  of  the  Due  d'Aumale,  whose  godparents 
Princess  Adelaide  and  the  Due  de  Bourbon  were,  that  Mme.  de 
heres  (the  tetter's  mistress)  appeared  for  the  first  time  at  the 
Palais  Royal. 

*  The  Revolution  of  1848  brought  to  light  thirty-two  letters  exchanged 
between  Louis-Philippe,  Marie  Ame'lie,  the  Due  de  Bourbon,  and  Mme. 
de  Feucheres.  The  envelope  containing  these  letters  bore  these  words 
in  Mme.  Adelaide's  handwriting  :  "Affaire  de  M.  le  Due  de  Bourbon." 

3  The  repugnance  of  Charles  X.  was  overcome,  thanks  to  the 
Duchesse  d'Orleans  and  Adelaide.  "Mme.  la  Duchesse  d'Orle'ans  and 
my  sister,"  wrote  Louis-Philippe  to  Mme.  de  Feucheres,  "  have  not  been 
useless  (in  the  admission  of  Sophie  Daws  to  court) ;  they  depute  me  to 
congratulate  you  for  them,  and  to  tell  you  how  pleased  they  have  been." 

The  conduct  of  the  Orleans  family  towards  Mme.  de   Feucheres, 


Adelaide  went  the  oftenest.1  She  took  her  god- 
son, the  little  Due  d'Aumale,  with  her,  and  placed 
him  on  the  lap  of  the  courtesan,  to  whom  besides  she 
did  not  fail  to  address  the  most  fulsome  compliments. 
" Mon  Dieu,  how  beautiful  she  is!  Do  look  at  her, 
is  it  possible  to  be  lovelier  ?  " 

After  the  death  of  the  Due  de  Bourbon,  and  in 
spite  of  the  suspicions  hanging  over  her,  Mme.  de 
Feucheres  continued  to  be  received  at  the  court  of 
the  King  of  the  French,  and  though  the  accusations 
in  circulation  reached  Louis-Philippe  indirectly,  he 
took  care  not  to  refuse  a  heritage  so  long  coveted, 
and  which,  besides,  increased  the  growing  prosperity 
of  his  house. 

Everything,  in  short,  succeeded  with  the  children 
of  Philippe-Egalite.  They  had  money  and  power. 
Forgetful  of  his  origin,  the  citizen-king,  seconded  by 
Princess  Adelaide,  no  longer  sought  for  anything 
save  to  increase  his  fortune  still  more,  and  prepare 
the  way,  by  devious  methods,  for  what  was  called 
"  personal  government."  The  required  oath  forced  the 
Legitimists  to  give  up  their  seats  in  Parliament,  the 
administration  was  monopolised,  the  National  Guards 
became  masters  of  the  streets,  and  the  riots  in  October 
17,  1830,  and  February  15,  1831,  were  repressed  with 
violence.  During  that  time  Louis-Philippe  flattered 

however  blamable  in  itself,  in  no  way  differed  from  that  observed 
towards  other  royal  mistresses,  and  the  chief  reason  why  it  excites  the 
indignation  of  M.  Arnaud  seems  to  be  the  fact  that  the  Due  de  Bourbon 
took  his  lady  love  from  off  the  streets  of  London.  (Translator's  note.) 

1  Billault  de  Gerainville  gives  a  letter  from  Adelaide  to  Mme.  de 
Feucheres,  dated  September  25,  1829,  and  Lasalle  a  reply  from  the  Due 
de  Bourbon  to  the  Princess,  September  16,  1829. 


thr  v.inity  of  the  middle  classes  by  his  pretended  sim- 
plicity, ;uul  while  conciliatory  about  everything  which 
concerned  his  dignity,  showed  himsdf  intractable  for 
all  that  mi^lit  in  the  slightest  degree  lessen  his  autho- 
rity or  diminish  the  extent  of  his  property.  Then, 
doubtless  "in  order  to  re-forge  the  chain  of  time,"  he 
settled  with  his  family,  first  at  Saint  Cloud,  and  after- 
wards at  the  Tuileries.1  It  is  true  that  the  day  they 
entered  this  palace  Princess  Adelaide  wore  the  Re- 
volutionary colours,  "a  sky-blue  dress,  a  white  can- 
nezou,  and  an  amaranth  hat."  But  the  people  were 
no  longer  taken  in  by  superficial  forms  of  Liberalism, 
and  seeing  that  the  July  days  had  ended  "simply  in  a 
change  in  the  person  of  the  chief  of  the  State,"  they 
re  venged  themselves  by  singing: — 

"  On  ne  peut  pas  m'en  faire  accroire, 
Peyronnet  valait  un  Dupin. 
Tintin,  tintin,  tintaine,  tintin. 
Charles  X.  valait  une  poire, 
Et  Caroline  une  Atthalin. 
Tintin,  tintaine,  tintin" - 

1  The  eve  of  the  day  on  which  Louis-Philippe  settled  at  the  Tuileries 
he  said  to  Odilon  Barrot  :   "  Do  they  not  know  that  on  every  one  of 
the  walls  of  that  fatal  palace  are  written  the  misfortunes  of  my  family?  " 
and  he  added  that  in  spite  of  the  ministers  he  would  never  live  in  it. 
*  I  am  not  to  be  taken  in — Peyronnet  was  worth  a  Dupin — Jingle, 
le,  jangle,  jingle— Charles  X.  was  worth  a  pear  (i.e.  Louis-Philippe)— 
And   Caroline   an   Atthalin   (Mme.   Adelaide   was  said  to  be   secretly 
married  to  General  Atthalin)— Jingle,  jangle,  jingle. 


Popularity  of  Mademoiselle  d  Orleans — Her  enemies  attack  her 
violently  —  The  Princess's  toilettes — Her  tastes  —  Mme. 
Messalina — Athalie  de  Bourbon — Presumed  liaison  be- 
tween Mme.  Adelaide  and  General  Atthalin — -The  children 
she  might  have  had  by  him — Madame  s  parsimony — Her 
household — Her  charities — The  Hospice  d'Enghien — The 
Princess's  attachment  to  her  friends — She  hates  etiquette — 
"  Bourgeois  "  life  at  the  Tuileries — Louis-Philippe's  chil- 
dren— Mme.  Adelaide  reproaches  the  Due  d1  Orleans  for 
his  opposition  to  the  King's  Government. 

THE  people  of  Paris  were  not  ignorant  of  the  part 
Mme.  Adelaide  had  taken  in  the  July  days.  When 
she  went  out  driving  she  was  cheered,  and  the  numer- 
ous delegations  which  succeeded  one  another  at  the 
Palais  Royal,  after  the  three  glorious  days,  always 
asked  to  be  presented  to  her.  She  kept  up  the  loyalty 
of  the  delegates,  thanked  them,  and  gave  tricoloured 
flags.  In  newspapers  and  speeches  they  did  not  fail 
to  speak  of  her,  and  to  call  her  the  "  august  sister  of 
the  citizen-king,  the  benevolent,  liberal-minded  prin- 
cess, so  good,  so  charitable,  endowed  with  all  the 
combined  virtues." l  Deputations  from  the  depart- 
ments came  to  salute  her  at  all  hours  ;  and  on  the  day 

1  See,  for  example,  M.  Auguste  Barbel's  speech,  who  came  to  compli- 
ment the  King,  August  n,  1830,  at  the  head  of  the  deputation  from  the 
Seine  Inferieure.  (Journal  des  Debats.) 


I'OITLAKITY    OF    PRINCESS          245 

of  her  fete  the  detachment  of  the  National  Guards  on 
duty  at  the  Palais  Royal  or  at  Neuilly  offered  her 
baskets  of  flowers.  Concerts  lasting  several  hours 
were  organised  under  the  windows  of  her  apartments. 
Couplets  were  sung  in  the  streets  in  her  honour ;  a 
stanza  was  presented  to  her  on  4<  polished  vellum " 
by  M.  Kerimadoux  de  Kerlanfle*  : — 

"  O  toi  princesse^  en  qui  toute  sagesse  brille> 
Tu  surpasses,  dit-on,  encore  ta  famille 
En  tendresse^  en  amour  pour  la  liberte  sainte, 
La  bonte>  la  vertu  dont  tons  tes  traits  sont  peintes. 
De  la  Revolution  sincere  partisane^ 
Ne  crois  pas  que  pour  fa  ma  Muse  te  condamne  ! 
Et  comment  autrement  cela  pourrait-il  etre  ? 
&  Orleans  fut  ton  pere  et  Petion  fut  ton  maitre."  » 

These  verses  were  not  very  beautiful,  but  the  naive 
rhymes,  or  rather  the  servile  flattery  they  exhibited, 
doubtless  pleased  Mme.  Adelaide,  for  she  had  one 
hundred  and  fifty  copies  printed  and  distributed 
among  her  faithful  followers. 

But  this  cheering,  homage,  and  praise  was  not 
without  its  counterblast  in  the  terrible  attacks  which 
appeared  in  the  opposition  papers.  The  Legitimists 
especially — Carlists,  Mme.  Adelaide  called  them — 
were  remarkable  for  their  violence.  They  did  not 
forgive  the  daughter  of  Egalite'  her  hatred  of  the 
Bourbons  and  her  decided  attitude  on  the  day  after  the 
Revolution  which  had  dethroned  Charles  X.  Mme. 

1  Oh  !  thou,  Princess,  in  whom  all  wisdom  shines — Thou  dost  sur- 
pass, they  say  thy  family — In  tenderness,  in  love  for  holy  liberty — Good- 
ness, virtue  are  depicted  in  thy  face— A  sincere  partisan  of  the  Revolu- 
tion— Do  not  think  my  Muse  condemns  thee  for  that ! — How  could  it 
be  otherwise  P  —  D'Orldans  was  thy  father,  and  Potion  thy  master. 


Adelaide  was  scoffed  at,  defamed,  vilified.  She  was 
railed  at  without  measure,  wounded  in  her  womanly 
modesty,  insulted  in  her  honour. 

She  could  not  go  out  without  her  dresses,  often 
in  fact,  ridiculous  enough,  being  described  with 
ironical  complacency  in  the  gazettes.  It  is  true  she 
was  fond  of  startling  jewellery,  feathers,  and  flounces, 
and  that  she  did  not  always  choose  the  colours  which 
suited  her  best.  The  grotesque  garb  in  which  she 
tricked  herself  out  the  day  of  the  inauguration  of  the 
Tuileries  in  1831  is  known;  that  same  year,  on  the 
occasion  of  Marie  Amelie's  fete,  she  was  dressed  in 
a  horrible  gown  she  had  been  seen  wearing  at  one 
of  the  ceremonies  connected  with  the  coronation  of 
Charles  X.,  a  simple  Bareges  material  "  with  mixed 
stripes  of  deep  yellow,  black,  deep  red,  and  carme- 
lite."  Her  headdress,  too,  was  ornamented  with  "an 
extraordinary  amount  of  "  the  most  beautiful  violet 
"  feathers."1 

She  was  laughed  at  for  the  spots  on  her  face,  the 
reddish-brown  complexion  inherited  from  her  father, 
and  this  sufficed  to  lay  her  open  to  the  accusation  of 
an  inordinate  love  of  wine  and  spirits.  Hence  rude 
jests,  which  were  current  in  Paris  and  got  into  the 
papers,  and  which,  though  mere  inventions  in  the 
worst  possible  taste  and  vulgar  buffooneries,  were 
accompanied  by  scandalous  libels. 

1  La  Mode,  1831.  "The  Queen  wore  a  dress  of  white  syrnakas,  with 
a  cannezou  of  a  new  and  very  distinguished  cut,  and  a  hat  with  white 
feathers  lightly  tinged  with  green.  The  young  princesses  had  costumes 
of  organdi  muslin,  without  embroideries  or  trimmings,  except  a  cerise 
sash  for  Mile,  de  Chartres,  Swedish  blue  for  Mile,  de  Valois,  white  for 
Mile,  de  Beaujolais." 


In  spite  of  the  trial  with  closed  doors  (commanded 
by  tin-  King)  of  the  author  of  a  basely  calumnious 
pamphlet,  and  his  condemnation  to  two  months' 
imprisonment,1  the  insults  became  more  and  more 
violent.  The  Princess  was  taxed  with  shameless 
conduct  ;  in  the  libels  directed  against  her,  she 
was  called  Madame  Messalina,  and  they  dared 
to  accuse  her  of  a  liaison  with  the  Kin-.  This 
odious  and  cowardly  calumny  was  doubtless  the 
one  which  caused  the  Princess  most  pain,  for 
she  had  the  liveliest  and  purest  affection  for  her 

Nothing  besides  appears  to  justify  these  attacks ; 
Mme.  Adelaide,  though  doubtless  not  altogether 
untouched  by  passion,  had  not  the  character  of  a 
grande  amonreuse ;  she  was  above  all  things  a 
"  statesman,"  passionately  interested  in  public  affairs, 
and  in  spite  of  her  fondness  for  her  brother, 
"she  showed  more  concern  for  the  country  than 
for  the  sovereign."  Her  greatest  pleasure  was, 
surrounded  by  the  books  and  austere  furniture  of 
her  study,  to  talk  politics  with  her  faithful  followers, 
and  discuss  with  Talleyrand  the  difficulties  raised 
by  the  ill-will  of  Nicolas  I.,  or  the  enthronement  of 
the  little  Queen  Isabella  in  Spain. 

The  newspapers,  however,  never  ceased  to  com- 
pare her  to  a  Messalina,  and  to  reproach  her  for  her 
bad  behaviour.  They  had  nicknamed  her  Madame 

1  It  has  not  been  possible  to  find  a  trace  of  this  trial  which  took 
place  i  /,  ami  of  which  the  greater  number  ol  «  rs  made 

mention  at  the  end  of  May  1833. 

8  Comtesse  de  Mirabeau,  I*  rrince  de  Talleyrand  ct  la  maison 


Atthalin1  or  Athalie  de  Bourbon,  an  allusion  to 
the  morganatic  union  she  was  supposed  to  have 
contracted  with  General  Atthalin,  being  fascinated 
by  the  physical  attractions  of  the  "  handsomest  man 
in  the  French  army."  It  is  a  fact,  on  the  one 
hand,  that  the  whole  court  talked  openly  of  this 
secret  marriage,  which  was  never  officially  denied, 
as  were  the  similar  rumours  current  in  1814  re- 
specting Raoul  de  Montmorency ; 2  and,  on  the 
other  hand,  that  Atthalin,  having  wedded  Frangoise 
Therese  Lelandais,  December  19,  1836,  could  not 
have  been  regularly  married  to  Mme.  Adelaide. 

What,  besides,  was  the  character  of  the  inter- 
course which  drew  the  General  and  the  Princess 
together  ?  That  is  not  easy  to  determine ;  but  it 
is  not  without  significance  to  note  that  Baron 
Atthalin  was  fifty-two  years  old  at  the  time  3  of 
his  marriage  to  Mile.  Lelandais,  and  that,  in  spite 
of  gossip,  he  always  remained  attached  to  the  court 
of  Louis- Philippe,  where  he  was  noted  for  "his 
rather  proud  gravity,  the  amenity  of  his  language, 
and  his  distinction."  In  the  obituary  notice  pub- 
lished in  the  Ddbats,  October  14,  1856,  Cuvillier-Fleury 
described  him  as  possessing  ''delicate  judgment, 
exquisite  taste,  infallible  tact."  He  was  "  a  clever 
draughtsman,  and  won  the  Salon  medal  in  1819, 
and  would  have  been  one  of  the  great  artists  of 

1  "  Smir  de  Louis  Philippe  et femme  d' Atthalin 
Altessejacobine  et,  qui plus  est,  eating 

(MS.  song  preserved  in  the  Municipal  Library  of  Paris.) 

2  Madame  de  Boigne 

3  He  was  born  June  22,  1784. 


his    country    if  he   had    not    been    one   of  the   most 
renowned  officers  in   his  branch  of  the  service." 

Appointed  field-marshal  by  Louis-Philippe  after 
1830,  he  was  placed  at  the  head  of  the  King's  house- 
hold. "Nobody,"  wrote  Cuvillier-Fleury,  "combined 
less  flattery  with  more  amiability,  or  remained  in- 
dependent with  a  better  grace.  It  was  conscien- 
tiousness applied  to  everything,  to  small  things  as 
well  as  great,"  and  in  that  respect  he  resembled 
the  master  he  served,  for  it  was  said  that  Atthalin 
was  a  medal  bearing  the  King's  effigy. 

It  has  been  asserted  that  Mme.  Adelaide  had 
several  children  by  General  Atthalin,  but  all  the 
information  on  this  subject  is  contradictory.  One 
writer  mentions  a  son  and  daughter,  another  a 
daughter  only,  a  third  two  boys  and  a  girl.  The 
Quotidienne,  a  Legitimist  journal,  and  the  Mode,  a 
weekly  review  in  the  pay  of  the  Duchesse  de  Berry, 
even  pretended  that  the  Princess  had  had  a  child 
in  England  in  1793,  when  she  was  not  sixteen 
years  old  and  had  lived  continually  at  Bellechasse ! 
But  this  is  certainly  a  wilful  confusion  either  with 
the  Chevalier  d'Orle"ans,  natural  son  of  Philippe- 
Egalite  and  Mme.  de  Buffon,  or  a  child  which  the 
Due  de  Montpensier  had  in  London  after  1800. 

Those  who  have  written  on  the  subject  in  our 
days  have  shown  themselves  to  be  either  too 
partial  or  too  discreet.  In  the  Intermtdiaire  dcs 
ckcrchcnrs  ct  curicux  of  March  30,  1899,  one  reads, 
under  the  signature  H.T.,  that  of  the  secret  marriage 
between  Princess  Adelaide  and  Atthalin  there  was 
Lehr,  L*  Alsace  noble. 


issue  one  boy  and  one  girl.  And  the  author,  having 
given  details  of  the  mysterious  upbringing  of  these 
two  children  by  Granville  fisher-folk,  informs  us 
that  the  son,  under  the  name  of  Rey,  became  a 
surveyor  of  taxes  at  Dijon,  and  that  the  girl  married 
a  rich  auditor  of  the  Conseil  d'  lit  at,  M.  Laurent, 
and  had  four  children,  one  of  whom  holds  a  high 
position  in  the  magistrature  at  the  present  time. 
It  would  be  impossible  to  confuse  more  thoroughly 
the  real  facts  of  a  case  which  is  far  simpler  and 
less  romantic.  General  Atthalin's  sister  married 
Colonel  Laurent  of  Colmar.  Of  this  marriage  there 
was  a  daughter,  who  became  Mme.  de  Dartein, 
and  a  son  (born  1818)  who  became  auditor  of 
the  Conseil  d^Etat,  and  married  Mile.  Rey,  with 
whom  he  had  four  children.  He  and  his  sister 
inherited  General  Atthalin's  fortune. 

Philibert  Audebrand,  from  whom  we  quote  the 
following  passage,1  does  not  explain  how  the  lady 
mentioned  could  be,  as  he  affirms,  the  daughter 
of  the  Princesse  d'Orldans. 

"  Madame  Adelaide's  daughter  was  a  charming 
woman,  with  a  pleasant  face  and  highly  distinguished 
mind.  She  had  been  brought  up  in  England  whence, 
later  on,  she  was  obliged  to  return  to  France  under 
a  name  which  I  do  not  feel  it  right  to  divulge  here. 
Towards  1840  she  was  married  to  a  talented  artist 
and  had  two  sons.  Both  of  them  entered  the  army 
and  became  officers.  Left  a  widow  she  married 
for  the  second  time  a  naval  surgeon,  who  was  ap- 
pointed physician-in-ordinary  to  an  Oriental  Prince. 

1  Printed  in  L! Intenntdiaire  des  chercheitrs  et  curieux,  June  22,  1899. 


She  left  France  to  establish  herself  with  her  second 
husband  at  a  court  in  Asia  Minor.  That  is  fifty 
years  ago.  Is  she  living  still  ?  I  could  not  say, 
and  am  inclined  to  think  that  she  is  no  longer  in 
touch  with  Europe. 

"  When  I  had  the  honour  of  being  presented  to 
her,  she  resided  at  Villa  Lutoetiana,  Faubourg 
Poissonniere,  a  very  fine  private  hospital,  with  a 
garden  where — tolerated  by  Louis-Philippe's  Govern- 
ment— shelter  was  given  to  journalists  condemned  for 
Press  delinquencies ;  where  young  society  women, 
after  some  infringement  of  the  marriage  contract, 
waited  for  a  decree  of  separation ;  and  where 
contemplative  widows  grew  old  in  a  quiet  shady 
corner.  It  was,  indeed,  an  oasis  with  water  and 
trees ! 

"  Mme.  X.,  who  was  a  very  good  musician,  was 
supposed  to  be  patronised  by  Marie  Am^lie,  and 
went  three  times  a  week  to  the  Tuileries  where  she 
gave  music  lessons  to  the  princesses — daughters  of 
the  King.  This  provided  her  with  an  honourable 
subsidy  upon  which  to  live  and  maintain  her  position. 
It  goes  without  saying  that  she  never  spoke  of  the 
royal  family  save  in  terms  of  the  greatest  tenderness 
and  respect. 

"A  woman  of  the  world,  fond  of  the  arts,  poetry, 
music,  and  fine  prose,  she  had  created  a  little  salon 
for  herself — very  simple  but  comfortably  arranged 
—where  she  received  once  a  week.  As  a  rule  her 
modest  court  was  composed  of  the  boarders  in  the 
house.  It  was  a  curious  thing  that  most  of  those 
gathered  there  were  republicans  and  persons  most 


hostile  to  the  dynasty,  such  as  my  friend,  Pierre 
Joigneaux — the  future  senator  of  the  Cote  d'Or — 
and  the  writer  of  these  lines ;  but  like  Daniel  in 
the  lions'  den,  Mme.  X.  possessed  in  the  highest 
degree  the  art  of  appeasing  the  anger  of  wild 

It  seems  wiser  on  the  whole,  not  to  form  any 
opinion  upon  a  subject  profitable  to  pamphleteers 
and  the  delight  of  scandalmongers,  but  which, 
after  all,  is  of  no  great  interest  to  the  historian. 

Mme.  Adelaide  was  also  reproached  for  her 
avarice  and  "  inordinate  thirst  for  riches."  Truth 
to  say,  the  Princess's  character  in  this  respect  did 
not  differ  from  hereditary  traditions,  nor  was  she 
endowed  more  exceptionally  than  other  members 
of  her  family  with  the  special  qualities  which  con- 
tribute to  the  rapid  accumulation,  preservation,  and 
prosperous  development  of  a  large  fortune. 

Her  flatterers  excused  her.  If  she  economised, 
said  they,  it  was  because  "  she  mistrusted  the  un- 
known," and  if  she  demanded  discount  from  trades- 
men, it  was  because  "  her  exact  mind  liked  to 
account  for  everything." 1  Her  taste,  indeed,  had 
nothing  refined  about  it,  her  expenses  nothing 
excessive.  Living  with  the  King,  she  had  no 
luxuries,  no  table  to  provide  for,  no  carriages,  and 
one  knows  that  her  gowns  were  seldom  renewed. 

When,  in  1824,  diverse  heritages  permitted  her 
to  have  a  private  household,  she  took  as  major- 
domo — Alexandre  Pieyre,  the  son  of  a  draper,  a 
draper  himself;  as  first  gentleman — the  Vicomte 

1  Dupin,  Memoir vs. 


du  Authirr;  as  lady-in-waiting — the  Comtesse  de 
Montjoie;  and  as  lady-companion — Zcphyrinc  dr  la 
Tour  du  Pin.  After  1830,  she  added  a  Chevalier 
d'Honneur — the  Comte  Alfred  de  Chastellux,  son 
of  the  marquis,  and  another  lady-companion — the 

:itesse  de  Saint-Mauris.1  She  had  only  twelve 
or  fifteen  horses  for  the  members  of  her  suite,  and 
a  dozen  maids,  footmen,  and  grooms. 

M.  Lamy,  who  had  replaced  his  uncle  Pieyre, 
had  three  employes  and  a  clerk  under  him.  He 
looked  after  Madame's  interests  with  great  care. 
A  good  education,  total  absence  of  ambition,  pro- 
found respect  and  humble  attachment  to  H.R.H., 
an  almost  extreme  punctiliousness  in  the  discharge 
of  his  duties,  a  keen  mind  beneath  a  very  simple 
exterior,  made  of  him  an  excellent  private  secre- 
tary. Excessively  prudent  as  he  was,  the  safety 
of  his  cash-box  preoccupied  him  greatly,  says 

Princess  Adelaide's  real  worth  consisted  in  what 
lay  beneath  the  surface ;  and  although  her  charity 
was  carefully  regulated  it  excepted  nobody.  Out 
of  her  annual  revenues  (which  were  considerable, 
if  we  may  trust  Appert,  who  says  they  amounted 
to  800,000  francs,  and  she  left  an  income  of  3,000,000 
to  her  nephews!)  she  distributed  a  sixth  in  charity, 
pensions,  the  encouragement  of  artists,  men  of 
letters,  and  on  her  schools  and  hospitals. 

She  founded  a  school  for  / ' enseignement  mutuel  at 
Randan,  and  built  a  church  there  which  cost  35,000 

1  Later  on  she  added  the  Comtesse  de  Chasterac  and   Mme.  de 


francs ;  patronised  the  asylums  for  children  ; *  sent 
help  to  unemployed  workmen;2  pensioned  the  July 
combatants,3  helped  the  peasants  ruined  by  fires  and 
inundations,4  distributed  considerable  sums  amongst 
the  families  of  drowned  sailors,5  and  did  not  forget 
the  poor.6 

In  August  1830  she  had  meat  and  linen  distributed  ; 
and  during  the  cholera  epidemic  in  1832,  gave  more 
than  500,000  francs  in  help. 

Through  her  aunt  she  possessed  a  very  fine  house 
in  the  Rue  de  Varenne.  In  the  out-buildings  of  this 
house  the  Duchesse  de  Bourbon  had  founded  a 
hospital,  and  Mile.  d'Orleans,  wishing  to  extend  the 
scope  of  this  work,  bought  a  large  house  and  garden 
at  Picpus,  and  organised  the  Hospice  d'Enghien  on  a 
large  scale.  As  to  the  house,  she  lent  it  to  the  mayor 
of  the  Xth  Arrondissement  for  giving  balls  and  cor- 
poration banquets. 

According  to  Appert,  she  was  "  frank  and  sincere  " 

1  March  17,  1833,  she  gave  1000  francs  to  support  establishments 
opened  in  Paris  for  young  children  from  two  to  seven  years  old  ;  July  18, 
1834,  300  francs  to  the  asylum  at  Rouen,  &c. 

2  December  8,  1836, 10,000  francs  to  Lyons  workmen,  and  500  francs 
May  3,  1837. 

3  July  1 8,  1832,  she  sent  2000  francs  to  the  committee,  having  as 
object  the  gratuitous   instruction   of  children  of  the  July   combatants. 
August  21,  1834,  she  sent  300  francs  to  Mile.  Lepelletier  who  had  zeal- 
ously nursed  the  wounded  in  1830. 

4  100  francs,  July  18,  1834,  to  the  burnt-out  people  of  Villars  (Seine 
et    Oise),  and  August  21,   300   francs  to  those    of  Puy-de-D6me,  &c. 
November  12,  1840,  she  sent  50,000  francs  to  the  victims  of  the  inunda- 
tions (the  Queen  had  only  given  25,000  francs). 

5  1000  francs  to  families  of  sailors  drowned  in  the  dock  at  Arcachon, 
April  1835,  and  5°°  francs,  January   29,    1842,  to  those  of  the  sailors 
wrecked  in  the  Teste-de-Buch. 

6  300  francs  to  the  poor  of  Compiegne,  March  1837. 

Till-    PRINCESS'S   cil. \UITIES       255 

hut  exclusive  in  her  affections  ;  hot-headed  and  vindic- 
tive- mwards  h«-r  enemies,  she  defended  her  friends 
with  /  In  1835  Oiul.irt  ill.  He  was  one  of 
the  most  attached  servitors  of  the  house  of  Orleans. 
"He  had  no  great  instruction,  but  was  straightfor- 
ward, ri- id  in  the  accomplishment  of  his  duties,  honest, 
modest,  upright,  disinterested."  Madame  Adelaide 
had  tears  in  her  eyes  when  she  entered  the  Queen's 
drawing-room  after  paying  him  a  visit.  "  I  would 
give  one  of  my  fingers  to  save  him,"  said  she,  "  he 
is  a  devoted  friend  of  the  King's,  and  we  shall 
make  no  more  friends  of  his  kind." 

She  always  protected  the  servitors  of  the  family  : 
Heymes  ;  Fain,  who  was  "  simple,  easy  to  get  on  with, 
extremely  discreet,  straightforward,  frank,  and  oblig- 
ing "  ;  Fontaine,  the  architect,  a  brute  of  genius  whom 
she  defended  in  his  contests  with  the  King,  when  he 
held  to  his  plans  with  too  much  independence  ;  Dr. 
Marc,  who,  instead  of  pills,  had  always  "  a  little  story 
to  tell  of  the  assemblies  of  such  and  such  great  lords, 
or  of  actors  and  actresses  in  the  green-rooms." 

To  Cuvillier-Fleury  she  one  day  addressed  re- 
proaches "  as  unbecoming  in  substance  as  they  were 
in  form,"  but  an  instant  afterwards  she  found  means 
of  speaking  to  him  with  "  unimaginable  charm."  She 
conciliated  him  completely  and  "  increased  the  esteem 
he  had  for  her  eminent  and  solid  qualities." 

She  was  always  very  good  to  all  persons  who  had 
helped  her  during  her  long  years  of  exile.  The 
Comtesse  de  Montjoie,  her  lady-in-waiting,  she 
treated  as  an  equal  and  loved  like  a  sister.  Mme.  de 
had  been  attached  to  Mademoiselle  since 


their  youth,  and  identified  herself  in  such  a  way  that 
she  had  no  other  family  or  interests,  says  Mme.  de 

Grandeur  had  not  increased  the  Princess's  pride. 
She  detested  etiquette  and  attended  mass  quite  simply 
at  Saint  Roch  with  her  nieces  ;  they  went  in  and  out 
like  other  churchgoers.  She  refused  the  title  of 
Madame  which  they  wanted  to  confer  upon  her, 
insisting  that  it  should  be  followed  by  her  name. 
"  Why  not  the  old  titles  of  the  Dauphin  and  his 
retinue  ? "  she  asked,  and  was  annoyed  at  seeing 
"  the  qiieue  of  ladies  reappearing  in  the  mornings." 

One  day  they  had  insisted  upon  leaving  Mme. 
Angelet,  wife  of  the  stockbroker,  in  the  first  waiting- 
room.  She  recounted  her  adventure  to  Mme.  Ade"- 
laide.  "  Yes,  I  know,"  said  the  Princess,  "they  want 
to  impose  the  etiquette  of  the  old  court  upon  us 
and  to  divide  our  drawing-room  in  two,  but,  so  long 
as  I  have  any  influence,  neither  I  nor  the  King  will 
consent  to  that  ;  you  can  be  quite  easy,  therefore, 
Madame  Angelet ! "  x 

Louis-Philippe  and  his  family  lived,  indeed,  more 
like  rich  middle-class  people  than  princes.  At  ten 
o'clock  all  the  royal  family  were  at  ddjeuner  except  the 
King,  who  was  not  often  present.  At  eleven  o'clock 
they  went  into  the  drawing-room.  "The  princesses 
placed  themselves  each  at  her  work-drawer,  the  key 
of  which  she  kept  herself.  The  needlework  was 
always  for  the  poor.  It  consisted  of  layettes  for  un- 
fortunate mothers  of  families. 

They  often  had  a  game  of  billiards.     Marie  Amelie 

1  Cuvillier-Fleury. 

DAILY    LIFE  25; 

the  best  player,  it  was  said.  "  She  filled  the  post 
of  billiard-marker.  They  had  a  pool,  each  player 
giving  fifty  centimes,  the  money  from  each  game 
bein^  destined  for  the  poor." 

The  time  for  the  promenade  was  arranged  with 
Louis  -  Philippe,  and  the  members  of  the  family 
mbled  to  go  out  together.  Towards  three  o'clock 
they  went  to  Neuilly,  sometimes  to  Versailles  or 
Saint  Cloud.  At  five  they  returned  to  the  Tuileries. 
Dinner  took  place  at  six  o'clock;  there  were  gene- 
rally twenty-five  to  thirty  places.  Towards  half-past 
seven  they  entered  the  King's  great  drawing-room 
"situated  on  the  first  floor  of  the  Palais  des  Tuile- 
ries, the  furniture  of  which  with  few  exceptions  was 
that  of  the  Empire  and  Restoration." 

Every  morning,  before  or  after  dejeuner,  all  the 
papers,  political  pamphlets,  and  caricatures  were 
deposited  on  the  round  table  of  the  drawing-room. 
Louis-Philippe  and  his  sons  read  the  articles  written 
against  them  aloud.  They  examined  the  caricatures 
and  showed  them  to  the  persons  present,  asking  what 
they  thought  of  them.  This  tortured  the  poor  Cheva- 
lier de  Broval,  "an  affectionate  servitor,  a  sincere  and 
disinterested  friend,  who  identified  himself  with  the 
popularity,  future,  and  happiness  of  his  beloved 
Princes,"  from  whom  he  tried  to  hide — especially 
from  Madame — the  newspaper  articles  and  pamphlets 
which  attacked  them. 

Mme.  Adelaide  loved  her  brother's  children  as  if 
they  had  been  her  own.  It  was  she  who  educated 
Princess  Marie  completely,  and  alone  taught  the 
eldest  of  her  nieces  to  play  the  harp. 



Mile,  de  Chartres,  the  good  Louise,  had  a  "  fresh 
pink  and  white  complexion,  and  a  profusion  of  fair 
hair."  l  She  resembled  her  mother  in  character  ;  was 
reasonable  beyond  her  years,  and  everybody  ex- 
tolled her  docility  and  sweetness.  "  Princess  Marie 
was  not  so  perfect  as  Louise,  but  her  follies  were  so 
clever,  and  her  repartees  so  witty,  that  people  were 
almost  unjust  enough  to  prefer  her." Ci  She  was  lively, 
an  artist  to  the  finger  tips,  and  "  of  remarkable  capa- 
city in  spite  of  her  apparent  flightiness."  "  To  be  in 
everything,"  said  she,  "see,  everything,  take  part  in 
everything  without  being  enslaved  by  anything,  take 
a  hand  sometimes  in  politics  on  behalf  of  liberty,  enjoy 
interesting  conversations  with  friends,  and  possess 
Aunt  Adelaide's  house  in  the  Rue  de  Varenne  in 
which  to  receive  them — that  would  be  supreme  hap- 

The  two  princesses  were  very  fond  of  politics. 
The  elder,  the  Due  d'Orle"ans'  favourite  sister,  pro- 
nounced unhesitatingly  against  the  Government  of 
the  King,  her  father,  and  vexed  her  governess,  Mme. 
de  Malet,  "  who  was  at  the  opposite  extreme  in  her 
opinions."  The  second  allowed  herself  to  be  influ- 
enced by  her  aunt,  whose  liberal  tendencies  she  exag- 
gerated. One  day  she  testified  her  republican  faith 
before  Mme.  de  Dolomieu,  her  mother's  lady-in-wait- 
ing, who  was  scandalised  by  it. 

The  witty  and  playful  Clementine  had  become  a 
pretty  young  girl,  whose  gracious  visage,  beautiful 
chestnut  hair,  and  great  blue  eyes,  contrasted  with 

1  Madame  de  Boigne. 

2  Comtesse  de  Boigne. 


the  severity  of  her  large  forehead.  She  was  intelli- 
gent and  ambitious  already. 

In  1830,  Totone  (the  Due  de  Montpensier)  was 
still  a  child.  His  brother,  the  Due  d'Aumale,  who 
was  steady  and  studious,  followed  the  classes  at 
the  Henri  IV.  college,  and  though  Mme.  Adelaide 
rejoiced  in  the  school  successes  of  her  godson,  she 
deplored  a  little  the  fact  that  he  was  richer  than 

She  took  especial  pride  in  the  Prince  de  Joinville 
(nicknamed  Hadji  in  the  family).  "  I  see  my  father 
and  a  little  of  myself  in  Joinville,"  said  she,  "  and  that 
is  why  I  care  for  him  more  than  for  my  other  nephews." 
He  was,  it  seems,  the  cleverest  and  most  amiable  of 
Louis-Philippe's  sons.  A  sailor  and  an  artist,  rather 
than  a  prince,  he  dressed  without  the  least  elegance, 
and  drank,  smoked,  and  swore  like  a  true  sea-dog. 
He  drew  with  great  humour,  wrote  in  a  charming 
fashion,  and  had  a  veritable  passion  for  the  fine  arts. 
One  day,  as  he  tells  us  himself,  when  he  had  taken 
an  immense  fancy  to  a  picture  of  Marilhat's,  he  was 
seized  with  a  great  desire  to  buy  it,  but  only  succeeded 
in  doing  so  thanks  to  the  generosity  of  his  good  Aunt 

As  for  Nemours,  Tan  or  Moumours  as  they  called 
him,  he  was  a  handsome  youth,  with  clear  eyes,  a  wild 
look,  and  beautiful  waving  blonde  hair.  He  improved 

icquaintance,  for  at  first  he  seemed  rather  proud. 
He  was  astonishingly  like  Marie  Ame"lie  and  his 
grandfather  the  King  of  Naples,  was  reserved,  and 
one  never  knew  what  he  wanted. 

Marie,  Clementine,  and    Joinville  were   Madame 


Adelaide's  favourites,  while  the  Due  de  Nemours  and 
Princess  Louise  let  themselves  be  influenced  by  their 
eldest  brother,  the  Due  d'Orleans. 

It  was  not  that  the  latter  was  not  loved  by  his 
aunt.  "Chartres,"  she  was  in  the  habit  of  repeating, 
4 'is  a  very  good  fellow.  He  tells  us  all  he  thinks." 
And  she  spoiled  him,  but  reprimanded  him  also  when 
he  let  himself  be  drawn  into  some  perilous  love  affair. 
The  admonitions  of  the  Princess  were  given  indul- 
gently, and  the  good  aunt  who  thought  it  her  duty  to 
scold  a  little,  forgave  much  and  did  not  long  resist  the 
coaxings  of  her  nephew,  le  Biau,  as  his  brothers  had 
nicknamed  him.  All  the  same,  she  was  always  vexed 
with  him  for  holding  out  a  hand  to  the  men  who  were 
in  opposition  to  the  King's  Government,  and  for  giving 
his  opinion  at  the  meeting  of  the  Council  of  Ministers, 
at  which  he  was  present. 

Some  time  after  the  July  Revolution,  war  seemed 
inevitable.  The  King  and  his  sister  resisted  the  move- 
ment. The  hereditary  Prince,  "  brave  to  temerity," 
combated  in  the  Tuileries  drawing-room  the  policy  of 
concessions  and  renunciation  adopted  by  his  father. 
Princess  Adelaide  could  not  bear  contradiction,  and 
reproached  her  nephew  in  unmeasured  terms  for 
damaging  the  Government  by  his  opposition.  "  After 
all,  my  dear  aunt,  I  have  some  right  to  mix  in  affairs ; 
I  am,  at  least,  as  much  interested  in  them  as  your- 
self!" he  responded.1 

The  Prince  Royal,  indeed,  complained  at  finding 
himself  exposed  to  attacks  based  on  the  distrust 
inspired  by  his  aunt,  who  insisted  upon  representing 

1  Cuvillier-Fleury. 

THE    DUG    DE   CHARTRES  261 

him  as  a  demagogue  who  compromised  France 
abroad  and  would  endanger  the  throne.  Mme. 
Adelaide,  in  fact,  had  such  a  passion  for  politics, 
and  so  great  an  affection  for  her  brother,  that  she 
could  not  bear  that  any  other  influences  should 
counterbalance  hers. 


The  Pavilion  de  Flore — Princess  Adelaide 's  friends — Madame' s 
influence  over  the  King  and  the  Ministers — Attempts  on 
the  Kings  life — Adelaide  and  Marie  Ame'lie — Political 
"  role  "  of  the  Princess :  the  Quadruple  Alliance,  the  affairs 
of  Spain — Arrest  of  the  Duchesse  de  Berry — Odious 
attitude  of  Mme.  Adelaide — Ministerial  crises — Mar- 
riages of  the  Due  d*  Orleans  and  the  Due  de  Nemours — 
Royal  rejoicings — Death  of  the  Due  d°  Orleans. 

MME.  ADELAIDE  received  visitors  in  the  morning  in 
the  charming  apartments  on  the  ground  floor  of  the 
Pavilion  de  Flore.  The  drawing-room  where  she  sat 
had  windows  overlooking  the  Pont  Royal  and  the  gate 
of  the  Tuileries  garden.  From  these  windows  one 
had  an  admirable  view  over  the  Seine  and  the  flower- 
beds, and  beyond  the  wide  moat,  which  Louis-Philippe 
had  had  dug,  one  could  see  what  was  passing  in  the 

The  drawing-room  was  filled  with  stiff  furniture  of 
the  Empire  or  Restoration  periods.  The  arm-chairs 
in  heavy  shining  mahogany,  relieved  by  finely  chiselled 
bronze,  were  upholstered  in  green  silk — like  a  working 
study,  one  would  have  said.  The  Princess  was  often 
seated  at  a  writing-table  and,  when  she  occupied  the 
deep,  low,  easy-chair  placed  near  the  fireplace,  she 
was  rarely  seen  holding  a  needle ;  for  her  time  was 
spent  chiefly  in  reading  or  looking  through  documents 


Tin:   PRINCESS'S  SALON          263 

which  IH.T  brother  had  entrusted  to  her.  There  was 
nothing  feminine  about  this  room,  neither  flowers  nor 
nicknacks,  but  papers  and  books.  Sometimes,  how- 
ever, the  barking  of  a  little  dog,  which  alone,  with  the 
parrot  Jacquot,  had  the  right  to  interrupt  political 
conversations,  reminded  visitors  that  they  were  with 
an  old  maid  and  not  a  Minister  of  State. 

General  S^bastiani  owed  it  to  his  grand  and 
slightly  distant  air  and  the  correctness  of  his  manners  he  was  called  upon  to  preside  over  the  reunions 
which  took  place  in  Princess  Adelaide's  salon.  He 
talked  a  great  deal  with  much  wit  and  brio;  but 
had  to  keep  quiet  when  Talleyrand  was  there. 

Madame  manifested  a  very  keen  friendship  for  the 
Prince  de  B&ievent  and  treated  him  with  the  greatest 
regard.  She  saw  him  often,  and  when  he  was  absent 
from  Paris  wrote  to  him  nearly  every  day,  to  ask  his 
advice  on  the  conduct  of  State  affairs. 

In  the  last  years  of  his  life  Talleyrand  had  him- 
self carried  by  two  lackeys  to  the  first  waiting-room. 
As  soon  as  he  was  announced  Mme.  Adelaide  went 
forward  and  welcomed  him  "  in  terms  employed  for 
him  alone."  He  accepted  this  homage  as  his  right. 
He  was  pale  and  emaciated,  his  white  cravat  went  up 
to  his  chin,  and  the  sharp  points  of  a  much-starched 
collar  arrived  in  the  middle  of  his  flabby  cheeks.  .  .  . 
His  long  waving  hair  looked  as  though  it  had  been 
done  with  tongs.  His  physiognomy  was  still  imposing, 
and  he  had  retained  his  shrewd  smile  and  an  expres- 
sion "of  deep  thought."  Huddled  in  the  depths  of 
the  best  arm-chair,  he  put  his  club  foot  affectedly  on  a 
stool  before  everybody  and  began  to  talk.  His  con- 


versation  was  more  serious  than  witty ;  he  expressed 
himself  slowly  in  short  sentences,  pausing  at  every 
moment  for  approval :  "  it  was  like  the  last  words  of  a 
dying  person,"  says  Appert.  He  wanted  to  be  listened 
to,  and  he  was  listened  to.  It  was  necessary  to 
admire,  and  admiration  was  forthcoming.1 

Marshal  Gerard  was  assiduous  in  his  attendance 
at  the  Pavilion  de  Flore.  He  had  great  affection  for 
the  whole  royal  family,  but  was  firm  in  his  ideas  and 
frank  in  his  language ;  this  did  not  displease  Mme. 
Adelaide,  who  "  liked  political  loyalty."  The  Marshal 
was  not,  indeed,  a  vivacious  talker,  but  he  did  not  seek 
to  impose  his  opinions,  and  tolerated  those  of  others. 

Mile.  d'Orteans'  ladies,  like  herself,  discussed  the 
affairs  of  State,  and  the  Comtesse  de  Montjoie, 
the  Princess's  lady-in-waiting,  had  the  same  ideas  as 
her  mistress.  Sometimes  they  would  criticise  the 
fashionable  painters  of  the  day,  Ingres,  Vernet,  De- 
laroche,  or  gave  their  opinions  on  the  musical  pro- 
ductions in  vogue :  Le  Philtre  by  Audran,  U Orgie  by 
Carafa,  and  Robert  le  Diable,  but  they  did  not  talk 
about  fashions  at  the  Pavilion  de  Flore ;  politics, 
foreign  politics  especially,  were  what  interested  them 

Nevertheless  a  few  women  came  to  see  the  King's 
sister :  Mme.  de  Valence,  the  daughter  of  Mme.  de 
Genlis,  the  old  friend  and  companion  of  her  youth  ;  and 

1  A  few  moments  before  the  death  of  Talleyrand,  the  King  and 
Madame  went  to  see  him.  When  His  Majesty  retired,  the  sick  man 
.  .  .  made  an  effort  to  say  to  the  King :  "  The  visit  of  your  Majesty  is  the 
greatest  honour  that  has  ever  been  received  in  my  house.  Allow  me 
to  present  my  faithful  valet-de-chambre  to  you."  This  eternal  adieu  of 
the  Prince  was  perhaps  the  proudest  moment  of  his  long  life. 

Till".    PRINCESS'S   SALON  265 

Mme.  Lehon,  the  Ambassador's  wife.     Pretty  Mme. 

lures  wandered  in  once  or  twice,  but  did  not  return. 
Mine.  Angelet  was  delighted  to  find  herself  treated 
with  consideration  by  a  royal  personage ;  Miss  Opie 
ventured  there  with  her  bizarre  Quaker  headdress,  and 
Princesse  Belgiosojo  was  much  admired  for  her  remark- 
able beauty  and  her  bizarre  ivory-tinted  complexion. 

Besides  Flahaut  and  Lawoestine — "  a  courtier  who 
grovelled  before  the  Princess,  her  parrot,  and  her 
groom  of  the  chambers  "  1 — M.  de  Celle,  M.  Lehon,  and 
Comte  de  Bondy  were  to  be  found  there ;  while  old 
M.  Ballanche  and  thin  M.  Briffaut  slumbered  at 
Mme.  Adelaide's,  and  M.  de  Montalivet  made  those 
present  forget  his  youth  in  the  tiresome  seriousness 
of  his  conversation.  Anatole  de  Montesquiou,  the 
Queen's  gentleman-in-waiting,  Saint-Marc  Girardin, 
Edmond  d'Anglemont,  Victor  de  Tracy,  the  two 
Dupins,  Broval,  Oudart,  Lamy,  and  Fain  met  great 
functionaries  of  State  there — the  Chancellor  Pasquier, 
President  S^guier,  the  whole  Ministry  in  fact,  "all 
attentive  to  her  Royal  Highness,  to  whom  requests 
destined  for  his  Majesty  were  frequently  addressed. 

The  King  had  the  most  marked  deference  for  the 
judgment,  opinion,  and  advice  of  his  sister.  He  went 
to  see  her  "each  time  he  had  a  free  moment  during 
the  day, "and,  it  was  said,  compared  his  own  thoughts 
every  evening  with  those  of  Princess  Adelaide  who, 
"  having  the  same  interests  and  the  same  fortune,  could 
not  be  suspected  by  him."  It  is  true  that  Madame 
only  lived  for  her  brother,  and  that  she  watched  over 
him  with  motherly  affection. 

1  Prince  de  Joinville. 


Louis- Philippe  rode  fearlessly  through  Paris  when 
disturbances  were  going  on,  attended  merely  by  a  few 
aides-de-camp,  and  the  numerous  plots  against  his  life 
-  which  had  either  come  to  a  head  or  failed  never 
caused  his  courage  to  falter.  At  the  time  of  the 
cholera  outbreak  in  1832,  it  was  necessary  to  keep 
the  King  from  visiting  the  sick  in  the  hospitals,  and 
it  required  all  Mme.  Adelaide's  influence  to  dis- 
suade him  from  doing  so ;  indeed,  she  did  not  always 
succeed  in  preventing  her  brother  from  incurring 
danger,  in  which  case  she  would  ask,  and  often  obtain, 
permission  to  share  it  with  him. 

In  June  1832  Heymes  went  to  see  Louis-Philippe 
at  Saint  Cloud  to  take  him  back  to  Paris,  which  was 
given  over  to  pillage  and  massacre  :  "I  shall  go  with 
you,"  said  the  Princess.  The  King  agreed,  and  by 
his  presence  "  crushed  the  attempt  at  revolution  in 
the  embryo." * 

But  this  affection  for  her  brother  rendered  Prin- 
cess Adelaide  the  more  sensitive  to  all  that  concerned 
the  dignity  or  safety  of  the  King.  In  1834,  when 
she  heard  that  Bergeron,  who  two  years  previously, 
on  the  day  of  the  opening  of  the  Chambers,  had  fired 
a  pistol z  at  Louis-Philippe,  had  been  acquitted,  she, 
"  so  gentle,  so  patient,  and  usually  so  calm,  could  not 
restrain  an  expression  of  very  lively  resentment "  at  the 
cowardice  of  the  jury.  She  exaggerated  the  dangers 
which  her  brother  might  run  and  sometimes  foresaw 

1  Prince  de  Joinville. 

2  Princess   Adelaide   often   found   herself  at  the  King's  side  when 
attempts  were  made  upon  his  life.     (That  of  d'Alibaud,  25th  June,  1836  ; 
of  Darmes,  I5th  October,  1840;  of  Leconte,  i6th  April,  1846.) 

ATTEMPT !•!)    MURDER   OF    KING     267 

July  28,  1835,  a  review  <>!  the  National  Guards 
and  the  army  was  to  take  place.  The  family,  marshals, 
generals,  and  aides-de-camp  were  all  assembled  at  the 
Tuileries  in  the  salon  next  to  the  throne-room.  The 
anxiety  of  the  princesses  was  such  that  at  the  moment 
of  departure,  Mme.  Adelaide,  pointing  to  the  Kin^, 
said  to  Thiers  :  "  I  hope  you  will  bring  him  back  to 
us  alive."  The  review  was  going  off  very  well  when, 
just  opposite  the  Cafe*  Ture,  "  a  sort  of  company  fire 
like  a  discharge  of  grapeshot,"  burst  forth.  Colonels 
Rieussec  and  Raffet,  Marshal  Mortier,  General  de 
Ve>igny,  Captain  Willatte,  and  nine  other  persons 
were  killed  on  the  spot.  Heymes  was  badly  wounded, 
and  the  King  himself  had  a  slight  scratch  on  the 

The  Commandant  Boerio  hurried  to  inform  Prin- 
cess Adelaide  of  the  attempt,  and  she  at  once  ordered 
her  carriage  and  went  to  the  Chancellor's  office,  Place 
Vendome,  where  the  troops  marched  past.  When 
the  King  dismounted  there  was  a  thunder  of  cheering, 
and  he  burst  into  tears  as  he  embraced  his  sister  and 
wife.  The  Prince's  clothing  and  the  white  kersey- 
mere trousers  of  Thiers  were  covered  with  blood.1 
The  King  and  Princess  Adelaide  went  at  once  with 
the  Queen  to  condole  with  the  Duchesse  de  Trdvise 
(wife  of  Marshal  Mortier),  and,  a  week  later,  the  royal 
family  followed  the  eighteen  coffins  with  their  tears 
and  prayers. 

Mme.  Adelaide  and  the  Queen,  in  Appert's 
opinion,  "  spoiled  the  King  by  an  almost  complete 
subordination  of  their  will  to  his."  This  common 

1  rrince  de  Joinville. 


affection  for  Louis-Philippe  was  the  only  link  which 
united  the  two  princesses.  Marie  Amelie  had  suffered 
rather  than  desired  a  crown,  which  she  owed,  in  great 
part,  to  her  sister-in-law  ;  but  once  Queen,  she  sought 
to  re-establish  etiquette,  whilst  Adelaide  preserved  the 
outward  good-nature  which  she  had  employed  with  so 
much  success  up  till  then.  This  was  soon  noticed  at 
the  Tuileries  receptions.  The  Queen,  covered  with 
diamonds,  grave,  dignified,  and  very  often  sulky, 
received  with  haughtiness ;  while  Madame,  simply 
dressed  out  of  opposition,  was  very  gay.  All  the 
sympathies  of  the  daughter  of  the  Queen  of  Naples 
went  out  to  the  elder  branch  of  the  Bourbons,  and 
being  very  religious,  she  secretly  protected  the  priests, 
whose  passionate  and  dangerous  hostility  irritated  the 
King's  sister,  indifferent  enough  in  matters  of  religion. 
Besides,  the  Queen  never  sought  to  enter  into 
political  discussions  to  the  same  extent  as  Princess 
Adelaide,  who  welcomed  all  the  public  men  who  came 
to  her  with  a  good  grace,  from  the  President  of  the 
Chambre  des  Deputes,  the  Ministers,  Ambassadors, and 
great  functionaries  to  Prefects,  Mayors,  and  Justices  of 
the  Peace.  She  talked  affably  to  all,  and  was  anxious 
to  persuade  and  please  in  order  to  rule.  When  the 
Chateau  de  Versailles  was  being  restored,  she  seldom 
failed  to  accompany  the  King  thither  to  view  the 
work ;  and  during  the  country  outings  of  the  family 
at  Neuilly,  Eu,  and  Saint  Cloud,  each  time  that  Louis- 
Philippe  was  called  to  Paris  he  took  the  Princess 
with  him.  Thus  the  King's  sister  was  often  mistaken 
for  the  Queen.  An  amusing  story  reported  in  the 
Journal  des  Ddbats  of  January  28, 1833,  may  be  quoted  : 

THE    PRINCESS    IN    THE   COUNTRY     269 

»ue  day  a  mayor  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Lille  had 
been  deputed  to  compliment  Marie  Ame'lie  on  her 
through  the  town.  Madame  Adelaide,  being  at 
the  he; id  of  the  cortege,  he  addressed  her.  The  speech 
was  made  with  great  assurance,  listened  to  with 
tranquillity,  but  when  the  municipal  magistrate  reached 
the  end  of  his  harangue  the  Princess  said  to  him  : 
4  Hut,  monsieur,  I  am  not  the  Queen.'  .  .  .  '  It  is  all 
the  same/  responded  the  mayor  good-humouredly  ;  '  I 
have  finished,  and  shall  not  begin  again.  Be  kind 
enough,  madame,  to  repeat  to  the  King's  wife  all  I 
have  just  said  to  you/' 

It  is  necessary  to  read  Mme.  Adelaide's  letters 
to  Talleyrand1  in  order  to  understand  the  decisive 
action  which  the  Princess  exercised  over  events  and 
the  preponderating  influence  she  had  over  men.  There 
is  no  charm  in  these  letters — nothing  to  recall  the 
delightful  epistles  of  women  of  the  eighteenth  century  ; 
instead,  they  are  couched  in  the  simple,  clear,  precise 
1  moruage  used  in  business.  Mile.  d'Orl^ans  reveals 
herself  in  them  such  as  she  really  was — prompt  to 
understand,  bold  to  resolve,  and  having  the  greatest 
ascendency  over  the  King's  mind  and  that  of  his 
Ministers.  She  had  all  the  defects  and  all  the  qualities 
of  her  epoch,  neglected  the  brilliant  for  the  solid, 
principles  for  interests,  never  troubled  herself  about 
the  means  employed,  but  entirely  about  the  results 
obtained.  Her  sole  aim  was  to  augment  the  power 
of  her  family,  which  explains  her  implacable  hatred 
towards  the  members  of  the  elder  branch,  and  her 

1  Comtesse   dc    Mirabeau,  Lc    />///«•   tie    Talleyrand  et  la  maiscn 


intrigues  in  order  that  the  authority  of  the  citizen- 
king  might  become  greater  every  day. 

It  was  a  fatal  policy,  the  insults  and  miserable 
treatment  inflicted  upon  the  family  of  Charles  X.  by 
the  sovereign  who  had  deposed  him,  rendered  the  July 
monarchy  odious  to  honest  folks ;  and  the  struggle 
entered  into  by  the  constitutional  King  against  the 
very  conditions  of  the  Government  he  had  accepted, 
alienated  even  those  who  had  set  him  on  the  throne. 

At  first,  however,  this  policy  was  successful,  for 
Louis  -  Philippe  had  complete  power  in  his  hands 
during  the  last  years  of  his  reign ;  and  after  the 
accouchement  of  the  Duchesse  de  Berry,  and  the  vote 
in  the  Chamber  stigmatising  the  conduct  of  the 
Legitimist  deputies  who  had  carried  their  homage  and 
their  vows  to  the  proscribed  pretender,  the  Comte  de 
Chambord's  party  was  vanquished. 

Princess  Adelaide  had  set  everything  working 
with  the  greatest  cleverness  in  order  that  these 
results  might  be  attained.  But  as  she  had  business 
intelligence,  a  keen  political  sense,  and  seldom  de- 
ceived herself  upon  the  value  of  men,  her  actions, 
especially  abroad,  always  contributed  to  the  aggrand- 
isement of  France.  If  she  had  Talleyrand  appointed 
Ambassador  in  London,  it  was  in  order  that  the 
business  he  had  to  settle  might  rest  between  the 
King,  herself,  and  him  ; 1  but  the  fortunate  consequence 

1  Letter  from  Madame  Adelaide  to  Prince  de  Talleyrand,  dated 
Neuilly,  2oth  May,  1834:  "It  is  entirely  between  the  King,  you  and 
me,"  she  wrote.  See  also  the  Princess's  letter  to  Talleyrand,  22nd 
January,  1834  :  "  It  is  essential  that  all  despatches  should  be  submitted 
to  the  King."  "There  is  only  one  policy,"  said  Louis-Philippe  else- 
where, "  It  is  mine." 


of  this  appointment  was  the  siiming  of  the  treaty  of 
thr  Quadruple  Alliance.1  If  by  sending  Mignet  to 
Madrid,  she  got  Isabella  II.  recognised  as  Queen  of 
in,  it  was  because  the  triumph  of  the  pretender, 
Don  Carlos  (the  protege1  of  the  old  nobility,  the  priests, 
and  the  monks),  would  have  been  the  first  step  towards 
the  return  of  the  Due  de  Bourdeaux  to  France.2  But 
in  that  affair,  as  in  all  else  she  undertook,  the  Princess 
manifested  a  wise  prudence.  Did  Thiers  propose  armed 
intervention  in  Spain  ?  She  refused  obstinately,  see- 
ing "the  danger,  the  uselessness,  the  absurdity  of  a 
declaration  of  war  upon  Don  Carlos,"  *  and  that  that  war 
would  only  increase  the  pretender's  popularity,  and 
would  be  "desired  not  dreaded  by  the  Powers  in  the 
north,  since  it  would  weaken  France  on  the  Rhine 
and  on  the  Alps." 4 

Madame  Adelaide  easily  accepted  political  exig- 
encies. If  she  and  her  brother  agreed  to  the  nomi- 
nation of  the  Prince  of  Coburg  (an  Englishman  by 
adoption)  to  the  throne  of  Belgium,  if  she  made  the 
King  refuse  the  crown  offered  by  the  Belgian  Congress 
to  the  Due  de  Nemours,  it  was  because  she  had 
already  negotiated  the  future  marriage  of  her  niece 
Louise  with  Leopold.  No  sentimental  considerations 
tapped  her  ;  it  mattered  little  to  her  that  the  King  of 

1  Signed  between  France,  Spain,  England,  and  Portugal  against  Don 
Carlos.  (Letter  from  Madame  to  Talleyrand,  22nd  June,  1834.) 

1  44  What  puzzles  me  completely,"  wrote  the  Princess  to  Talleyrand, 
44  is  the  million  M.  de  Blacas  has  put  at  his  disposal  (Don  Carlos)  ;  it 
s  that  they  are  far  from  wanting  money"  (June  22,  1834).  For  all 
these  letters  see  />  1'rince  de  Talleyrand  et  la  tnaison  tCOrUans. 

1  Letter  from  Madame  Adelaide  to  Talleyrand,  2$th  July,  1834. 

4  Letter  from  Princess  Adelaide  to  Talleyrand. 


the  Belgians  was  a  widower  twenty-five  years  older 
than  his  wife,1  she  remained  indifferent  to  the  tears  of 
Marie  Amelie,  the  King,  the  Due  d'Orleans,  the  princes 
and  princesses  of  the  family  ;  but  she  was  indignant 
when  Leopold,  on  the  death  of  his  eldest  son,  had  the 
pretension  —  alone  and  of  himself —  to  endeavour  to 
secure  the  succession  to  his  nephews  of  the  House 
of  Saxony.2  She  intrigued,  wrote  to  Talleyrand,  and 
made  Louis- Philippe  send3  a  comminatory  letter  on 
this  singular  subject,  wherein  the  King  of  the  French 
assured  his  son-in-law  that  he  would  not  allow  him  to 
Germanise  Belgium. 

Nothing  that  concerned  politics  remained  alien 
to  Madame  Adelaide.  She  regretted  the  English 
Minister,  Lord  Grey,4  was  "  broken  -  hearted,"  that 
Talleyrand  had  to  give  way  before  Lord  Palmerston's 
arrogance,5  and  rejoiced  in  the  success  at  St.  Peters- 
burg of  Marshal  Maison,6  the  successor  of  General 

1  The  wedding  took  place  at  Compiegne,  August  9,  1832.     "  Louise 
wept,"  wrote  the  Queen  in  her  journal.    "  The  King  and  Chartres  sobbed. 
All,  including  little  Montpensier,  shed  hot  tears."    Leopold  was  forty-five, 
Louise  twenty.     On  August  10  there  was  a   theatrical  representation. 
They  played  Le  Prisonnier :  "The  couple  must  be  well  matched,"  said 
one  of  the  characters,  "  young  wife,  young  husband." 

2  Madame  Adelaide  to  Talleyrand,  May  23,  1834.     The  King  of  the 
Belgians  had  just  lost  his  eldest  son. 

3  Letter  from  H.M.  Louis-Philippe  to  H.M.  King  of  the  Belgians, 
the  copy  of  which  had  been  sent  by  Madame  Adelaide  to  Talleyrand. 
One  can  easily  see,  by  the  letter  written  to  Talleyrand  at  the  same  time, 
that  it  was  she  who  had  managed  the  affair,  and  insisted  upon  the  King's 
writing  to  his  son-in-law. 

4  Madame  Adelaide  to  Talleyrand,  July  15,  1834. 

5  See  letters  exchanged  in  the  month  of  November  1834  between 
Talleyrand  and  Madame  Adelaide,  who  insists  upon  our  Ambassador 
withdrawing  his  resignation,  which  the  Viennese  Ambassador  proposed 
to  him,  &c. 

6  Madame  Adelaide  to  Talleyrand,  February  1834. 

ADELAIDE  AND  THE   BOt  Kl.oNS      a 

Moriicr,  whose  embassy  had  only  been  a  series  of 
cruel  mystifications  ;  on  the  other  hand,  she  did  nothing 
to  help  the  Polish  patriots  who  had  risen  against 
Russia  in  November  1830.  The  fact  was  that  her  love 
of  liberty  sprang  chiefly  from  her  antipathy  to  the 
Bourbons.  "  I  heard,"  wrote  La  Rochefoucauld  in 

his  Mtmoires,  "  regarding  a  M.  S ,  that,  being  at 

the  Palais  Royal  for  the  first  time  after  the  July 
Revolution,  Mademoiselle  d'Orldans  went  up  to  him 

oon  as  she  noticed  him.  '  Well,  Monsieur  S , 

what  do  you  say?'  *  Madame,  that  the  July  throne 
has  very  dangerous  enemies  in  the  July  Revolution/ 
*  Oh  ! '  returned  Mademoiselle  quickly,  *  our  enemies 
are  not  Liberals  but  Carlists  ! ' ' 

In  her  hatred  of  the  partisans  of  the  elder  Bourbon 
branch,  and  her  desire  to  annihilate  their  influence  for 
ever,  she  did  not  hesitate  to  employ  the  vilest  man- 
oeuvres. When  the  Duchesse  de  Berry  was  arrested, 
Princess  Adelaide  induced  her  brother  to  treat  her 
harshly,  and  declined  to  listen  to  Marie  Am£lie,  who 
pleaded  for  her  niece.  On  January  30,  1833,  there 
was  a  great  ball  at  the  Tuileries  to  inaugurate  the 
new  gallery,  and  the  Princess,  desirous  of  giving  a 
striking  proof  of  esteem  to  Gonzague  Deutz  (who  had 
been  the  chief  instrument  in  the  arrest  of  the  Duchess), 
asked — 

"  Ce  rent  gat i  fopprobre  et  It  rebut  du  tnonde> 
Cef tilde  apostat,  cet  oblique  ttrangcr  " l— 

1  This  turncoat,  byword,  and  refuse  of  the  world— this  fetid  apostate, 

irtuons  alien. 

It  must  he  recollected  that  Victor  Hu^o  had  by  no  means  shed  all 
his  early  Legitimist  prepossessions  at  this  time. —  Translator**  n 



as  Victor  Hugo  branded  him  in  the  Chants  du  Cre1- 
puscule — to  dance  the  first  quadrille  with  her. 

When  she  heard  of  the  Duchesse  de  Berry's 
accouchement  she  triumphed  openly,  and  encouraged 
the  vile  jests  made  daily  in  her  salon  at  the  expense 
of  an  unhappy  and  vanquished  woman,  applauding 
the  courtier  who  recalled  Charles  X.'s  words  on  his 
return  to  France  in  1814  :  "  It  is  nothing ;  it  is  only  a 
Frenchman  the  more."  1 

Madame  Adelaide  always  tried  to  influence  the 
King  in  his  choice  of  ministers.  On  the  fall  of  Laffitte 
she  suggested  Odilon  Barrot,  who  was  not  afraid  of 
the  Republican  party,  and  wanted  to  base  the  Govern- 
ment "  upon  that  middle  class  which  has  always 
covered,  defended,  and  rendered  fruitful  the  soil  of 
the  mother-country." :  But  the  bad  state  of  finances, 
and  the  necessity  for  doing  something  to  improve 
them,  called  for  a  business  man — Casimir  Perier,  who 
imposed  hard  conditions  upon  the  King,  and  insisted 
upon  being  master  of  the  ministerial  actions  for  which 
he  would  be  held  responsible. 

As  may  be  imagined,  this  choice  was  not  calcu- 
lated to  please  Madame  Adelaide.  She  restrained 
herself,  however,  and  endeavoured  to  conciliate  the 
minister,3  whose  impetuosity  she  succeeded  in  over- 
coming by  dint  of  patient  good-will. 

1  The  Duchesse  de  Berry  was  secretly  married  to  the  Marquis  Lucchesi- 
Palli.      She  hoped  to  conceal  this  fact,  which  practically  wrecked  her 
influence  in  the  Legitimist  party  ;  but  the  birth  of  a  child  compelled  her 
to  disclose  it. —  Translators  note. 

2  Odilon  Barrot's  speech  at  the  Chambre  des  Deputes,  November  n, 

3  Cuvillier  -  Fleury  :    "  Madame    Adelaide    came    and    entertained 
Casimir  Perier  in  private,  and  had  been  with  him  for  an  hour  when 
I  went  to  the  opera." 

Till-     PRINCESS   AND    MINISTERS      275 

On  the  occasion  of  the  debates  on  the  civil  list,  the 
King's  demands  were  so  excessive  that  the  Chambers 
resisted  them.  These  demands  comprised  eighteen 
millions  (,£720,000)  civil  list,  four  millions  (,£160,000) 
of  revenues  from  land,  eleven  magnificent  and  sumptu- 
ously furnished  palaces,  two  millions  and  a  half 
(;£  1 00,000)  of  appanage,  and  the  private  property. 

"They  want  to  annihilate  me  and  reduce  me  to 
nothing — I  and  my  wife — but  it  shall  not  be  so!" 
exclaimed  Louis-Philippe,  and  his  sister,  who  agreed 
with  him,  was  indignant  at  the  insults  poured  forth 
daily  by  such  men  as  Cormenin  and  Latouche,  and 
especially  at  the  ingratitude  of  Laffitte,  Maugin,  and 
Treilhard,  who  had  all  received  money  and  places. 
However,  when  the  law  had  been  voted,  Madame 
blamed  her  brother  for  showing  his  resentment,  and 
endeavoured  to  calm  him  and  soothe  his  vexation. 

When  the  Due  de  Broglie  (who  lacked  flexibility 
too  much  to  please  at  the  Tuileries)  was  obliged  to 
abandon  power,  the  Princess  put  forward  the  name  of 
Dupin.  He  was  the  first  person  consulted,  but  his 
surliness  annoyed  the  King,  and  Louis-Philippe  was 
obliged,  in  spite  of  his  own  repugnance  and  that  of 
his  sister,  to  take  Thiers,  Guizot,  and  Broglie  back 
a^ain  into  a  ministry  nominally  presided  over  by 
Marshal  Soult. 

Thenceforward  Princess  Adelaide  and  the  King 
only  sought  to  set  the  three  influential  ministers  at 
variance.  They  succeeded  without  difficulty,  and 
from  this  period  one  of  them,  Guizot,  drew  nearer  to 
the  crown.  In  February  1834,  after  the  disturbances 
at  Lyons,  "  which  made  the  necessity  for  a  law 


respecting  associations  felt,1  Guizot — his  head  high, 
his  body  trembling,  his  arm  extended — carried  this 
anti-Liberal  bill  through  Parliament  after  a  great 
struggle,  applauded  by  the  whole  court.  This  was 
the  law  which  Madame  had  advocated  with  great 
energy  on  the  previous  evening,  in  the  drawing-room, 
against  M.  de  Laborde. 

When  Marshal  Soult,  being  out  of  harmony  with 
his  colleagues,  sent  in  his  resignation,  Dupin  was 
again  requested  to  form  a  cabinet.  But  the  situation 
was  so  difficult  that,  rather  than  risk  his  position,  he 
declined.  "Well!"  said  Louis-Philippe,  " compose 
a  ministry  for  me  of  your  own  choice."  Dupin  took 
up  a  pen  and  wrote  at  once.  Next  day  the  Moniteur 
contained  the  names  of  the  new  ministers — the  "  brave 
and  good  "  Marshal  Gerard,  an  old  friend  of  Made- 
moiselle d'Orleans,  and  an  habitut  of  the  Pavilion  de 
Flore,  became  President  of  the  Council.  He  had 
only  accepted  this  post  out  of  personal  devotion  to 
Louis  -  Philippe  and  Madame,  and  because  Dupin 
had  promised  him  "  help  and  support  in  the 
Chamber."2  The  King  agreed  to  the  appointment 
against  his  will,  fearing  "the  Marshal's  stiffness  with 
regard  to  anything  about  which  he  had  made  up  his 

Gerard's  "  hobby,"  as  Cuvillier-Fleury  called  it, 
was  the  amnesty  he  wished  to  have  voted  in  favour  of 
the  April  culprits.  In  face  of  Louis-Philippe's  oppo- 
sition, who  held,  on  the  contrary,  that  the  trial  ought 
to  take  place,  and  also  from  the  fear  of  exposing  himself 

1  Letter  from  Adelaide  to  Talleyrand,  February  27,  1834. 

2  Letter  from  Madame  Adelaide,  July  18,  1834. 


to  tin-  "  m.ichinations  of  tin-  supporters  of  representa- 
tive -«>vernment,"  the  minister  preferred  to  retire. 
This  resignation  called  forth  bitter  complaints  from 
Madame,  who  thought  that  "  these  gentlemen  had  not 
1  well,"  l  and  it  was  not  until  long  afterwards 
that  she  forgave  Marshal  Gerard  for  "the  straight- 
forwardness of  heart  and  mind  "  which  he  had  shown 
in  this  affair. 

After  the  Three  Days'  Ministry  presided  over 
by  the  Due  de  Bassano,  the  King  and  Madame 
Adelaide,  though  they  would  not  be  dictated  to,2 
were  obliged  to  accept  Thiers  and  the  Due  de  Broglie 
again.  This  ministry  fell  on  February  21,  1835. 
Thiers  then  took  the  sole  direction  of  affairs,  and  was 
replaced  some  time  afterwards  by  Mole",  who,  in  his 
turn,  was  succeeded  by  Marshal  Soult  in  conjunction 
with  Guizot. 

It  was  during  the  Marshal's  ministry  that  the 
Chamber  rejected  the  proposed  allowance  to  the  Due 
de  Nemours,  who  was  about  to  marry  Princess  Victoria 
of  Saxe-Cobourg.  But  this  vote  did  not  prevent  the 
marriage,  which  was  solemnised  at  the  Chateau  de 
Saint  Cloud,  April  27,  1840.  Three  years  previously, 
the  eldest  son  of  Louis- Philippe,  who  had  been  re- 
pulsed by  the  Archduchess  The>ese,  had  wedded 
the  Princesse  Helene  of  Mecklenbourg. 

When  the  young  Duchesse  d'Orl^ans  entered  Paris 
by  the  Champs  Elys^es,  followed  by  princes  on  horse- 
back and  princesses  in  carriages  with  the  Orleans 
state  livery,  she  had  been  cheered  by  immense 

1  Letter  from  Madame  Adelaide  to  Talleyrand,  November  1834. 
'  Madame  Adelaide  to  Talleyrand,  November  10,  1834. 


crowds.  On  August  24,  1838,  she  had  given  birth 
to  a  son,  whom  they  called  the  Comte  de  Paris,  and 
on  November  9,  1840,  the  little  Due  de  Chartres 
was  born.  May  2,  1841 — Monseigneur  Affre  having 
succeeded  the  implacable  Monseigneur  Quelen — the 
Comte  de  Paris  was  baptized  with  great  pomp  at 
Notre  Dame.  It  was  the  clergy's  acknowledgment 
of  the  younger  branch. 

Business  was  flourishing  in  the  country.  Louis- 
Philippe  had  succeeded  in  imposing  his  will  upon  the 
nation,  and  governed  more  than  he  reigned.  Victor 
Hugo,  the  great  poet  whom  the  King  had  created 
peer  of  France,  had  rallied  to  the  July  Monarchy  and 
tuned  his  lyre  to  hyperbolical  praise,  and  the  Citizen- 
King  gave  national  obsequies  to  Napoleon  (December 
14,  1840). 

At  Compiegne,  Chantilly,  Fontainebleau,  Neuilly, 
and  the  Tuileries,  fetes  succeeded  fetes.  April  15, 
1842,  Madame  Adelaide  gave  a  grand  dinner  of  a 
hundred  and  fifty  persons  to  the  Queen  of  the  Belgians 
and  Marie  Christine  of  Spain,  in  her  old  apartments 
at  the  Palais  Royal;  but  nothing  could  surpass  the 
magnificence  of  the  balls,  soirees,  and  receptions  given 
by  the  Due  d'Orleans  at  the  Pavilion  de  Marsan. 
The  newspapers  spoke  at  length  of  the  "  splendid " 
costume  ball  which  took  place  at  the  Prince  Royal's 
towards  the  end  of  January  1842.  Representatives  of 
the  aristocracy,  of  letters,  of  the  arts,  went  there  in 
great  numbers.  The  Prince  de  Wagram,  the  Due 
d'Albufera,  Courmont,  Morny,  the  two  Greffulhes, 
Lamy,  Gudin,  Raffet,  and  Jadin  were  present.  Mes- 
dames  Murat,  Place,  and  de  Contade  were  a  trio  of 


•     .  •     • 

DEATH    OF    DUG    DE   CHARTRES     279 

srductive    Aspasias;     Madame    Thicrs,    in    contr 
represented  a  ^rcat  lady  of  the   Middle  Ages  ;  Mme. 
de  Plaisance  was  an  elegant  huntress,  and  every  one 
noticed    Mme.    de    Liaderes  in   a   lovely  dress   with 
panniers.     Boulanger 

"...  avail  le  manteait,  la  rapier e  et  la  /raise, 
Ainsi  qu'un  raffing  du  temps  de  Louis  XIII  " * — 

as  Th^ophile  Gautier  described  him,  and  Henriquel 
Dupont,  Eugene  Sue,  Tony  Johannot  were  similarly 
dressed  in  costumes  of  that  period,  which  novels 
and  plays  had  made  fashionable.  Wintherhalter  had 
chosen  the  garb  of  the  Tuscan  painters  he  tried  to 
imitate.  Horace  Vernet  was  disguised  as  an  Arab, 
and  Eugene  Delacroix  as  a  Moor. 

The  heir  to  the  throne,  who  had  grown  cautious, 
henceforth  only  held  out  his  hand  to  the  Liberals 
from  policy.  He  was  the  hope  of  the  nation  and  the 
royal  family,  and  neglected  affairs  of  State  in  order 
to  devote  himself  entirely  to  the  organisation  of  the 

On  July  13,  1842,  he  left  Neuilly  towards  eleven 
o'clock  in  the  morning  for  a  review.  Some  minutes 
after  his  departure,  as  the  King,  Queen,  and  Mme. 
Adelaide  were  preparing  to  get  into  their  carriage, 
a  commissary  of  police,  Trouessart,  entered  the  red 
drawing-room  at  the  Chateau  de  Neuilly.  He  went 
up  to  General  Gourgaud  and  spoke  to  him  in  a  low 
tone ;  after  a  gesture  of  consternation,  the  latter 
whispered  a  few  words  in  Louis-Philippe's  ear. 

1  ...  wore  the  mantle,  the  rapier,  the  ruff— just  like  a  dandy  of  the 
time  of  Louib  XIII. 


Mon  Dieii!"  cried  the  King  overwhelmed. 
The  Queen  and  Princess  Adelaide  questioned  him  in 
strained  tones.  "  Chartres  has  had  a  fall  and  they 
have  taken  him  to  a  house  at  Sablonville,"  he 
answered.  Immediately,  without  asking  Trouessart 
for  further  particulars,  Marie  Amelie  ran  on  foot 
towards  the  Route  de  la  Revoke.  The  King  and 
his  sister  soon  caught  her  up  in  a  carriage.  A  few 
minutes  later,  they  were  all  three  at  an  inn  where, 
on  a  mattress  on  the  ground  at  the  back  of  a  dark 
room,  the  Due  d'Orl^ans  lay  dying.  Dr.  Pasquier 
ordered  the  vicar  of  Neuilly  to  be  sent  for.  He  came 
and  administered  the  last  sacraments  to  the  Prince, 
while  all  the  family  wept  and  prayed  upon  their  knees. 
A  moment  later  the  Duke  breathed  his  last. 

This  "  immense  irreparable  loss,"  as  the  Prince 
de  Joinville  describes  it,  was  equivalent  to  a  revolution. 
It  was  the  "  chief  of  to-morrow  "  who  had  disappeared, 
he  on  whom  not  only  the  friends  of  the  July  Monarchy, 
but  many  of  the  discontented  had  placed  their  hopes. 
The  throne  was  henceforth  shaken,  and  that  cruel 
unexpected  death  came  at  a  time  when  even  Princess 
Adelaide,  broken  with  age  and  illness,  began  to  be 
no  longer  able  to  take  an  active  part  in  the  affairs 
of  State.1 

1  La  Nouvelle  Mode,  January  15,  1843.  (La  Nouvelle  Mode  was  a 
weekly  review,  inspired  by  Mine.  Adelaide  to  counteract  the  Legitimist 
La  Mode>  which  attacked  the  Princess  with  violence.) 


Grief  of  the  Queen  and  the  Duchesse  <t  Orleans — Princess 
Adelaide  and  the  Duchesse  d  Orleans — The  Duchesse  de 
Nemours — The  Princesse  de  Joinville — The  'Duchesse 
d Aumale — The  Due  and  Duchesse  de  Montpcnsicr — 
Influence  of  Marie  Amelie  on  the  members  of  her  family — 
Illness  of  Mile,  d' Orleans — Her  last  journey  to  Arc, 
Randan,  Chantilly — Her  political  occupations — Death  of 
Mme.  Adelaide — Her  will — Her  funeral — Conclusion. 

Tin:  death  of  the  Due  d'Orl^ans  was  cruelly  felt  by 
the  whole  royal  family,  especially  by  Marie  Ame'lie, 
who  multiplied  the  pious  practices  and  mortifications 
which  she  had  inflicted  upon  herself  since  her  daughter, 
Princess  Marie,  had  gently  passed  away  at  Pisa,1  in 
the  arms  of  the  Due  de  Nemours.  Sadness  and 
despair  had  succeeded  the  joyous  fetes  of  former 
days.  The  daily  events,  the  arrival  of  the  Prince  of 
Wurttemberg,  January  17,  1843,  t^e  inauguration  of 
the  Chapel  of  Saint  Ferdinand,  July  13,  in  the  same 
year,  reminded  the  Queen  of  bereavements  which  had 
struck  her  so  cruelly.  Her  children's  distance  from 
her  increased  her  sorrow ;  the  joyous  Princesse 
Clementine  lived  chiefly  in  Germany  since  the  simple 
happy  union  she  had  contracted,  on  the  advice  of 

1  Princess    Marie    married   the    Uuc   Alexander  of  Wurttemberg, 
October  1837,  at  Trianon,  and  died  January  2,  1839.    She  left  a  son,  born 

July  30,  1838. 



her  deceased  brother,  with  the  Prince  of  Saxe- 
Cobourg;1  Joinville  had  embarked  on  the  Belle 
Poule  in  company  with  the  Due  d'Aumale,  who  was 
about  to  take  up  a  command  in  Algeria  under  the 
orders  of  Marshal  Bugeaud.  Thus  when  they  learned 
at  the  chateau  of  the  capture  of  the  smalah  of 
Abd-el-Kader,  the  legitimate  pride  of  the  King  and 
Queen  in  their  son  but  added  to  the  regret  of  feeling 
how  much  the  Prince  Royal  was  missed  amid  the 
joys  as  well  as  the  sorrows  of  the  family. 

The  Duchesse  d'Orl^ans  was  inconsolable ;  she 
had  never  left  off  her  widow's  veil,  and  her  two 
children,  dressed  in  black,  were  always  with  her. 
In  December  1843,  however,  wishing  to  please  the 
Queen,  she  reappeared  in  the  drawing-room ;  but  the 
Prefect  of  the  Vosges — whom  she  had  not  seen  since 
her  season  at  Plombieres  after  her  husband's  fatal 
accident — was  there,  and  they  were  obliged  to  lead 
her  away  in  tears. 

Madame  Adelaide,  who  had  counted  upon  the 
softening  effect  which  time  has  upon  human  sorrows, 
was  vexed  with  her  niece  Helene.  "  Her  sadness  is 
obtrusive,"  said  she,  and,  observing  that  the  young 
widow  shut  herself  off  completely  from  the  rest  of 
the  family,  she  added  :  "  Her  grief  is  oppressive ! " 
It  is  true  that  this  saying  rests  on  the  authority  of 
the  virulently  Legitimist  La  Mode. 

Like  her  brother,  Mme.  Adelaide  felt  a  sort  of 
jealous  susceptibility  towards  all  who  did  not  belong 
directly  to  her  family.  She  allowed  her  suspicions 

1  Brother  of  the  Duchesse  de  Nemours.     The  wedding  took  place 
April  28,  1843. 

THE    DUG    DE    NEMOURS  283 

to  weigh  upon  the  Due  d'Orl^ans'  widow,  and  feared 
tin  effect  of  the  influence  her  grave  and  elevated 
mind  and  lively  intelligence  might  allow  her  to 
exercise.  This  was  clearly  to  be  seen,  a  few  days 
after  the  death  of  the  Prince  Royal,  in  the  stubborn- 
ness with  which  Louis-Philippe  and  his  sister  supported 
the  law  which  accorded  the  contingent  regency  to  the 
Due  de  Nemours. 

Nevertheless,  the  King  showed  great  courtesy  to 
the  mother  of  the  heir  to  the  throne.  When,  in  the 
private  family  drawing-room,  she  rose  to  return  to 
her  apartments,  Louis-Philippe — "always  polite  even 
if  not  tender" — leaving  the  chimney  corner  where, 
sometimes  standing,  sometimes  sitting,  he  talked  over 
business  affairs  with  visitors  and  habituts — would 
go  and  offer  his  daughter-in-law  his  arm,  and  chat 
with  her  as  they  walked  up  and  down  the  room. 

At  the  time  of  the  Due  d'Orldans'  death,  his 
younger  brother,  the  Due  de  Nemours,  was  already 
married.  His  wife  was  not  the  object  of  the  same 
suspicions  as  the  Duchesse  d'Orl^ans.  This  was 
because  Mme.  de  Nemours  spoke  little,  and,  like 
her  husband,  blindly  obeyed  the  orders  of  her  father- 
in-law,  mother-in-law,  and  Aunt  Adelaide.  The 
Duchesse  de  Nemours  was  beautiful,  with  a  good 
complexion  and  a  grand  air,  but  an  habitut  of  the 
p.ilace.  Cuvillier-Fleury,  has  said  that  one  glance 
from  the  Duchesse  d'Orl^ans  was  worth  a  hundred 
of  hers. 

At  the  chateau,  as  throughout  the  country,  every 
one  was  bored.  Age  and  asthma,  complicated  by 
heart  disease,  rendered  Mme.  Adelaide  less  smiling 


than  ever,  and  she  could  very  rarely  leave  her  apart- 
ments. She  no  longer  accompanied  the  King  on 
his  journeys,  and  when  she  went  to  Eu  or  Randan, 
she  who  had  formerly  been  so  restless  and  active, 
took  her  airings  in  a  sedan  chair.  In  spite  of  her 
infirmities,  however,  and  out  of  affection  for  her 
favourite  nephew  Hadji  (the  Prince  de  Joinville  was 
thus  nicknamed)  she  went  to  her  Chateau  de  Bizy, 
on  July  27,  1843,  to  welcome  the  young  wife  whom 
the  Prince  had  brought  back  like  a  conquest  from 

The  Princesse  de  Joinville  had  beautiful  light 
chestnut  hair,  a  high  forehead,  and  reminded  one  by 
her  walk,  gestures,  and  the  expression  of  her  counte- 
nance, of  the  unfortunate  Princess  Marie.  Like  her, 
she  was  frail  and  her  glance  pure,  her  physiognomy 
grave,  almost  sad,  though  at  times  radiating  with 
gaiety.  She  was  lively,  amiable,  often  joyous,  frank 
always,  slightly  talkative.  She  was  the  most  gracious 
and  attractive  of  Louis-Philippe's  daughters-in-law ; 
but  they  compared  her  to  a  desert  flower:  "In  the 
desert  there  is  no  cultivation,  and  the  history  of  the 
court  of  Brazil  is  somewhat  the  same.  ..."  Thus,  the 
day  after  her  arrival  at  the  Tuileries,  the  Princess 
began  to  sing  while  sitting  at  the  round  table,  to 
the  great  scandal  even  of  Mme.  Adelaide,  who  of 
all  the  royal  family  cared  least  about  the  laws  of 

The  Princesse  de  Joinville  became  a  mother  for 
the  first  time *  at  the  same  moment  as  her  husband 
was  under  fire  from  the  batteries  in  Morocco,  and 

1  August  14,  1844,  birth  of  the  present  Duchesse  de  Chartres. 


almost  at  the  same  time  the  Due  d'Aumale  —  to 
the  Queen's  great  joy — married  the  daughter  of  the 
Prince  de  Salerne  at  Naples.  The  Duchesse  d'Aumale 
was  very  short,  dainty,  and  small  as  a  Tana^ra  statuette ; 
her  features  were  fine  and  delicate,  she  spoke  with  the 
melodious  accent  of  the  country  of  her  birth.  Being 
very  pious  she  pleased  Marie  Amelie,  whose  great- 
niece  she  was.  Besides,  the  Queen  after  this  marriage 
and  that  of  her  youngest  son  to  the  sister  of  Isabella 
of  Spain,  saw  her  influence  increasing  every  day,  if 
not  over  affairs  of  State,  at  least'  over  the  greater 
number  of  the  members  of  the  royal  family. 

She  had  succeeded  in  making  a  sort  of  religious 
community  of  the  feminine  portion  of  the  court. 
Mesdames  de  Nemours,  d'Aumale,  de  Joinville,  and 
de  Montpensier  could  not  go  out  without  express 
permission  from  the  Queen,  who  was  always  informed 
where  they  were  going,  the  time  of  their  departure, 
and  that  of  their  return.  The  Duchesse  d'Orle'ans, 
being  independent  in  character  and  religion,  contrived 
to  escape  from  her  mother-in-law's  tutelage. 

Marie  Amelie's  piety,  indeed,  became  every  day 
more  ardent.  To  the  two  priests  who  visited  the 
chateau  she  had  added  a  third  chaplain,  and  remained 
long  hours  in  the  morning  praying  at  the  Church  of 
Saint  Roch.  Even  the  King  allowed  himself  to  be 
guided  by  his  wife,  and  had  become  devout,  as  is 
evident  from  a  conversation  reported  by  Cuvillier- 
Fleury,  in  which  his  Majesty  remarked  that  the  uni- 
versity wanted  to  absorb  everything,  and  that  Catholic 
education  was  the  only  moral  one.  He  lived  with 
Marie  Amclic  in  the  suite  of  apartments  between  the 


Pavilion  de  Flore  and  the  Pavilion  de  1'Horloge, 
where  the  Due  and  Duchesse  de  Saxe-Cobourg  were 
also  lodged  when  they  came  to  Paris.  The  Pavilion 
de  Marsan  was  occupied  by  the  Duchesse  d'Orleans, 
the  Comte  de  Paris,  and  the  Due  and  Duchesse  de 
Nemours,  and  the  gallery  on  the  other  side  over- 
looking the  Rue  de  Rivoli  by  the  Montpensiers. 

The  last  named  were  now  the  favourites  at  the 
chateau.  The  Duchesse  de  Montpensier  had  won 
the  King  by  her  attentions,  her  girlish  manners,  her 
beautiful  black  eyes,  fine  hair,  and  majestic  mien.  The 
Duke  was  the  youngest  of  Louis-Philippe's  children, 
and  resembled  his  father  "  feature  by  feature,"  even 
to  the  turn  of  his  mind,  the  similarity  of  his  habits, 
equal  prudence,  coldness  of  imagination,  and  identical 
positivism  of  thought.  Like  his  father  the  Due  de 
Montpensier  expressed  himself  with  facility,  though 
more  like  a  man  of  business  than  a  man  of  the  world, 
and  he  was  the  only  one  of  the  family  who  liked 
display.  "Totone's  influence,"  wrote  a  malicious 
Legitimist  observer  in  La  Mode,  "grows  like  a  beard. 
He  encroaches  on  the  ground  of  his  elders  every  day, 
while  the  future  regent  allows  his  thoughts  to  wander 
in  a  vague  and  confused  fashion  towards  the  future, 
while  Joinville  thinks  of  nothing  but  going  back  to 
sea,  and  Aumale  calculates  and  regulates  his  expendi- 

During  the  day  the  grand-nephews  of  Princess 
Adelaide  brightened  up  the  Chateau  des  Tuileries, 
but  the  evenings  were  sadly  monotonous.  There 
were  now  two  distinct  courts ;  the  new  one  consist- 
ing of  the  princes  and  princesses,  and  the  old  one  of 

OLD    AGE   OF    MME.  ADELAIDE     287 

the  King,  Queen,  and  Madame  Adelaide.  During  the 
family  dinners  Louis-Philippe  and  his  sister  talked  a 
great  deal,  and  it  was  only  in  undertones  that  the 
others  present  could  exchange  a  few  words.  After 
dinner  they  assembled  in  the  drawing-room,  next  to 
the  throne-room.  The  princesses  sat  at  the  great 
work-table.  Etiquette  was  "very  carefully  observed." 
The  Queen  always  had  the  Duchesse  d'Orl&uis  on  her 
ri^ln,  and  her  sister-in-law  on  her  left. 

Madame  Adelaide  became  more  sedentary  every 
day.  She  went  to  Eu  to  receive  Queen  Victoria,  who 
was  graceful  but  not  beautiful,  and  the  Prince  Con- 
sort— a  good-looking,  rather  foppish,  fair  man  ;  but 
she  did  not  accompany  the  King  to  England.  In  1845, 
as  her  nephew,  the  Prince  de  Joinville,  reports,  she  took 
him  with  her  to  visit  the  estate  she  possessed  at  Arc- 
en -Barrois.  Only  ruins  remained  of  the  castle  which 
had  belonged  to  Vitry,  that  captain  of  Louis  XII.'s 
Guards  who  killed  Concini,  and  had  passed  by  inherit- 
ance to  the  Due  de  Penthievre.  It  was  a  "  large,  wild 
forest  domain,  inhabited  by  wolves  and  boars,"  whither 
Adelaide's  grandfather  liked  to  retire  at  the  hunting 

Madame  also  paid  a  few  visits  to  Randan,  and 
even,  on  June  26,  1847,  in  spite  of  fatigue,  went  in 
response  to  the  Due  and  Duchesse  d'Aumale's  en- 
treaties  to  Chantilly  by  rail,  in  company  with  Louis- 
Philippe  and  Marie  Amelie,  in  a  carriage  "remark- 
able for  its  comfort  and  luxury."  All  the  brigades  of 
gendarmerie  for  six  miles  round  had  been  brought 
up  and  stationed  as  far  as  Chantilly,  where  the  Due 
d'Aumale's  equipages  awaited  the  royal  family. 


The  great  age  and  infirmities  of  Madame  Adelaide 
did  not  prevent  her  from  retaining  a  large  part  of  her 
influence,  but  as  the  Princess  was  obliged  more  often 
than  not  to  remain  in  her  apartments,  it  is  difficult  to 
define  exactly  the  part  she  played  ;  the  King  continued 
to  consult  his  sister,  but  they  discussed  affairs  of  State 
between  themselves,  and  naturally  no  trace  of  these 
conversations  remains.  It  is  known,  however,  that 
on  May  3,  1843,  the  Princess  went  to  thank  Guizot 
for  the  speech  he  had  made  on  the  subject  of  the 
secret  funds,  and,  Cuvillier-Fleury  reports,  that  being 
present  in  the  Chamber  when  the  Legitimist  deputies 
who  had  gone  to  Belgrave  Square  were  stigmatised, 
she  showed  her  displeasure  at  seeing  Berryer  "  try  to 
bring  himself  into  notice."  It  appears  also  that  her 
action  was  not  without  importance  at  the  time  of  the 
Spanish  marriage,1  which  was  one  of  the  consequences 
of  Madame's  "  family  policy."  Even  as  late  as  May 
1847,  she  intervened  with  M.  Lacave-Laplagne  on 
the  subject  of  the  change  of  ministry,  and,  as  La  Mode 
satirically  put  it,  "this  new  Renaud  was  vanquished 
by  a  new  Armide." 

Confident  in  the  ability  and  growing  power  of  her 
brother,  Madame  Adelaide  believed  that  the  King, 
having  done  everything  to  ensure  peace  without  and 
to  safeguard  material  interests  within  the  kingdom, 
had  definitely  founded  the  Orleans  dynasty. 

On  December  30,  1847,  there  had  been  a  reception 

1  Isabella  II.  married  her  cousin,  Frangois  d'Assize,  and  the  sister 
of  Isabella  the  Due  de  Montpensier.  These  two  marriages  embroiled 
us  with  England.  "  I'll  resent  it,"  said  Lord  Palmerston,  and  he  soon 
proved  this. 

MIA  III    <>!••    PR1NCKSS    ADMLAIDK 

at  the  chateau,  and  Madame  Adelaide  had  seemed 
more  tired  and  oppressed  than  usual.  In  the  night, 
t"\\,trds  one  o'clock  in  the  morning,  alarming  symp- 
toms manifested  themselves.  Doctors  Pi^ach«-  and 
I'ouquier  were  hastily  summoned.  The  vicar  of  Saint 
Roche  had  scarcely  time  to  administer  the  sacraments 
t«>  the  Princess,  who  died  from  suffocation  at  three 

Louis-Philippe  was  present  at  his  sister's  death- 
bed. It  is  related  how,  at  the  supreme  moment,  he 
took  her  hand  and  said  au  revoir  to  the  faithful  com- 
panion of  his  whole  life,  and  the  one  who  had  inspired 
his  policy.  The  King  remained  the  whole  morning 
in  the  death  chamber.  At  midday  he  had  Gerard, 
Sdbastiani,  and  Dupin  summoned  to  his  study, 
and  followed  by  his  sons,  Nemours  and  Mont- 
pensier,  and  weighed  down  by  sorrow,  led  the 
way  to  the  Pavilion  de  Flore.  Madame  Adelaide 
lay  on  her  bed,  "  her  hair  arranged  for  the  night, 
with  a  white  fichu  knotted  in  front  of  the  head,  her 
face  serene,  the  mouth  slightly  open,  and  seemed 
to  be  asleep."  1 

After  having  sprinkled  holy  water,  the  Due  de 
Montpensier  opened  the  drawers  and  found  a  large 
envelope  which  bore  the  word  "  Will  "  written  in  large 
1< 'tiers.  The  certificate  of  death  was  next  made  out. 
Then  in  the  Princess's  drawing-room,  under  the  presi- 
dency of  the  Due  de  Nemours,  in  the  presence  of  the 
Prince  de  Joinville,  Guizut,  President  of  the  Council, 
the  Keeper  of  the  Seals,  Marshal  Gerard,  Sebastiani, 
and  Dupin,  head  of  the  Privy  Council,  the  seals  of 

1  Dupin,  Mtmoircs. 



the  envelope  were  broken.      The  will    consisted   of 
three  parts  : — 

1 .  Chief  legatees. 

2.  Special  legacies, 

3.  A   book   of    " souvenirs"    too   private    to    be 

Madame  Adelaide  left  her  favourite  nephew,  the 
Prince  de  Joinville,  a  legacy  amounting  to  a  million 
francs  (,£40,000)  a  year,  and  the  Due  de  Nemours 
two  million  (£80,000)  a  year ;  the  Chateau  de  Randan 
she  bequeathed  to  the  Due  de  Montpensier.  The 
Prince  de  Joinville  and  the  Due  de  Nemours  were 
residuary  legatees.  By  an  earlier  will  the  former  had 
been  made  sole  heir ;  but  after  the  refusal  of  the 
Chambers  to  vote  the  allowance,  Madame  Adelaide 
had  given  the  future  regent  the  advantage  for  political 

The  Princess's  body  was  embalmed  on  January  i. 
On  the  7th  the  funeral  took  place  at  Dreux,  From 
three  o'clock  in  the  morning  masses  were  said  at  the 
different  altars  in  the  chapel.  The  King,  Queen,  and 
princesses  arrived  there  early.  When  the  Queen  of 
the  Belgians  arrived,  Louis-Philippe  threw  himself 
into  her  arms  weeping. 

Nemours,  Joinville,  and  Montpensier  had  been 
deputed  to  escort  the  funeral  procession,  which  started 
that  same  morning  from  Paris,  and  stopped  two  kilo- 
metres from  Dreux.  There  a  number  of  clergy,  pre- 
ceded by  the  Archbishop  of  Chalcedonia,  the  Bishops 
of  Versailles,  Evreux,  and  Amatta,  came  to  receive 

1  Dupin. 


the  body.  A  detachment  of  gendarmerie,  a  squadron 
of  cuirassiers,  another  of  dragoons,  a  regiment  of  in- 
t.uury,  and  the  national  guards  of  the  department 
formed  the  guard  of  honour. 

Behind  the  funeral  car,  which  was  covered  with 
white  and  black  ornaments,  and  preceded  by  a  groom 
of  the  defunct  Princess,  came  the  Due  de  Nemours, 
the  Prince  de  Joinville,  and  the  Due  de  Montpensier 
on  foot.  Three  of  their  father's  aides-de-camp — Mes- 
sieurs de  Rumigny,  Gourgaud,  and  de  Chabannes— 
accompanied  them,  with  Messieurs  de  Grave  and 
Che'zelle,  ordinance  officers  of  the  King.  Lieutenant- 
General  Roy,  naval  Captain  Touchard,  MM.  Vatout, 
L  twcestine,  Baron  Fain,  Sainte-Aldegonde  were  close 
by,  as  well  as  Marshal  Gerard,  who  was  sobbing. 

At  Dreux  the  coffin  was  taken  from  the  hearse 
,u id  deposited  on  a  catafalque.  The  King  then  came 
to  take  the  head  of  the  cortege,  and  conducted  it  to 
the  chapel  of  the  Virgin,  where  the  Queen  and  prin- 
cesses were  waiting  on  their  knees.  After  mass  each 
of  the  bishops  present  gave  the  absolution.  After 
the  De  Profundis,  at  the  moment  when  the  Princess's 
body  was  being  lowered  into  the  vault,  Louis- Philippe 
could  no  longer  restrain  his  sorrow,  and,  very  pale, 
leaned  weeping  on  his  sons. 

The  death  of  Madame  Adelaide  left  the  royal 
family  in  a  difficult  position.  The  following  was 
written,  January  6,  1848,  by  a  sincere  Legitimist, 
Nettement,  in  a  journal  (La  Mode],  which  had  been 
noted  for  the  violence  of  its  attacks  upon  the  King's 
sister  : — 

"It  would  have  been  better,  we  speak  here  from 


the  point  of  view  of  the  political  interests  of  the 
Orleans'  family,  if  Mile.  Adelaide  had  survived  her 
brother.  And  for  this  reason  :  she  had  the  tradition 
of  her  policy,  and  exercised  great  influence  over  her 
family  by  the  authority  of  her  knowledge,  her  age,  and 
her  great  fortune.  She  must  then  have  contributed 
powerfully,  in  the  case  of  her  brother's  demise,  towards 
maintaining  the  unity  of  direction  and  union  of  senti- 
ments amongst  the  princes,  her  nephews,  during  the 
period  of  transition  between  two  reigns,  We  say  this 
without  pretending  to  insinuate,  in  any  way,  that 
this  unity  is  destroyed,  that  this  union  is  altered ;  but 
every  one  knows  that  families,  like  societies,  have  need 
of  a  head,  who  holds  the  knot  tightly  drawn  which 
binds  the  sheaf  of  particular  private  wills  together. 
Now  conventional  influences  only  imperfectly  replace 
natural  influences.  From  this  point  of  view  espe- 
cially the  death  of  Mile.  Adelaide  is  a  grave  political 

It  is  difficult  to  conceive  what  would  have  hap- 
pened if  Louis-Philippe  had  died  before  his  sister, 
and  how  that  Princess — ill  and  suffering  as  she  was — 
could  have  been  able  to  draw  the  members  of  her 
family  together,  separated  as  they  were  by  different 
opinions1  and  opposite  interests.2  Neither  can  one 
tell  what  would  have  been  her  role  had  she  lived  after 

1  Marie  Amelie,  who  was  always  attached  to  the  elder  branch,  desired 
a  "  fusion  "  between  the  members  of  the  Bourbon  family.     Joinville  did 
not  think  his  father's  government  liberal  enough.    Montpensier  was  under 
the  influence  of  his  wife,  &c. 

2  The    Due   de    Nemours,   prospective  regent,   and   the  Duchesse 
d'Orleans,  who  had  kept  up  with  her  husband's  friends,  and  knew  that 
the  Liberals  would  have  liked  to  confide  the  regency  to  her. 

CHARACTER   OF    MM  I      ADELAIDE     293 

tin-  I-Ybruary  revolution.  But  although  it  has  been 
j.r<  t< -nded  her  tlr.uh  haMrned  tin-  tall  of  royalty, 
it  Mema  rather  she  died  at  the  ri-lit  moment— 

i  iti.mi  of^port  imitate  viortis !  for,  "although  her 
courage  was  unshake  d.le,  what  would  have  become 
<>f  her  in  the  state  of  physical  weakness  consequent 
upon  her  illness  ?  "  l 

It  is  certainly  probable  that  Madame  Adelaide 
might  have  urged  the  King  either  to  make  frank  con- 
cessions or  to  resist ;  but  he  was  old  and  tired  and 
still  sorrowful  after  his  sister's  death,  and  so  he  did 
not  even  try  to  struggle  against  the  insurrection.  Yet 
was  not  his  action  on  February  22  a  proof  of  Louis- 
Philippe's  prudence  and  ability,  for  did  it  not  save 
his  family  from  all  responsibility  on  June  24?  Then, 
whatever  she  might  have  done,  and  admitting  even 
that  she  had  succeeded  in  gaining  time,  the  Princess 
could  not  have  saved  the  dynasty  she  had  helped  to 
found.  The  July  Monarchy  could  not  satisfy  tradition, 
and  it  had  maladroitly  entered  into  a  struggle  against 
liberty.  It  was  a  transitory  government,  created  out 
of  fear  of  a  republic,  and  because  of  the  difficulties 
in  the  way  of  re-establishing  the  Empire.  But  the 
Republicans  and  Bonapartists,  who  had  cheered  the 
Due  d'Orteans  in  1830,  had  long  waited  for  their 
turn,  and  their  united  efforts  must,  sooner  or  later, 
have  caused  the  downfall  of  a  monarchy  born  on  the 

Adelaide  d'Orle*ans,  whose  bold  initiative  during 
the  July  days  is  known,  "bound  to  Louis-Philippe 

1  Letter  from  the  Due  d'Orldans  to  Dupin,  written  from  Claremont 
(quoted  by  Dupin). 


by  a  long  and  close  friendship,"  never  lost  interest  in 
the  affairs  of  State.  Thus  it  may  be  said  that  she 
contributed  in  giving  the  nation  seventeen  years  of 
commercial  prosperity  and  outward  peace.  But,  under 
her  brother's  reign,  characters  became  effeminate, 
public  morals  were  impaired  by  the  propaganda  of 
corruption,  and  the  ambition  of  men  was  limited  more 
narrowly  than  ever  to  material  enjoyments.  Money 
became  all  powerful,  and  the  people  of  France,  de- 
prived of  an  ideal,  but  desirous  before  all  things  of 
"  becoming  rich,"  began  that  process  of  degeneration 
which  has  gone  on  increasing  since  then,  and  to  which, 
in  particular,  the  cause  of  the  moral  enfeeblement  of 
our  country  may  be  ascribed.1 

1  It  is  the  duty  of  the  English  translator  to  protest  against  this  expres- 
sion of  a  pessimism  which  is  fashionable  in  certain  circles  of  French 
society.  It  is  not  true  that  France  is  less  devoted  to  ideals,  more  given 
over  to  material  enjoyments,  more  morally  enfeebled  than  she  was  under 
the  Legitimist  monarchy,  or  under  the  Second  Empire.  All  assertions  to 
the  contrary  are  based  upon  uncritical  appreciation  of  the  past  and  that 
invidious  form  of  intellectual  snobbery  which  is  always  disgusted  with 
the  present.  With  all  her  faults,  Madame  Adelaide  was  "  on  the  side  of 
the  angels — that  is,  in  however  imperfect  and  halting  a  way,  on  the  side 
of  liberty  against  obscurantism,  political  or  intellectual,  and  this  it  is 
which  gives  significance  and  value  to  her  career. 

Printed  by  BALLANTYNE,  HANSON  &•>  Co. 
Edinburgh  &*  London 

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